|Land:||Svealand, though historically part of Götaland|
|Flower Lat:||Trientalis europaea|
is a historical province or landskap in the west of middle Sweden. It borders Västergötland, Dalsland, Dalarna, Västmanland and Närke. It is also bounded by Norway in the west. Its Latin name is Wermelandia; its English derivative is Wermland or similar variation. The origin of the name is uncertain. It may refer to a lake by that name, or to a river.
Provinces serve no administrative function in Sweden today. Instead, that function is served by Counties of Sweden; however, in many instances a county has virtually the same border as the province, which is the case with Värmland and its corresponding county Värmland County. The main exception is a smaller part to the south east which belongs to Örebro County.
Arms were granted in 1560, when it depicted a wolverine. This was however too similar to that of Medelpad. In 1567 it was revised into an eagle. In the late 17th century the eagle was black. In 1936 it got its current blazon, when the eagle became blue. Blazon: "Argent, an Eagle displayed Azure beaked, langued and membered Gules."
The largest lake is Vänern. Most streams of importance lead to Vänern. However, the province is rich in small lakes, ponds and streams. The scenic nature with mountains and lakes is usually regarded among the most picturesque in Sweden, and has inspired painters and writers since the 19th century.
There are several mountain plateaus in the western part of Värmland, which is in the Scandinavian mountain range. The highest elevations are found in the northern parts, with plateaus of 500-700 meters. Here also the highest mountain top is found, the Granberget at Höljes, 701 meters.
The eastern part of Värmland is counted into the Bergslagen, the Central Swedish Mining District. Its terrain is rather hilly, but a few high-altitude hills are present: Hvitklinten (414 m.), Dalkarlsberget (450 m.) and Vålbergsrös (476 m.). This part of Värmland is rich in minerals, most notably iron ore which exists in large quantities. Some notable sites in this area are around Långban and Nordmark Hundred. In the southeast, the ridge of Kilsbergen marks the border to Närke.
The population of Värmland is 312,591 as of December 31, 2007. It is distributed over four counties as follows:
|Värmland County, entirely||273,640|
|Örebro County, partly||38,551|
|Västra Götaland County, peripherally||398|
|Dalarna County, peripherally||2|
The province was scarcely populated in the pre-historic age compared to Sweden's southern half. Its 5,500 registered ancient remains are few, compared to other areas. The province was considered to be of minor importance in the Swedish Realm. There are however interesting histories told by Snorri Sturlasson about Värmland in the 13th century. It extends back to Ingjald Illråde a legendary king in the 7th century.
The early history was not only strongly influenced by the proximity to Västergötland, but also with its western neighbour Norway. When Sweden was at war with Norway, it had a strong effect on Värmland too. In 1225, Haakon IV of Norway (Haakon the Old) invaded Sweden and burnt down all villages if they did not pay a ransom. This feud was eventually settled in 1249.
Värmland was originally considered a part of Götaland, and had a strong connection to its southern neighbour Västergötland. In 1815 it was incorporated into Svealand. Eastern Värmland traditionally belongs to the Bergslagen area, Sweden's central mining district.
In 1582, Värmland was granted its first city, Kristinehamn, but had its privilege revoked. Värmland was granted its second city, Karlstad, in 1584, on the northern shore of lake Vänern. The third city was Filipstad in 1611; however, its privilege was revoked in 1694 after a devastating fire.
The most significant coup d'état of modern Swedish history took its beginning in Karlstad. The man behind the revolution, a liberal nobleman and a prominent man of the opposition, the former officer Georg Adlersparre, who was backed up by the radical captain Henrik Anckarsword, used the part of the western army that was stationed in Värmland to occupy Karlstad on the night of the 7th March 1809. From there he officially proclaimed revolution, a proclamation which held the view that the wars and oppression had ruined the country and that the government therefore had to be overthrown. On the 9th of March, Adlersparre and his enthusiastic soldiers (many of Finnish origin) finally began their successful march towards the capital. The early 17th century marked the beginning of a substantial immigration from Finland. The areas where they centred were known as Finnskog. They kept their Finnish customs and language until the late 19th century. The last person to speak Finnish here died in the 1980´s.
Since 1772, Sweden's Princes have been created Dukes of various provinces in Sweden. This is solely a nominal title.
Some notable natives:
Sweden's provinces were sub-divided into hundreds or districts. Värmland was historically divided into chartered cities and districts. One district formed part of Bergslagen and was a mountain district, and all the other districts were hundreds.