West Germanic languages explained

West Germanic
Region:Originally between the Rhine, Alps, Elbe, and North Sea; today worldwide
Familycolor:Indo-European
Fam2:Germanic
Child1:Anglo-Frisian
Child2:Low Franconian
Child3:Low German
Child4:High German
Iso5:gmw
Lingua:52-AB & 52-AC

The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three traditional branches of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English, Dutch, Afrikaans, the Frisian languages, and Yiddish. The other two of these three traditional branches of the Germanic languages are the North and East Germanic languages.

History

Origins and characteristics

The Germanic languages are traditionally divided into three groups: West, East and North Germanic.[1] Their exact relation is difficult to determine from the sparse evidence of runic inscriptions, and they remained mutually intelligible throughout the Migration Period, so that some individual varieties are difficult to classify. Dialects with the features assigned to the western group formed from Proto-Germanic in the late Jastorf culture (ca. 1st century BC). The West Germanic group is characterized by a number of phonological and morphological innovations not found in North and East Germanic, such as:[2]

Nevertheless, many scholars doubt whether the West Germanic languages descend from a common ancestor later than Proto-Germanic, that is, they doubt whether a "Proto-West-Germanic" ever existed.[2] Rather, some have argued that after East Germanic broke off from the group, the remaining Germanic languages, the Northwest Germanic languages, divided into four main dialects:[3] North Germanic, and the three groups conventionally called "West Germanic", namely

  1. North Sea Germanic (Ingvaeonic, ancestral to Anglo-Frisian and Low German)
  2. Weser-Rhine Germanic (Istvaeonic, ancestral to Low Franconian)
  3. Elbe Germanic (Irminonic, ancestral to High German)

Evidence for this view comes from a number of linguistic innovations found in both North Germanic and West Germanic,[2] including:

Under this view, the properties that the West Germanic languages have in common separate from the North Germanic languages are not inherited from a "Proto-West-Germanic" language, but rather spread by language contact among the Germanic languages spoken in central Europe, not reaching those spoken in Scandinavia or reaching them much later. Rhotacism, for example, was largely complete in West Germanic at a time when North Germanic runic inscriptions still clearly distinguished the two phonemes. There is also evidence that the lowering of ē to ā occurred first in West Germanic and spread to North Germanic later, since word-final ē was lowered before it was shortened in West Germanic, while in North Germanic the shortening occurred first, resulting in e that later merged with i.

Nevertheless, it has been argued that, judging by their nearly identical syntax, the West Germanic languages of the Old period were close enough to have been mutually intelligible.[5]

Middle Ages

During the Middle Ages, the West Germanic languages were separated by the insular development of Middle English on one hand, and by the second Germanic sound shift on the continent on the other.

The High German consonant shift distinguished the High German languages from the other West Germanic languages. By early modern times, the span had extended into considerable differences, ranging from Highest Alemannic in the South (the Walliser dialect being the southernmost surviving German dialect) to Northern Low Saxon in the North. Although both extremes are considered German, they are not mutually intelligible. The southernmost varieties have completed the second sound shift, while the northern dialects remained unaffected by the consonant shift.

Of modern German varieties, Low German is the one that most resembles modern English. The district of Angeln (or Anglia), from which the name English derives, is in the extreme northern part of Germany between the Danish border and the Baltic coast. The area of the Saxons (parts of today's Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony) lay south of Anglia. The Anglo-Saxons, two Germanic tribes, were a combination of a number of peoples from northern Germany and the Jutland Peninsula.

Family tree

Note that divisions between subfamilies of Germanic are rarely precisely defined; most form dialect continua, with adjacent dialects being mutually intelligible and more separated ones not.

Comparison

The following table demonstrates the relation of modern West Germanic languages to each other, showing some closely related word-forms, as descended from the Proto-Germanic roots *se/*þe, *hwa, and *he, within the three main West Germanic languages (English, Dutch, and High German). (Note: the Proto-Germanic roots given here are simplifications of three sets of related roots that were similar in form, in that they either shared the same initial consonant sound or, in the case of *Se/*þe, alternated between two consonants.)

Comparison table of words derived from three roots in modern West Germanic languages
colspan=2 rowspan=2Description!colspan=3English!colspan=3Dutch!colspan=3German
From *Se/*þeFrom *HwaFrom *HeFrom *Se/*þeFrom *HwaFrom *HeFrom *Se/*þeFrom *HwaFrom *He
valign=top rowspan=4NominativeMasc.thewhohedewiehij, derwerer
Neuterthatwhatitdatwathetdaswases
Fem.she(who)ME/Dial. hoozij, ze(wie)sie, die(wer)
Pluralthey(who)zij, ze(wie)sie, die(wer)
valign=top colspan=2Demonstrativethisdit, dezedies-
valign=top colspan=2Adverbial/Nominalso, thuswhilezo, duswijlsoWeile
valign=top colspan=2Relativesuchwhicheachzulkwelkeelksolch-welch-MHG elch-
valign=top colspan=2Dualwhetherweder
colspan=2Description!colspan=3English!colspan=3Dutch!colspan=3German
valign=top rowspan=3DativeMasc./Neuterwhomhimwien (obsolete)[6] hemdemwemihm
Fem.(whom)her(wie)haarder(wem)ihr
Pluralthem(whom)'em(wie)hen/hunden(wem)ihnen
valign=top rowspan=2GenitiveMasc./Neut.whosehisdienswiensdes(sen)wessen
Fem./Pluraltheirherdierwierhaarder(en)ihr-
valign=top colspan=2Locativetherewhereheredaarwaarhierda, dar-wo, war-hier
valign=top colspan=2Allativethitherwhitherhitherderwer(waarts)herhinwohinher
valign=top colspan=2Ablativethencewhencehence(van) daan(von) dannenwoher
valign=top colspan=2Instrumentalwhy, howhoewie
valign=top rowspan=2Temporal/ ConjunctiveIthenwhendanwanneerdannwann
IIthan(when)(dan)(wanneer)dennwenn
colspan=2 rowspan=2Description!From *Se/*þeFrom *HwaFrom *HeFrom *Se/*þeFrom *HwaFrom *HeFrom *Se/*þeFrom *HwaFrom *He
colspan=3English!colspan=3Dutch!colspan=3German

Notes and References

  1. Book: Hawkins, John A.. Germanic languages. 68–76. Bernard Comrie. The World's Major Languages. Oxford University Press. 1987. 0-19-520521-9.
  2. Book: Robinson, Orrin W.. Old English and Its Closest Relatives. 0-8047-2221-8. Stanford University Press. 1992.
  3. Kuhn. Hans. Zur Gliederung der germanischen Sprachen. Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur. 86. 1955–56. 1–47.
  4. But see Cercignani, Fausto, Indo-European ē in Germanic, in «Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung», 86/1, 1972, pp. 104-110.
  5. [Graeme Davis (mediaevalist)|Graeme Davis]
  6. "Wien" was still in use in the 19th century and the early 20th century, especially in the written language. See f.e.: http://books.google.be/books?id=i3A-AAAAcAAJ&pg=PA113&lpg=PA113&dq=weilandt+wie+wien+wier+wiens&source=bl&ots=erinNxA15S&sig=fwo5grk-nymAjKXCEqjMTCD7cIY&hl=en&ei=AahzTvHrL4-h-Qakp4SrDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false