Uppsala Explained

Official Name:Uppsala
Pushpin Map:Sweden
Coordinates Region:SE
Subdivision Type:Country
Subdivision Name:Sweden
Subdivision Type3:Municipality
Subdivision Name3:Uppsala Municipality
Subdivision Type2:County
Subdivision Name2:Uppsala County
Subdivision Type1:Province
Subdivision Name1:Uppland
Area Footnotes:[1]
Area Total Km2:48.77
Population As Of:31 December 2010
Population Total:140,454
Population Density Km2:2880
Timezone:CET
Utc Offset:+1
Timezone Dst:CEST
Utc Offset Dst:+2
Coordinates Display:display=inline, title
Latd:59
Latm:51
Latns:N
Longd:17
Longm:38
Longew:E

Uppsala (; older spelling Upsala) is the capital of Uppsala County and the fourth largest city of Sweden. It had 140,454 inhabitants in 2010.[1]

Located 67 km north of the capital, Stockholm, it is also the seat of the Uppsala Municipality. Since 1164, Uppsala has been the ecclesiastical centre of Sweden, being the seat of the Archbishop of the Church of Sweden. Founded in 1477, Uppsala University is the oldest centre of higher education in Scandinavia.

History

Uppsala was originally located a few kilometres to the north, at a location now known as Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala). Today's Uppsala was then called Östra Aros. (Old) Uppsala was, according to medieval writer Adam of Bremen, the main pagan centre of Sweden, and the Temple at Uppsala contained magnificent idols of the Æsir gods.[2] [3]

As a replacement for the Scandinavian gods, Uppsala was made into a strong Christian centre. A bishop was soon consecrated, and in 1164 Uppsala was made into an archdiocese, with Stefan, a monk from Alvastra Abbey, being consecrated the first Archbishop of Uppsala and primate of Sweden.The present-day Uppsala was at that time known as Östra Aros and was a port town of Gamla Uppsala. In 1274, Östra Aros overtook Gamla Uppsala as the main regional centre, and when the cathedral of Gamla Uppsala burnt down, the archbishopric was moved to Östra Aros, where the impressive Uppsala Cathedral was erected; it was inaugurated in 1435. The cathedral is built in the Gothic style and is one of the largest in northern Europe, with towers reaching 118.70 metres.

Uppsala is the site of the oldest university in Scandinavia, founded in 1477. Carolus Linnaeus, one of the renowned scholars of Uppsala University, lived in the city for many years, and both his house and garden can still be visited. Uppsala is also the site of the 16th century Uppsala Castle.[4] The city was severely damaged by a fire in 1702. Historical and cultural treasures were also lost, as in many Swedish cities, from demolitions during the 1960s and 1970s, but many historic buildings remain, especially in the western part of the city.The arms with the lion can be traced from 1737. It has been modernized several times since, most recently in 1986. The meaning of the lion is not certain but is likely connected to the royal lion, also depicted on the Coat of Arms of Sweden.

Geography

Situated on the fertile Uppsala flatlands of muddy soil, the city features the small Fyris River (Fyrisån) flowing through the landscape surrounded by lush vegetation. Parallel to the river runs the glacial ridge of Uppsalaåsen at an elevation of circa 30 metres, the site of Uppsala's castle, from which large parts of the town can be seen. The central park Stadsskogen (literally "Town Forest") stretches from the south far into town, with opportunities for recreation for many residential areas within walking distance.

Only some 70km or 40 minutes by train from the capital, many Uppsala residents work in Stockholm. The train to Stockholm-Arlanda Airport takes only 17 minutes, rendering the city easily accessible by air.

The commercial centre of Uppsala is quite compact. The city has a distinct town and gown divide with clergy, royalty and academia historically residing on the river's western shore, somewhat separated from the rest of the city, and the ensemble of cathedral, castle and university buildings has remained mostly undisturbed until today. While some beautiful buildings remain on the periphery of the central core, retail commercial activity is geographically focused on a small number of blocks around the pedestrianized streets and main square on the eastern side of the river, an area that was subject to a large-scale metamorphosis during the economically booming years in the 1960s in particular. During recent decades, a significant part of retail commercial activity has shifted to shopping malls and stores situated in the outskirts of the city. Meanwhile, the built-up areas have expanded greatly, and some suburbanization has taken place.

Climate

Uppsala has a humid continental climate, with cold winters and mild summers.

The climate table below presents weather data from the years 1961 - 1990. According to ongoing measurements, the temperature has increased during the years 1991 - 2011 as compared with the last series. This increase is on annual basis around 1.4 °C. Warming is most pronounced during the winter months, with an increase of more than 2.0 °C (around a 3.6 °F - 4 °F increase) in January.

Economy

Today Uppsala is well established in medical research and recognized for its leading position in biotechnology.

Higher education

Universities

Other higher education

Livets Ord Theological Seminary and Pingströrelsens teologiska seminarium do not have accreditation from the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education and thus cannot confer Swedish academic degrees.

Main sights

The Fyris river (Fyrisån) neatly divides the city into two different parts: the historic quarter to the west of the river and the administrative, residential and commercial area to the east. Most of the features of interest are in the western part, dominated by the cathedral, and with its old streets, river views and parks.

The most outstanding building in Uppsala is the Domkyrka (Uppsala Cathedral), Scandinavia's largest church (118.7m (389.4feet) high), which is visible from most parts of town and from the motorway.

Facing the west end of the cathedral is the Gustavianum, built in 1625 to be the main building of the University, and served as such through most of the 19th century. It contains the Museum of Nordic Antiquities, the Victoria Museum (of Egyptian antiquities) and the University's cultural history collections.

It also houses a perfectly preserved 17th-century anatomical theatre (used in its time for public dissections). Across the street from the Gustavianum stands the new main building of the university, erected in 1879–86 in Italian renaissance style. The Uppsala University Coin Cabinet is located in the university main building.

Not far from the University stands the Uppsala University Library (Carolina Rediviva), the largest library in Sweden, with over 5 million volumes and some 60,000 manuscripts. The building was built in 1820–1841.

On a circa 35-metre high hill to the southwest of the University Library stands Uppsala Castle. Its construction was initiated in 1549 by King Gustav Vasa, founder of the Vasa royal dynasty. Today the castle holds several museums, and is the residence of the Governor (landshövding).

5 km north of Uppsala city lies Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), the location of the pre Christian town Uppsala. There are few remains, with the exception of several huge burial mounds of pre-Christian monarchs and the previous cathedral from 1164 A.D., traditionally said to be built over the old heathen temple (and recent archaeological investigations seems to support this notion). After the church burned down around 1240 only parts of it were restored.[6] [7]

Sports

The largest arena in Uppsala is Fyrishov and is Sweden's fourth most visited, specialized in swimming, sports events, meetings and recreation. The facility includes areas for indoor sports, summer sport and a generous waterpark with waterslides, 50-meter pool, training pool, relaxation area and a large outdoor swimming pool. Accommodation is offered at Fyrishov cabin area and at the resort restaurants, a good lunch or dinner can be enjoyed. Fyrishov AB's business also includes the operation of Gottsundabadet in which there is a 25-metre pool, a 10-metre children's pool and gym. The entire facility is open all year round and a large number of meetings and various events are held here annually.In addition to activities within the arena Fyrishov AB runs Tävlingsstdaden Uppsala in a collaboration between the sports organizers, Fyrishov AB, Uppsala, Uppsala Tourism and hotel business. Co-founded in 2006 by Fyrishov AB under the name SM-town Uppsala in 2007 but was expanded to include international events and competitions at high national level. The project aims to develop Uppsala, a leading sports town in Sweden. Year 2009 there were 24 SM-competitions and major national and international competitions in Uppsala.

At Fyrishov the city's basketball team Uppsala Basket also plays, former KFUM Uppsala, their home games in the Swedish basketball league. There are also athletic club Uppsala, Uppsala, fencing club, Uppsala Judo Club, Sweden's oldest judo club, Uppsala volleyball companion, Upsala weightlifting club and Upsala Simsällskap, one of the world's oldest swimmingclubs. The sport that draws the most audience is floorball. Uppsala's two teams in the Swedish Super League, Storvreta IBK and IK Sirius IBK, have Fyrishov as there home.

One of the most classical sports events, the Swedish bandy champions final, has taken place at Studenternas IP since 1991. It usually attracts a spectator crowd of more than 20,000.[8]

Once every year, the Uppsala Union of Science and Engineering Students arrange a river rafting in the Fyris river with rafts built by styrofoam.

Other sports clubs located in Uppsala include:

Notable natives

Of these, Arrhenius, Bergman, Blix, Carlsson, Celsius, Dymott, both Erikssons, Hallman, Klum, Laurell, Liljefors, Parkman, Rosling, Stolt, Dave Lepard, Thörnqvist and Törnqvist were born in Uppsala.

See also

External links

Notes and References

  1. Web site: Tätorternas landareal, folkmängd och invånare per km2 2005 och 2010. 14 December 2011. Statistics Sweden. Swedish. http://www.webcitation.org/64arqC15e. 10 January 2012. no. 10 January 2012.
  2. Web site: Descriptio Insularum Aquilonis. 26. latin. Adam of Bremen. 11th century. 15 January 2012.
  3. Web site: Adam af Bremen om Menigheden i Norden under Erkesædet i Bremen og Hamborg (788-1072). 194. danish. P. W. Christensen. 1862. Karl Schønbergs Forlag. 15 January 2012.
  4. http://www.uu.se/en/node97
  5. Web site: livets_ord - Oral Roberts University - A Christian College, based in Tulsa Oklahoma. Oru.edu. 2009-10-11.
  6. Web site: Gamla Uppsala - Riksantikvarieämbetet. Raa.se. 2009-09-15. 2009-10-11.
  7. Web site: Gamla Uppsala församling. Svenskakyrkan.se. 2009-10-11.
  8. Web site: Edsbyn Sandviken SM - Final in Upssala. YouTube. 2010-05-09.