Voiceless velar fricative explained

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Ipa:120
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Sound:voiceless velar fricative.ogg

The voiceless velar fricative, informally known as the hard ch, is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is x. The sound was part of the consonant inventory of Old English and can still be found in some dialects of English, most notably in Scottish English.

Features

Features of the voiceless velar fricative:

Varieties of

IPADescription
plain velar fricative
labialized
ejective
ejective labialized
semi-labialized
strongly labialized

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AfrikaansAfrikaans: [[Latin alphabet|'''''g'''oed'']]'well'
AleutAtkan dialectAleut: [[Latin alphabet|''ala'''x''''']]'two'
Angor[[Latin alphabet|'''''h'''ombo'']]'to walk'
ArabicArabic: [[Arabic alphabet|خضراء]]'green (f)'See Arabic phonology
AssameseAssamese: [[Assamese script|অসমীয়া]]'Assamese'
AvarAvaric: [[Cyrillic alphabet|чe'''хь''']]'belly'
AzerbaijaniAzerbaijani: [[Azeri alphabet|'''''x'''oş'']]'pleasant'
BulgarianBulgarian: [[Bulgarian alphabet|ти'''х'''о]]'quietly'
ChineseMandarinChinese: [[Chinese characters|河]]/Chinese: [[Hanyu Pinyin|'''''h'''é'']]'river'See Standard Mandarin
CroatianCroatian: [[Croatian alphabet|'''''H'''rvatski'']]'Croatian'
CzechCzech: [[Czech orthography|'''''ch'''lap'']]'guy'See Czech phonology
DutchBelgian DutchDutch; Flemish: [[Dutch orthography|''a'''ch'''t'']]'eight'See Dutch phonology
EnglishScottishEnglish: [[English orthography|''lo'''ch''''']]'loch'See English phonology
EsperantoEsperanto: [[Esperanto orthography|''mona'''ĥ'''o'']]'monk'See Esperanto phonology
Eyak[[Latin alphabet|''du'''x'''ł'']]'traps'
GeorgianGeorgian: [[Georgian alphabet|ჯო'''ხ'''ი]]'stick'
GermanGerman: [[German orthography|''Ku'''ch'''en'']]'cake'See German phonology
GreekGreek, Modern (1453-): [[Greek alphabet|'''χ'''αρά]]'joy'See Modern Greek phonology
HungarianHungarian: [[Hungarian orthography|''sa'''hh'''al'']]'with a shah'See Hungarian phonology
IrishIrish: [[Irish orthography|''deo'''ch''''']]'drink'See Irish phonology
LithuanianLithuanian: [[Lithuanian orthography|'''''ch'''oras'']]'chorus'See Lithuanian phonology
LojbanLojban: [[Lojban_grammar#Orthography|'''''x'''atra'']]'letter'
PersianPersian: [[Persian alphabet|خواهر]]'sister'See Persian phonology
PolishPolish: [[Polish orthography|'''''ch'''leb'']]'bread'Also (in great majority of dialects) represented by . See Polish phonology
PortugueseBrazilianPortuguese: [[Latin alphabet|'''''r'''abo'']]'tail'See Portuguese phonology
RussianRussian: [[Russian orthography|'''х'''вост]]'tail'See Russian phonology
Scottish GaelicGaelic; Scottish Gaelic: [[Scottish Gaelic alphabet|''lo'''ch''''']]'lake'
SerbianSerbian: [[Serbian Cyrillic alphabet|'''х'''раст]]/Serbian: [[Gaj's Latin alphabet|'''''h'''rast'']]'oak'
SlovakSlovak: [[Slovak alphabet|'''''ch'''lap'']]'guy'See Slovak phonology
SomaliSomali: [[Latin alphabet|'''''kh'''ad'']]'ink'See Somali phonology
SpanishSpanish; Castilian: [[Spanish orthography|''o'''j'''o'']]'eye'See Spanish phonology
XhosaXhosa: [[Latin alphabet|'''''rh'''oxisa'']]'to cancel'
VietnameseVietnamese: [[Vietnamese alphabet|'''''kh'''ê'' ]]'to be burnt'See Vietnamese phonology
WelshWelsh: [[Welsh alphabet|''car'''ch'''ar'']]'jail'See Welsh phonology
Yaghanxan'here'

See also

Notes and References