Veganism is a diet and lifestyle that seeks to exclude the use of animals for food, clothing, or any other purpose. Vegans endeavor not to use or consume animal products of any kind. The most common reasons for becoming a vegan are ethical commitment or moral conviction concerning animal rights, the environment, human health, and spiritual or religious concerns. Of particular concern to many vegans are the practices involved in factory farming and animal testing, and the intensive use of land and other resources for animal farming.
Various polls have reported vegans to be between 0.2% and 1.3% of the U.S. population, and between 0.25% and 0.4% of the UK population.
Vegan diets (sometimes called strict or pure vegetarian diets) are a subset of vegetarian diets. Properly planned vegan diets are healthful and have been found to satisfy nutritional needs. However, poorly planned vegan diets can be low in levels of calcium, iodine, vitamin B and vitamin D. Vegans are therefore encouraged to plan their diet and take dietary supplements.
The word vegan was originally derived from "vegetarian" in 1944 when Elsie Shrigley and Donald Watson, frustrated that the term "vegetarianism" had come to include the eating of dairy products, founded the Vegan Society. They combined the first three and last two letters of vegetarian to form "vegan," which they saw as "the beginning and end of vegetarian."  Vegan is  or, although Watson considered the latter pronunciation to be incorrect. The Vegan Society defines veganism in this way: Other vegan societies use similar definitions.  
Data regarding the number of vegans is available in some countries.
A 2002 Time/CNN poll found that 4% of American adults consider themselves vegetarians, and 5% of vegetarians consider themselves vegans, which implies that 0.2% of American adults are vegans. A 2006 poll conducted by Harris Interactive in the US listed specific foods and asked respondents to indicate which items they never eat, rather than asking respondents to self-identify. The survey found that of the 1,000 adults polled, 1.4% never eat meat, poultry, fish, seafood, dairy products, or eggs and were therefore essentially vegan in their eating habits. The survey also found that about 1.4% of men and 1.3% of women have vegan diets.
In 2002, the UK Food Standards Agency carried out a National Diet and Nutrition Survey, which reported that 5% of respondents self-identified as vegetarian or vegan. Though 29% of that 5% said they avoided "all animal products", only 5% reported avoiding dairy products. Based on these figures, approximately 0.25% of the UK population follow a vegan diet. In 2005, The Times estimated there were 250,000 vegans in Britain, which suggests around 0.4% of the UK population is vegan.
Various polls and research conducted during the 1990s put the percentage of Swedish residents being vegan at between 0.27% and 1.6% of the entire population. A study of the eating patterns of 2,538 Swedish children of ages 4, 8 and 11 by the Swedish National Food Administration found that about 1% of the children were vegetarian, less than 1% were lacto-vegetarians, but found no children to be vegans. The German Federal Study on Food-Consumption reported 0.1% of female and 0.05% of male participants to be vegan. The Netherlands Association for Veganism estimates there to be approximately 16,000 vegans in the Netherlands, or around 0.1% of the Dutch population.
See main article: Animal product. The term "animal product" in a vegan context refers to any material derived from animals for human use. Notable animal products include meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, dairy products, honey, fur, leather, wool, and silk. Common animal by-products include gelatin, lanolin, rennet, whey, casein, beeswax, isinglass, and shellac.
Animal products are ingredients in countless products and are used in the production of—though not always present in the final form of—many more.   Many of these ingredients are obscure,  also have non-animal sources, and may not even be identified. Although some vegans attempt to avoid all these ingredients, Vegan Outreach argues that "it can be prohibitively expensive and time-consuming to shun every minor or hidden animal-derived ingredient," and therefore that doing what is "best for preventing suffering" is more important than identifying and excluding every animal ingredient. 
Although honey and silk are by definition animal products, some vegans consider their use and the use of other insect products to be acceptable.
See also: Animal rights, Ethics of eating meat and Factory farming.
The central ethical question related to veganism is whether it is right for humans to use and kill animals. This question is essentially the same as the fundamental question of animal rights, so it has been animal rights ethicists who have articulated the philosophical foundations for veganism. The philosophical discussion also therefore reflects the division viewpoints within animal rights theory between a rights-based approach, taken by both Tom Regan and Gary Francione, and a utilitarian one, promoted by Peter Singer. Vegan advocacy organizations generally adhere to some form animal rights viewpoint, and oppose practices which violate these rights.
Tom Regan, professor emeritus of philosophy at North Carolina State University, argues that animals are entities which possess "inherent value" and therefore have "basic moral rights," and that the principal moral right they possess is "the right to respectful treatment." Regan additionally argues that animals have a "basic moral right not to be harmed," which can be overridden only when the individual's right not to be harmed is "morally outweighed" by "other valid moral principles."  From this "rights view," Regan argues that "animal agriculture, as we know it, is unjust" even when animals are raised "humanely."  Regan argues against various justifications for eating meat including that "animal flesh is tasty," that it is "habit" for "individuals and as a culture", that it is "convenient," that "meat is nutritious," that there is an obligation the economic interests of farmers or to the economic interests of a country, or that "farm animals are legal property," and finds that all fail to treat animals with the respect due to them by their basic rights. Regan therefore argues that "those who support current animal agriculture by purchasing meat have a moral obligation to stop doing so" and that "the individual has a duty to lead a vegetarian way of life."
Gary L. Francione, professor of Law at Rutgers School of Law-Newark, argues that animals are sentient, and that this is sufficient to grant them moral consideration. Francione argues that "all sentient beings should have at least one right - the right not to be treated as property" and that there is "no moral justification for using nonhumans for our purposes." Francione further argues that adopting veganism should be regarded as the "baseline" action taken by people concerned with animal rights.
Peter Singer, professor of bioethics at Princeton, argues that there is "no moral justification" for refusing to take sentient animal suffering into consideration in ethical decisions. Singer argues that an animal's interests warrant equal consideration with the interests of humans, and that not doing so is "speciesist." Based upon his evaluation of these interests, Singer argues that "our use of animals for food becomes questionable - especially when animal flesh is a luxury rather than a necessity." Singer does not contend that killing animals is always wrong, but that from a practical standpoint it is "better to reject altogether the killing of animals for food, unless one must do so to survive." Singer therefore advocates both veganism and improved conditions for farm animals as practical means to reduce animal suffering.  
Vegan advocacy organizations generally regard animals to have some form of rights, and therefore consider it unethical to use animals in ways that infringe those rights. The Vegan Society, for example, maintains that "animals have the right not to be farmed," Vegan Action asserts that "animals are not ours to use," PETA states that "animals are not ours to eat, wear, experiment on, or use for entertainment," and Mercy for Animals writes that "non-human animals are irreplaceable individuals with morally significant interests and hence rights."
Advocacy organizations regard practices such as factory farming,   animal testing,  and displaying animals for entertainment in circuses, rodeos, and zoos as cruel to animals.
Steven Davis, a professor of animal science at Oregon State University, has argued that following Tom Regan's "least harm principle" may not necessarily require the adoption of a vegan diet. Davis suggested that there were non-vegetarian diets which "may kill fewer animals" than are killed in the intensive crop production necessary to support vegetarian diets. However, Gaverick Matheny, a Ph.D. candidate in agricultural economics at the University of Maryland, College Park, argued that Davis' reasoning contained several major flaws, including miscalculating the number of animal deaths based on land area rather than per consumer, and incorrectly equating "the harm done to animals […] to the number of animals killed." Matheny argued that per-consumer, a vegan diet would kill fewer wild animals than a diet adhering to Davis' model. He also argued that vegetarianism "involves better treatment of animals, and likely allows a greater number of animals with lives worth living to exist."
Davis's argument has also been criticized by Andy Lamey, a PhD student at the University of Western Australia, who re-examined the empirical studies Davis used to calculate animal crop production deaths. Lamey notes that many of the animal deaths Davis attributed to harvesting technology were actually caused by other animals, calling into question his overall estimate.
William Jarvis, writing for the Nutrition & Health Forum newsletter, attacks "ideologic vegetarians," whom he claims believe that "all life is sacred" and that "all forms of life have equal value," saying that these beliefs "can lead to absurdities such as allowing mosquitoes to spread malaria, or vipers to run loose on one's premises."
The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine recommends what they call the "Four New Food Groups." They suggest that vegans and vegetarians eat at least three servings of vegetables a day, including dark green, leafy vegetables such as broccoli, and dark yellow and orange such as carrots; five servings of whole grains (bread, rice, pasta); three of fruit; and two of legumes (beans, peas, lentils).
Scientists such as Roger Segelken and T. Colin Campbell believe that some diets (such as the standard American diet) are detrimental to health, and they believe that a vegan diet represents an improvement,  in part because vegan diets are often high enough in fruit and vegetables to meet or exceed the recommended fruit and vegetable intakes.
Benefits of vegetarian diets might be valid also for strict vegan diets: according to the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada, diets that avoid meat tend to have lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein, and higher levels of carbohydrates, fiber, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, and phytochemicals. People who avoid meat are reported to have lower body mass index than those following the average Canadian diet; from this follows lower death rates from ischemic heart disease; lower blood cholesterol levels; lower blood pressure; and lower rates of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and prostate and colon cancer.
A 1999 meta-study of five studies comparing vegetarian and non-vegetarian mortality rates in western countries found the mortality rate to be highest among vegans and those who eat meat regularly followed by vegetarians and those who eat meat infrequently. The lowest mortality rate was demonstrated by those who eat fish but no other meat.  A 2003 study of British vegetarians, including vegans, found similar mortality rates between vegetarians and other groups.
A 2006 study found that in people with type 2 diabetes a low-fat vegan diet reduced weight, BMI, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol and did so to a greater extent than the diet prescribed by the American Diabetes Association.
The American Dietetic Association has said that "appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases." However, poorly planned vegan diets can be deficient in nutrients such as vitamin B, vitamin D, calcium,  iodine and omega-3 fatty acids. These deficiencies have potentially serious consequences, including anemia, rickets and cretinism in children, and osteomalacia and hypothyroidism in adults.
Deficiencies in Vitamin B, a bacterial product that cannot be reliably found in plant foods,  can have serious health consequences, including anemia and neurodegenerative disease. Although clinical B deficiency is rare in vegans, if a person has not eaten more than the daily needed amount of B12 over a long period before becoming a vegan then they may not have built up any significant store of the vitamin. In a 2002 laboratory study, more of the strict vegan participants' B and iron levels were compromised than those of lacto- or lacto-ovo-vegetarian participants.
The Vegan Society and Vegan Outreach, among others, recommend that vegans either consistently eat foods fortified with B or take a B supplement.   Tempeh, seaweed, spirulina, organic produce, soil on unwashed vegetables, and intestinal bacteria have not been shown to be reliable sources of B for the dietary needs of vegans.  
Calcium and vitamin D
It is recommended that vegans eat three servings per day of a high calcium food, such as fortified soy milk, and take a calcium supplement as necessary.  The EPIC-Oxford study showed that vegans have an increased risk of bone fractures over both meat eaters and vegetarians, likely due to lower dietary calcium intake, but that vegans consuming more than the UK's estimated average requirements for calcium of 525 mg/day had risk of bone fractures similar to other groups. 
The authors of The China Study argue that osteoporosis is linked to the consumption of animal protein because animal protein, unlike plant protein, increases the acidity of blood and tissues which is then neutralized by calcium pulled from the bones. The authors add that "in our rural China Study, where the animal to plant ratio [for protein] was about 10%, the fracture rate is only one-fifth that of the U.S."
For light-skinned people, adequate amounts of vitamin D may also be obtained by spending 15 to 30 minutes in the sunlight every few days. Dark-skinned people need significantly more sunlight to obtain the same amount of vitamin D, and sunlight exposure may be difficult for vegans in areas with low levels of sunlight during winter; in these cases supplementation is recommended.  
Iodine supplementation may be necessary for vegans in countries where salt is not typically iodized, where it is iodized at low levels, or where, as in Britain or Ireland, animal products are used for iodine delivery.  Iodine can be obtained from most vegan multivitamins or from regular consumption of kelp. 
Pregnancies and children
According to the US National Institute of Health, "with appropriate food choices, vegan diets can be adequate for children at all ages." The American Dietetic Association also considers well-planned vegan diets "appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy and lactation," but recommends that vegan mothers supplement for iron, vitamin D, and vitamin B.  Vitamin B deficiency in lactating vegetarian mothers has been linked to deficiencies and neurological disorders in their children.  Some research suggests that the essential omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and its derivatives should also be supplemented in pregnant and lactating vegan mothers, since they are very low in most vegan diets, and the metabolically related docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is essential to the developing visual system. A maternal vegan diet has also been associated with low birth weight, and a five times lower likelihood of having twins than those who eat animal products.
Several cases of severe infant malnutrition and some fatalities have been associated with a poorly planned vegan diet,     and provoked criticism of vegan diets for children.  Parents involved in these cases were convicted on charges ranging from assault to felony murder. Addressing criticism of veganism, Dr. Amy Lanou, an expert witness for the prosecution in one of the cases, asserted that the child in that particular case "was not killed by a vegan diet" but that "the real problem was that he was not given enough food of any sort."
The American Dietetic Association indicates that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders but that the evidence suggests that the adoption of a vegetarian diet does not lead to eating disorders, rather that "vegetarian diets may be selected to camouflage an existing eating disorder." Other studies and statements by dietitians and counselors support this conclusion.  
Resources and the environment
See main article: Environmental vegetarianism.
People who adopt veganism for environmental reasons do so on the basis that veganism consumes far fewer resources and causes less environmental damage than an animal-based diet.   Animal agriculture is linked to climate change, water pollution, land degradation, and a decline in biodiversity.   Additionally, an animal-based diet uses more land,  water, and energy than a vegan diet.  
The Livestock, Environment And Development Initiative, a joint effort of the World Bank, The European Union, The US Agency for International Development, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and others, released a report in November 2006 linking animal agriculture to environmental damage. The report, Livestock's Long Shadow  concludes that the livestock sector (primarily cows, chickens, and pigs) emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to our most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global. It is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases - responsible for 18% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO2 equivalents. In comparison, the proportion of total CO2 emissions by passenger vehicles is 12% of the total CO2. It produces 65% of human-related nitrous oxide (which has 296 times the global warming potential of CO2) and 37% of all human-induced methane (which is 23 times as warming as CO2). Those numbers are confirmed in a 2007 article in the British medical journal The Lancet, which concludes that reducing consumption of animal products should be a top priority, especially in developed countries where such a measure would also entail substantial health benefits.
A 2006 study by Gidon Eshel and Pamela Martin, assistant professors of geophysics at the University of Chicago, found that a person switching from the average American diet to a vegan diet would reduce CO2 emissions by 1,485 kg per year.
The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis argues that while most meat production in industrialized countries uses inefficient grain feeding methods through intensive farming, meat production is not invariably a poor use of land, especially in countries like China and Brazil. Since a proportion of all grain crops produced are not suitable for human consumption, they can be fed to animals to turn into meat, thus improving efficiency.  Further, greenhouse gas emissions are not limited to animal husbandry; but also to several plant based sources such as rice cultivation. 
In the developing world, notably Asia and Africa, fossil fuels are seldom used to transport feed for farm animals. Sheep or goats, for example, require no fuel, since they graze on farmlands, while bales of hay for bovines are still transported mainly using bullock carts or similar devices. Few of the meat processing techniques that occur in developed countries takes place in the majority of developing countries. Animals are also often herded to the place of slaughter (with the exception of poultry) resulting in a very low use of fossil fuels.  In fact farm animals in developing world are used for multiple purposes from providing draught power, to transportation while also serving as meat once it reaches the end of its economic life.
A 2007 study which simulated various diets' land use for the geography of New York State concluded that although vegetarian diets used the smallest amount of land per capita, a low fat diet which included some meat and dairy (less than 2 oz of meat/eggs per day - significantly less than consumed by the average American) could support slightly more people on the same available land than could be fed on some high fat vegetarian diets, since animal food crops can be grown on lower quality land than crops for human consumption.  Given that most vegan diets tend to be low fat and most meat diets tend to be moderate to high fat (the study showed that the average American eats 5.8 oz of meat per day, nearly three times as much as the low fat diet used above), the study did prove that the average vegan diet is around three times more efficient in land use than the average meat eating diet.
Similar diets and lifestyles
See also: Vegetarianism and religion.
Diets such as raw veganism and fruitarianism are related to veganism, but have significant differences from standard veganism. There are also numerous religious groups that regularly or occasionally practice a similar diet, including adherents to some Buddhist traditions, Eastern Orthodox Christians, Jains, Hindus, Sikhism, Rastafarians, and Seventh-day Adventists.
See also: Vegetarian cuisine.
Also see the Wikibooks Cookbook articles on vegan cuisine and vegan substitutions and its listing of vegan recipes. The cuisines of most nations contain dishes suitable for a vegan diet, including ingredients such as tofu, tempeh and the wheat product seitan in Asian diets.    Many recipes that traditionally contain animal products can be adapted by substituting plant-based ingredients. For example, nut, grain or soy milks can be used to replace cow's milk  and eggs can be replaced by applesauce or commercial starch-based substitute products, depending upon the recipe.   Additionally, artificial "meat" products ("analogs" or "mock meats") made from non-animal derived ingredients such as soy or gluten including imitation sausages, ground beef, burgers, and chicken nuggets are widely available. 
- Vegan Societies
Notes and References
- Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2003. 103. 6. 748–765. Vegetarian Diets. online copy available
- Web site: Vegan Society: History. 2007-02-17. Vegan Society.
- Web site: Vegetarians in Paradise interview with Donald Watson. 2006-10-31. 2004-08-11. Vegetarians in Paradise Web Magazine. Vegetarians in Paradise.
- Web site: vegan. 2007-05-31. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc.
- Book: Oxford English Dictionary on CD-ROM. 2000. Oxford University Press. Oxford. v2.
- Web site: Vegan Community Mourns Donald Watson. 2008-09-09. 2005-12-01. Vegetarians in Paradise Web Magazine. Vegetarians in Paradise. "The pronunciation is "VEEGAN" not "VAI-GAN," "VEGGAN." or "VEEJAN." The stress is on the first syllable," Watson responded..
- Web site: What is Vegan?. 2006-09-15. American Vegan Society. Vegans exclude flesh, fish, fowl, dairy products (animal milk, butter, cheese, yogurt, etc.), eggs, honey, animal gelatin, and all other foods of animal origin. Veganism also excludes animal products such as leather, wool, fur, and silk in clothing, upholstery, etc. Vegans usually make efforts to avoid the less-than-obvious animal oils, secretions, etc., in many products such as soaps, cosmetics, toiletries, household goods and other common commodities..
- Web site: Introduction to Veganism. 2006-10-30. The Vegan Society of New Zealand. A Vegan is a person who knowingly chooses not to consume, use or wear any products produced from animals or contains animal by-products, and avoids products tested on animals..
- Web site: About Vegana. 2006-10-30. The Danish Vegan Society. A vegan does not eat meat, poultry, fish, milk products, egg or other animal products - out of concern for people, animals, and the environment..
- Web site: Time/CNN Poll: Do you consider yourself a vegetarian?. 2006-10-30. 2002-07-07. Time Magazine.
- Do you consider yourself a vegetarian? No 96% Yes 4%
- As you know, there are many different types of vegetarians. Whch best describes you? Semi-vegetarian 57% Ovo-lacto-vegetarian 36% Vegan 5% Other 2%
- Web site: How Many Adults Are Vegetarian?. 2007-03-18. Vegetarian Journal. Vegetarian Resource Group.
- Web site: Types and quantities of food consumed: Vegetarian/vegan. 2006-10-30. PDF. 11, 23. National Diet & Nutrition Survey: Adults aged 19 to 64, Volume 1 2002. Food Standards Agency.
- Web site: Donald Watson. 2006-09-15. 2005-11-16. Times Online. Times Newspapers Ltd.. The Vegan Society’s 25 members swelled steadily to the 5,000 of today. There are now an estimated 250,000 vegans in Britain..
- Book: Pettersson, Björn. Vegansk näringslära på vetenskaplig grund. 2nd edition. 2005. June. HÄLSAböcker/Energica Förlag. Orsa. Swedish. 9185506796. 17–19.
- Web site: Svenska barns matvanor 2003. 2007-11-23. Heléne Enghardt Barbieri. Wulf Becker. 2004-12-15. PDF. Livsmedelsverket. 5. Swedish.
- Web site: Wat is veganisme?. Nederlandse Vereniging voor Veganisme. 2007-10-03. veganisme.org. Er zijn nu ongeveer 2,4 miljoen parttime vegetariërs en vleesverlaters, 300.000 vegetariërs en 16.000 veganisten in Nederland..
- Book: Stepaniak, Joanne. Being Vegan. McGraw-Hill Contemporary. 2000. 2,6,17,148–150. 978-0737303230.
- Web site: Criteria for Vegan food. 2007-02-17. Vegan Society.
- Web site: Vegan FAQs. 2007-03-11. Vegan Outreach. Is refined sugar vegan? It depends on how you define 'vegan.' Refined sugars do not contain any animal products, and so by an ingredients-based definition of vegan, refined sugar is vegan. ... However, if one accepts a process-based definition of vegan, then many other familiar products would also not be considered vegan. For instance, steel and vulcanized rubber are produced using animal fats and, in many areas, groundwater and surface water is filtered through bone charcoal filters..
- Web site: IVU FAQ: Drinks. 2007-03-11. 2006-08-03. International Vegetarian Union FAQ. International Vegetarian Union.
- Web site: Information Sheet: Alcohol. 2007-03-11. Vegetarian Society. The use of animal derived products in the production of alcoholic beverages is fairly widespread not because no alternatives exist, but because they always have been used and there is little demand from the consumer for an alternative. ... The main appearance of animal derived products is in the fining or clearing process, though others may be used as colorants or anti-foaming agents..
- Web site: IVU FAQ: Ingredients. 2006-10-30. International Vegetarian Union FAQ. International Vegetarian Union.
- Web site: IVU FAQ: Animal Derived Ingredient List. 2007-03-10. 2006-08-03. International Vegetarian Union FAQ. International Vegetarian Union.
- Web site: IVU FAQ: Maybe Animal Derived. 2007-03-10. 2006-08-03. International Vegetarian Union FAQ. International Vegetarian Union.
- Web site: On Living With Compassion. 2007-03-10. Vegan Outreach. Our desire to oppose and help end cruelty to animals can help guide our choices, as well as provide a simple, easy-to-understand explanation of our actions. The question isn't, "Is this vegan?" but, "What is best for preventing suffering?".
- Web site: On Living With Compassion (Old version). http://web.archive.org/web/20071212025817/http://www.veganoutreach.org/starterpack/beingveganold.html. 2007-12-12. 2007-03-10. Vegan Outreach. We believe that framing veganism as the avoidance of a specific list of “bad” ingredients is not the best way to achieve results. When looked at closely, any ingredients-based definition of vegan collapses into inconsistencies. This is why we stress that the essence of being vegan is working to end cruelty to animals..
- Web site: Is honey vegan?. 2007-10-03. Vegan Action. Vegan FAQ's. Many vegans, however, are not opposed to using insect products, because they do not believe insects are conscious of pain. Moreover, even if insects were conscious of pain, it's not clear that the production of honey involves any more pain for insects than the production of most vegetables, since the harvesting and transportation of all vegetables involves many 'collateral' insect deaths..
- Book: Regan, Tom. Tom Regan
. The Case for Animal Rights. Tom Regan. 1983. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California. 0-520-05460-1. 244–245.
moral patients (e.g., animals in the wild)
For these reasons, the subject-of-a-life criterion can be defended as citing a relevant similarity between moral agents and patients, one that makes the attribution of equal inherent value to them both intelligible and nonarbitrary..
- Book: Regan, Tom. Tom Regan
. The Case for Animal Rights. Tom Regan. 1983. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California. 0-520-05460-1. 327. The principal conclusion reached in the present chapter is that all moral agents and patients have certain basic moral rights.
The principal basic moral right possessed by all moral agents and patients is the right to respectful treatment..
- Book: Regan, Tom. Tom Regan
. The Case for Animal Rights. Tom Regan. 1983. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California. 0-520-05460-1. 328. It was also argued that all moral agents and patients have a prima facie basic moral right not to be harmed..
- Book: Regan, Tom. Tom Regan
. The Case for Animal Rights. Tom Regan. 1983. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California. 0-520-05460-1. 287. To say this right is a prima facie right is to say that (1) consideration of this right is always a morally relevant consideration, and (2) anyone who would harm another, or allow others to do so, must be able to justify doing so by (a) appealing to other valid moral principles and by (b) showing that these principles morally outweigh the right not to be harmed in a given case..
- Book: Regan, Tom. Tom Regan
. The Case for Animal Rights. Tom Regan. 1983. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California. 0-520-05460-1. 394. This chapter traced some of the implications of the rights view. On this view, animal agriculture, as we know it, is unjust (9.1), and it is unjust because it fails to treat farm animals with the respect they are due.
- Book: Regan, Tom. Tom Regan
. The Case for Animal Rights. Tom Regan. 1983. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California. 0-520-05460-1. 394. Animal agriculture, as we know it, is wrong, not only when farm animals are raised in close confinement in factory farms, but also when they are raised "humanely," since even in this case their lives are routinely brought to an untimely end because of human interests.
- Book: Regan, Tom. Tom Regan
. The Case for Animal Rights. Tom Regan. 1983. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California. 0-520-05460-1. 333–334. The argument just given is sound only if the case can be made that raising animals to eat and eating them satisfies all the requirements of the liberty principle. Once we examine the matter more closely, we shall see that it fails to do so..
- Book: Regan, Tom. Tom Regan
. The Case for Animal Rights. Tom Regan. 1983. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California. 0-520-05460-1. 394. Those who support current animal agriculture by purchasing meat have a moral obligation to stop doing so.
the rights view holds that the individual has a duty to lead a vegetarian way of life.
- Web site: Mission Statement. 2007-05-29. Francione. Gary. Gary L. Francione. 2006-12-27. Animal Rights: The Abolitionist Approach. We have no moral justification for using nonhumans for our purposes. … A shorthand way of describing the view presented here is to say that all sentient beings should have at least one right—the right not to be treated as property. … This site also seeks to make clear that the moral baseline of an animal rights movement is veganism..
- Book: Singer, Peter. Peter Singer
. Practical Ethics. Peter Singer. 1993. 1999. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. 0-521-43971-X. Second Edition. 57 - 58. Equality for Animals?. If a being suffers, there can be no moral justification for refusing to take that suffering into consideration. … This is why the limit of sentience…is the only defensible boundary of concern for the interests of others. … Similarly those I would call 'speciesists' give greater weight to their own species when there is a clash between their interests and the interests of those of other species..
- Book: Singer, Peter. Peter Singer
. Practical Ethics. Peter Singer. 1993. 1999. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. 0-521-43971-X. Second Edition. 62. Equality for Animals?. The use of animals for food is probably the oldest and most widespread form of animal use. There is also a sense in which it is the most basic form of animal use, the foundation stone on which rests the belief that animals exist for our pleasure and convenience. If animals count in their own right, our use of animals for food becomes questionable - especially when animal flesh is a luxury rather than a necessity..
- Book: Singer, Peter. Peter Singer
. Practical Ethics. Peter Singer. 1993. 1999. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. 0-521-43971-X. Second Edition. 134. Taking Life: Animals. In any case, at the level of practical moral principles, it would be better to reject altogether the killing of animals for food, unless one must do so to survive..
- Web site: Singer Says. 2007-05-29. Clyne. Catherine. 2006. 10. Satya. If you read the book, it does make clear that going vegan is a good solution to a lot of the ethical problems..
- Web site: Chew the Right Thing. 2007-05-29. Gilson. Dave. 2006-05-03. Mother Jones. In 1975 he published Animal Liberation, a pioneering defense of the rights of animals that concluded that veganism is the most ethically justifiable diet..
- Web site: The practical ethicist. 2007-05-29. Broudy. Oliver. 2006-05-08. Salon.com. Salon Media Group, Inc.. If you can be vegetarian or vegan that's ideal. If you can buy organic and vegan that's better still, and organic and fair trade and vegan, better still, but if that gets too difficult or too complicated, just ask yourself, Does this product come from intensive animal agriculture?.
- Web site: Animal Farming. 2009-02-22. Vegan Society. Vegans believe that animals have the right not to be farmed..
- Web site: About Veganism: For the Animals. 2007-05-29. Vegan Action. Veganism emerges as the lifestyle most consistent with the philosophy that animals are not ours to use..
- Web site: PETA's History: Compassion in Action. 2007-05-29. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. PETA operates under the simple principle that animals are not ours to eat, wear, experiment on, or use for entertainment..
- Web site: About Mercy for Animals. 2007-05-29. Mercy for Animals. Mercy For Animals is a 501(c)(3) non-profit animal advocacy organization that believes non-human animals are irreplaceable individuals with morally significant interests and hence rights, including the right to live free of unnecessary suffering..
- Web site: Factory Farms. 2006-09-15. Why Vegan. Vegan Outreach.
- Web site: Cruelty to Animals: Mechanized Madness. 2006-09-15. GoVeg.com. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals.
- Web site: Exploitation. 2007-05-29. Vegan Society. The vast majority of these animals will have spent their brief lives in the cramped, distressing conditions of the factory farm. Their close confinement and the overworking of their bodies will have led to increased susceptibility to injury and disease. They will have been reared on an unnatural diet designed to increase productivity and many will have undergone various painful and traumatic procedures..
- Web site: Testing. 2007-05-29. Vegan Society. Every year, millions of animals are subjected to the most horrifically painful experiments just so people can have a new brand of shampoo or a differently scented perfume..
- Web site: Circuses: Three Rings of Abuse. 2007-05-29. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Colorful pageantry disguises the fact that animals used in circuses are captives who are forced, under threat of punishment, to perform confusing, uncomfortable, repetitious, and often-painful acts..
- Web site: Rodeo: Cruelty for a Buck. 2007-05-29. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. In reality, rodeos are nothing more than manipulative displays of human domination over animals, thinly disguised as entertainment..
- Web site: Animal Rights Uncompromised: Zoos. 2007-05-29. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. PETA opposes zoos because zoo cages and cramped enclosures deprive animals of their most basic needs. The zoo community regards the animals it keeps as commodities, and animals are regularly bought, sold, borrowed, and traded without any regard for established relationships..
- Web site: The least harm principle suggests that humans should eat beef, lamb, dairy, not a vegan diet.. 2008-04-22. Davis. S.L.. 2001. Proceedings of the Third Congress of the European Society for Agricultural and Food Ethics. EurSafe 2001. Food Safety, Food Quality and Food Ethics.. 449-450. In conclusion, applying the Least Harm Principle as proposed by Regan would actually argue that we are morally obligated to move to a ruminant-based diet rather than a vegan diet..
- Least harm: a defense of vegetarianism from Steven Davis’s omnivorous proposal. Gaverick Matheny. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. 16. 5. 505–511. 2003. 10.1023/A:1026354906892. While eating animals who are grazed rather than intensively confined would vastly improve the welfare of farmed animals given their current mistreatment, Davis does not succeed in showing this is preferable to vegetarianism. First, Davis makes a mathematical error in using total rather than per capita estimates of animals killed; second, he focuses on the number of animals killed in ruminant and crop production systems and ignores important considerations about the welfare of animals under both systems; and third, he does not consider the number of animals who are prevented from existing under the two systems. After correcting for these errors, Davis’s argument makes a strong case for, rather than against, adopting a vegetarian diet..
- Lamey. Andy. 2007. Food Fight! Davis versus Regan on the Ethics of Eating Beef. Journal of Social Philosophy. 38. 2. 331-348. 2009-02-22.
- Jarvis. William T.. 1997-04-01. Why I Am Not a Vegetarian. ACSH Newsletter "Priorities". 9. 2. American Council on Science and Health. 2008-04-22. The belief that all life is sacred can lead to absurdities such as allowing mosquitoes to spread malaria, or vipers to run loose on one's premises. Inherent in the idea that all life is sacred is the supposition that all forms of life have equal value..
- http://www.vegsource.com/food_groups.htm "Vegetarian starter kit"
- Web site: China Study II: Switch to Western diet may bring Western-type diseases. 2006-09-15. Segelken. Roger. Roger Segelken. 2001-06-28. Cornell Chronicle.
- Web site: China-Cornell-Oxford Project On Nutrition, Environment and Health at Cornell University. 2006-09-15. Division of Nutritional Sciences. Cornell University.
- 2003. June. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 103. 6. 748–765. 10.1053/jada.2003.50142. 2006-09-15.
- Timothy. J. et al.. 1999. September. Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 70. 3. 516S–524S. 10479225. 2008-01-31. Death rate ratio (Number of deaths)
Regular meat eaters (n = 31766): 1.00 (3017)
Vegans (n = 753): 1.00 (68).
- Key. Timothy J. et. al.. 2003. September. Mortality in British vegetarians: review and preliminary results from EPIC-Oxford. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 78. 3. 533S–538S. 12936946. 2008-01-31. In conclusion, both the vegetarians and the nonvegetarians in these 3 British cohort studies have a low mortality compared with the national average. Comparisons within the cohorts suggest that the vegetarians have a moderately lower mortality from IHD than the nonvegetarians but that there is little difference in mortality from other major causes of death..
- Barnard. Neal. Neal D. Barnard. Joshua Cohen, David J.A. Jenkins, Gabrielle Turner-McGrievy, Lise Gloede, Brent Jaster, Kim Seidl, Amber A. Green, and Stanley Talpers. 2006. 08. A Low-Fat Vegan Diet Improves Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 29. 8. 1777–1783. 10.2337/dc06-0606. 2008-01-26. Both diets were associated with significant clinical improvements, as indicated by reductions in A1C, body weight, plasma lipid concentrations, and urinary albumin excretion. Among medication-stable participants, changes in A1C, weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol were significantly greater in the vegan group. The magnitude of A1C reduction in medication-stable vegan group participants, 1.23 percentage points, compares favorably with that observed in single-agent therapy with oral diabetes drugs.. 16873779.
- Web site: Vegan Health: Vitamin B12. 2007-02-23. 2006-07-26. veganhealth.org. Vegan Outreach.
- Web site: Vegan Health: Bone Health. 2007-02-23. 2007-01-09. veganhealth.org. Vegan Outreach.
- P Appleby. A Roddam, N Allen and T Key. 2007. 02. Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 17299475. 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602659. fee required. 2007-02-25. 61. 1400.
- Web site: Vegan Health: Iodine. 2007-02-23. 2006-12-26. veganhealth.org. Vegan Outreach.
- Web site: Vegan Health: Fat. 2007-02-23. 2007-02-20. veganhealth.org. Vegan Outreach.
- Web site: What every vegan should know about vitamin B12. 2007-02-22. Vegan Society. Vitamin B12, whether in supplements, fortified foods, or animal products, comes from micro-organisms..
- Web site: Vegans and Vitamin D. 2007-02-22. Vegan Society.
- Web site: Nutrition: Iodine. 2007-02-23. Steven Walsh. Vegan Society.
- Web site: Vitamin B12 Information Sheet. 2007-02-22. Vegetarian Society. any B12 present in plant foods is likely to be unavailable to humans and so these foods should not be relied upon as safe sources..
- Web site: Vitamin B12 (cobalamin). 2006-10-30. Merck Manual Home Edition.
- Web site: Vegan Health: Myth about How Often Someone Needs B12. 2007-01-02. 2005-07-22. Vitamin B12: Are You Getting It?,veganhealth.org. Jack Norris, RD. Vegan Outreach.
- Obeid R, Geisel J, Schorr H, Hubner U, Herrmann W.. The impact of vegetarianism on some haematological parameters. Eur J Haematol.. 2002. 275–9. 69. 5–6. 12460231. 10.1034/j.1600-0609.2002.02798.x .
- Web site: Healthy choices on a vegan diet. 2007-02-14. Vegan Society.
- Web site: Vitamin B12 in the Vegan Diet. 2007-02-22. Reed Mangels, Ph.D., R.D.. Vegetarian Resource Group.
- Web site: Don't Vegetarians Have Trouble Getting Enough Vitamin B12?. 2007-02-22. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine.
- Web site: Vegan Health: B12 in Tempeh, Seaweeds, Organic Produce, and Other Plant Foods. 2007-02-22. Jack Norris, RD. veganhealth.org. Vegan Outreach.
- Web site: Vegan Health: Are Intestinal Bacteria a Reliable Source of B12?. 2007-02-22. Jack Norris, RD. veganhealth.org. Vegan Outreach.
- Web site: Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford.. 2007-06-17.
- Book: Campbell, T. Colin. The China Study: The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted and the Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss and Long-term Health. 2008-02-01. 2006. Benbella Books. 205. 1-932100-38-5.
- Book: Campbell, T. Colin. The China Study: The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted and the Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss and Long-term Health. 2008-02-01. 2006. Benbella Books. 208. 1-932100-38-5.
- Web site: Information Sheet: Vegan Nutrition. 2007-02-22. Vegetarian Society.
- Web site: Staying a Healthy Vegan. 2007-02-22. Jack Norris, RD. 2003-04-18. Vegan Outreach. There are no reliable, unfortified plant sources of vitamin B12; therefore fortified foods and/or supplements are necessary for the optimal health of vegans..
- Considerations in planning vegan diets: children.. Messina. V. Mangels, AR. June. 2001. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 101. 6. 661–9. 11424545. 2007-06-12. 10.1016/S0002-8223(01)00167-5.
- Web site: Nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. American Dietetic Association. Lucia Lynn Kaiser. Lindsay Allen. 2007-02-14. 2002-05-03.
- Web site: The Vegetarian Mom-to-Be. American Dietetic Association. ADA’s Public Relations Team. 2007-02-14. 2006-10-03.
- Kuhne T, Bubl R, Baumgartner R. Maternal vegan diet causing a serious infantile neurological disorder due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Eur J Pediatr. 1991. 205–8. 150. 3. 2044594. 10.1007/BF01963568.
- Weiss R, Fogelman Y, Bennett M. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in an infant associated with a maternal deficiency and a strict vegetarian diet. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2004. 270–1. 26. 4. 15087959. 10.1097/00043426-200404000-00013 .
- Sanders TA. Essential fatty acid requirements of vegetarians in pregnancy, lactation, and infancy. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.. 70. 3 Suppl. 555S–559S. 1999. 10479231.
- Sanders TA. The nutritional adequacy of plant-based diets. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 58. 2. 265–9. 1999. 10466165.
- Steinman. G.. 2006. 05. Mechanisms of twinning: VII. Effect of diet and heredity on the human twinning rate.. Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 51. 5. 405–10. 16779988. PDF, fee required. 2007-02-25.
- News: Greg. Retsinas. Couple Guilty Of Assault In Vegan Case. New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.. April 5, 2003. 2007-07-17.
- News: Associated Press. Vegan Parents Get Prison In Infant's Death. KSBW 8. May 9, 2007. 2007-07-17.
- News: Susannah Nesmith. David Kidwell. Parents jailed in baby's death. Miami Herald. Miami Herald Media Co.. 2003-06-07. 2007-09-17. A Miami-Dade medical examiner's office autopsy concluded Woyah died of severe malnutrition, according to an arrest report.. http://web.archive.org/web/20031217011036/http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/local/6033947.htm. 2003-12-17.
- http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/2094460/Couple-face-questioning-after-vegan-daughter-suffers-bone-disease.html Couple face questioning after vegan daughter suffers bone diseaseBy Rob Davies
- http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-wellbeing/healthy-living/how-our-vegan-diet-made-us-ill-848322.html How our vegan diet made us ill
- News: Nina. Planck. Death by Veganism. New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.. May 21, 2007. 2007-07-17.
- News: Emily. Nipps. Custody battle over quints questions vegan lifestyle. St. Petersburg Times. June 25, 2007. 2007-07-17.
- News: Amy Joy Lanou. Just the facts: A vegan diet is safe, healthy for infants. Houston Chronicle. 2007-06-25. 2007-09-17. http://web.archive.org/web/20070630154243/http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/editorial/outlook/4919336.html. 2007-06-30.
- News: Katherine. Dedyna. Healthy lifestyle, or politically correct eating disorder?. Victoria Times Colonist. CanWest MediaWorks Publications Inc.. 2004-01-30. 2006-10-30. Vesanto Melina, a B.C. registered dietitian and author of Becoming Vegetarian, stresses there is no cause and effect relationship between vegetarianism and eating disorders although people who have eating disorders may label themselves as vegetarians "so that they won't have to eat.".
- O'Connor MA, Touyz SW, Dunn SM, Beumont PJ. Vegetarianism in anorexia nervosa? A review of 116 consecutive cases. Med J Aust. 1987. 540–2. 147. 11–12. 3696039. In only four (6.3%) of these did meat avoidance predate the onset of their anorexia nervosa..
- Book: Davis, Brenda. Vesanto Melina. Becoming Vegan: The Complete Guide to Adopting a Healthy Plant-Based Diet. 2002. 224. Healthy Living Publications. 1-57067-103-6. Research indicates that the large majority of vegetarian or vegan anorexics and bulimics chose this eating pattern after the onset of their disease. The "restricted" vegetarian or vegan eating pattern legitimizes the removal of numerous high-fat, energy-dense foods such as meat, eggs, cheese, … However the eating pattern chosen by those with anorexia or bulimia nervosa is far more restrictive than a healthful vegan diet, eliminating nuts, seeds, nut butters, avocados, and limiting overall caloric intake..
- Brown LR. World food resources and population: the narrowing margin. Population bulletin. 36. 3. 1–44. 1981. 12263473.
- Web site: About Veganism: For the Environment. 2007-05-29. Vegan Action. Animal agriculture takes a devastating toll on the earth. It is an inefficient way of producing food, since feed for farm animals requires land, water, fertilizer, and other resources that could otherwise have been used directly for producing human food..
- Web site: Environmental Destruction. 2007-05-29. Why Vegan?. Vegan Outreach.
- Mosier AR, Duxbury JM, Freney JR, Heinemeyer O, Minami K and Johnson DE,. Mitigating Agricultural Emissions of Methane. Climatic Change. 40. 1. 39–80. 1998. 10.1023/A:1005338731269.
- Web site: Factory Farming: Mechanized Madness. 2007-05-29. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Factory farms are harmful to the environment as well. Each day, factory farms produce billions of pounds of manure, which ends up in lakes, rivers, and drinking water. ... Of all the agricultural land in the U.S., 80 percent is used to raise animals for food and grow the grain to feed them—that’s almost half the total land mass of the lower 48 states. ... it takes more than 1,250 gallons of water to produce a pound of cow flesh, whereas it takes about 235 gallons of water to grow 1 pound of wheat..
- Web site: Environment: Land. 2007-05-29. Vegan Society. In all, the raising of livestock takes up more than two-thirds of agricultural land, and one third of the total land area..
- Web site: Environment: Water. 2007-05-29. Vegan Society. If we put all of these figures together, we find that whilst wheat provides us with an average 27.5 kcal for each litre of water used, beef provides only 0.76 kcal per litre. This means that - based on the data presented to show that other figures were "overstated" - beef still requires 36 times as much water per calorie as wheat..
- Web site: Environment: Energy. 2007-05-29. Vegan Society. A plant-based vegan diet uses substantially less energy than a diet based on animal products. This energy is virtually all derived from fossil fuels, making meat and dairy consumption a contributing factor in air pollution, acidification, oil spills, habitat destruction and global warming..
- Web site: Resources. 2007-05-29. Why Vegan?. Vegan Outreach.
- Web site: Livestock’s Long Shadow–Environmental Issues and Options. 2007-01-04.
- http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/your-car/emissions.html Regulating car emissions: How tough will Canada be?
- Web site: Food, Livestock Production, Energy, Climate Change, and Health.. 2008-05-18. A . McMichael, J . Powles, C . Butler, R . Uauy. 2007-09-13. Elsevier.
- Earth Interactions. Diet, Energy and Global Warming. Eshel, G., and P.A. Martin. 2006. 10. 9. 1–17. 10.1175/EI167.1. 2007-05-29. PDF. We conclude that a person consuming a mixed diet with the mean American caloric content and composition causes the emissions of 1,485 kg CO2-equivalent above the emissions associated with consuming the same number of calories, but from plant sources. Far from trivial, nationally this difference amounts to over 6% of the total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions..
- http://www.agric.nsw.gov.au/reader/choosing-feeds/dai232.htm NSW Department of Primary Industries - Feeding frosted cereal grain to ruminants
- http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/LUC/ChinaFood/argu/impact/imp_21.htm How harmful is animal protein consumption for the environment?
- http://www.ciesin.org/docs/004-032/004-032.html Methane Emission from Rice Fields - Wetland rice fields may make a major contribution to global warming by Heinz-Ulrich Neue
- http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4604332.stm Plants revealed as methane source By Tim Hirsch
- http://www.fao.org/docrep/x0262e/x0262e13.htm Food for all - World food summit - Agricultural machinery worldwide
- Peters. Christian J.. Jennifer L. Wilkinsa and Gary W. Ficka. 2007. Testing a complete-diet model for estimating the land resource requirements of food consumption and agricultural carrying capacity: The New York State example. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems. 22. 02. 145–153. 2008-02-07. 10.1017/S1742170507001767. Cambridge University Press.
- News: Susan. Lang. Diet for small planet may be most efficient if it includes dairy and a little meat, Cornell researchers report. Cornell Chronicle Online. Cornell University. 2007-10-04. 2008-02-07.
- Web site: The Fasting Rule of the Orthodox Church. God is Wonderful in His Saints: Orthodox Resources. 2007-11-15. Unless a fast-free period has been declared, Orthodox Christians are to keep a strict fast every Wednesday and Friday. The following foods are avoided: Meat, including poultry, and any meat products such as lard and meat broth. Fish (meaning fish with backbones; shellfish are permitted). Eggs and dairy products (milk, butter, cheese, etc.).
- Web site: The role of religion in protecting the Earth (Jainism and the environment: precursors of modern ecology). 2007-02-22. 2004. Forum 2004: Parliament of the World's Religions. Universal Forum of Cultures. Naresh Jain, Co-Chair of the Interfaith Committee of Jainism Associations in North America, said that the difference lies in Jainists’ strict approach to the vegetarian (or vegan) diet. “Jainism is the only religion that materialises the ideal of non-violence through the vegan diet” he said..
- Web site: Veganism and Hinduism. 2007-02-22. Jyoti Mehta. The Young Indian Vegetarians.
- Campbell. M. W S Lofters, W N Gibbs. 1982. 12. Rastafarianism and the vegans syndrome. British Medical Journal. 285. 1617–1618. 1617–1618. 2007-02-22.
- Fraser. Gary. 1999. 08. Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 70. 3. 532S-538S. 2007-02-22. 10479227.
- Web site: History of Tofu. 2007-02-18. Shurtleff. William. LA Tofu Festival.
- Book: Jacobs, Leonard. Aveline Kushi, and Barbara Jacobs. Cooking with Seitan: The Complete Vegetarian "Wheat-meat" Cookbook. 1994. Avery. 5–6. 978-0895295996.
- Web site: History of Tempeh. 2007-02-18. tempeh.info.
- Web site: Vegan proteins. 2007-02-23. BBC Food. BBC.
- Web site: Baking without eggs, milk and buttah. 2007-02-23. Post Punk Kitchen.
- Web site: Vegan Substitution for Egg Whites. 2007-02-23. Food News Service. Ochef.com. Q. What is a vegan substitute for egg whites? A. And the mystery ingredient is… flax seed..
- Web site: Vegan Meat Analogs, Dairy Substitutes, and Egg Alternatives. 2007-02-23. Bryanna Clark Grogan. Bryanna's Vegan Feast.