Voiceless velar fricative explained

Ipa-Number:140
Decimal:120
Xsampa:x
Kirshenbaum:x

The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. It was part of the consonant inventory of Old English and can still be found in some dialects of English, most notably in Scottish English loch.

The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨⟩.

Features

Features of the voiceless velar fricative:

Varieties of

IPADescription
plain velar fricative
labialised
ejective
ejective labialised
semi-labialised
strongly labialised
palatalised
ejective palatalised

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AdygheKabardian: [[Cyrillic script|да'''х'''э]]'pretty'!colspan="2"
AfrikaansAfrikaans: [[Latin alphabet|'''''g'''oed'']]'well'
AleutAtkan dialectAleut: [[Latin alphabet|''ala'''x''''']]'two'
ArabicArabic: [[Arabic alphabet|خضراء]]'green (f)'See Arabic phonology
AssameseAssamese: [[Assamese script|অসমীয়া]]'Assamese'
AvarAvaric: [[Cyrillic script|чe'''хь''']]'belly'
AzerbaijaniAzerbaijani: [[Azeri alphabet|'''''x'''oş'']]'pleasant'
Bretonhor c'hi'our dog'
BulgarianBulgarian: [[Bulgarian alphabet|ти'''х'''о]]/tiho'quietly'
ChineseMandarinChinese: [[Chinese characters|河]]/Chinese: [[Hanyu Pinyin|'''''h'''é'']]'river'See Standard Chinese
CzechCzech: [[Czech orthography|'''''ch'''lap'']]'guy'See Czech phonology
DutchBelgian DutchDutch; Flemish: [[Dutch orthography|''a'''ch'''t'']]'eight'More common in northern dialects. See Dutch phonology
Northern dialects
EnglishScottishEnglish: [[English orthography|''lo'''ch''''']]'loch'See English phonology
Some American speakersyech'yech'
EsperantoEsperanto: [[Esperanto orthography|''mona'''ĥ'''o'']]'monk'See Esperanto phonology
Eyak[[Latin alphabet|''du'''x'''ł'']]'traps'
Finnish[1] Finnish: [[Finnish alphabet|''tu'''h'''ka'']]'ash'Allophone of /h/. See Finnish phonology
GeorgianGeorgian: [[Georgian alphabet|ჯო'''ხ'''ი]]'stick'
GermanGerman: [[German orthography|''Ku'''ch'''en'']]'cake'See German phonology
GreekGreek, Modern (1453-): [[Greek alphabet|'''χ'''αρά]]/chará'joy'See Modern Greek phonology
HindiHindi: [[Devanagari script|ख़ुशी]]'happiness'See Hindi-Urdu phonology
HungarianHungarian: [[Hungarian orthography|''sa'''hh'''al'']]'with a shah'See Hungarian phonology
IrishIrish: [[Irish orthography|''deo'''ch''''']]'drink'See Irish phonology
KabardianKabardian: [[Cyrillic script|да'''х'''э]]'pretty'!colspan="2"
KoreanKorean: [[Hangul|흠집]]/Korean: [[Revised Romanization of Korean|'''''h'''eumjip'']]'flaw'Occurs only before . See Korean phonology
LithuanianLithuanian: [[Latin alphabet|'''''ch'''oras'']]'chorus'
LojbanLojban: [[Lojban_grammar#Orthography|'''''x'''atra'']]'letter'
PersianPersian: [[Persian alphabet|خواهر]]'sister'See Persian phonology
MacedonianMacedonian: [[Macedonian alphabet|О'''х'''рид]]/Ohrid'Ohrid'See Macedonian phonology
ManxManx: [[Latin alphabet|''aasha'''gh''''']]'easy'
Old Englishwealh'foreigner', 'slave'See Old English phonology
PolishPolish: [[Polish orthography|'''''ch'''leb'']]'bread'Also (in great majority of dialects) represented by . See Polish phonology
PortugueseBrazilianPortuguese: [[Latin alphabet|'''''r'''abo'']]'tail'(some dialects) See Portuguese phonology
RussianRussian: [[Russian orthography|'''х'''ороший]]/khoroshiy'good'See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic[2] Gaelic; Scottish Gaelic: [[Scottish Gaelic alphabet|''dro'''ch'''aid'']]'bridge'See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian[[Serbian Cyrillic alphabet|'''х'''раст]]/[[Gaj's Latin alphabet|'''''h'''rast'']]'oak'See Serbo-Croatian phonology
SlovakSlovak: [[Slovak alphabet|'''''ch'''lap'']]'guy'
SomaliSomali: [[Latin alphabet|'''''kh'''ad'']]'ink'See Somali phonology
SpanishSpanish; Castilian: [[Spanish orthography|''o'''j'''o'']]'eye'See Spanish phonology
XhosaXhosa: [[Latin alphabet|'''''rh'''oxisa'']]'to cancel'
UkrainianUkrainian: [[Ukrainian alphabet|'''х'''ата]]'house'See Ukrainian phonology
UrduUrdu: [[Nastaʿlīq script|{{Nastaliq|خوشی]]}}'happiness'See Hindi-Urdu phonology
VietnameseVietnamese: [[Vietnamese alphabet|'''''kh'''ông'']]'not'See Vietnamese phonology
WelshWelsh: [[Welsh alphabet|''car'''ch'''ar'']]'jail'See Welsh phonology
West FrisianWestern Frisian: [[Latin alphabet|''tú'''ch''''']]'dust'Allophone of, only occurring after close vowels (, and).
Yaghanxan'here'
YiEnglish: [[Yi script|ꉾ]]/English: [[Yi script|'''''h'''e'']]'good'
Yiddishאיך/ikh'I'See Yiddish phonology
ZapotecTilquiapanmejor'better'Used primarily in loanwords from Spanish

See also

Notes and References

  1. http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=5
  2. Oftedal, M. (1956) The Gaelic of Leurbost. Olso. Norsk Tidskrift for Sprogvidenskap.