Toronto Explained

For other uses see Toronto (disambiguation).

Official Name:City of Toronto
Nickname:T.O., Hogtown, The Queen City, The Big Smoke, Toronto the Good
Motto:Diversity Our Strength
Flag Link:Flag of Toronto
Flag Size:125px
Shield Link:Coat of arms of Toronto
Subdivision Type:Country
Subdivision Type1:Province
Subdivision Name1: Ontario
Subdivision Type2:Districts
Subdivision Name2:East York, Etobicoke, North York, Old Toronto, Scarborough, York
Leader Title:Mayor
Leader Name:David Miller
Leader Title1:Council
Leader Name1:Toronto City Council
Leader Title2:MPs
Leader Title3:MPPs
Established Title:Established
Established Date:August 27, 1793
Established Title2:Incorporated
Established Date2:March 6, 1834
Established Title3:Amalgamated
Established Date3:January 1, 1998
Unit Pref:Metric
Area Total Km2:630
Area Metro Km2:7125
Area Urban Km2:1749
Elevation M:76
Area Footnotes:[1]
Population As Of:2006
Population Total:2503281
Population Density Km2:3972
Population Urban:4,753,120
Population Metro:5,555,912
Population Blank1 Title:Demonym
Population Blank1:Torontonian
Utc Offset:-5
Timezone Dst:EDT
Utc Offset Dst:-4
Postal Code Type:Postal code span
Postal Code:M
Area Code:(416) and (647)
Blank Name:NTS Map
Blank Info:030M11
Blank1 Name:GNBC Code
Blank1 Info:FEUZB

Toronto (, colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and the provincial capital of Ontario. It is located on the north-western shore of Lake Ontario. With over 2.5 million residents, it is the fifth most populous municipality in North America. Toronto is at the heart of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), and is part of a densely populated region in Southern Ontario known as the Golden Horseshoe, which is home to 8.1 million residents and has approximately 25% of Canada's population.[2] [3] [4] The census metropolitan area (CMA) had a population of 5,113,149,[5] and the Greater Toronto Area had a population of 5,555,912 in the 2006 Census.[3]

As Canada's economic capital, Toronto is considered a global city[6] and is one of the top financial centres in the world.[7] [8] Toronto's leading economic sectors include finance, business services, telecommunications, aerospace, transportation, media, arts, film, television production, publishing, software production, medical research, education, tourism and sports industries.[9] [10] The Toronto Stock Exchange, the world's seventh largest, is headquartered in the city, along with a majority of Canada's corporations.

Toronto's population is cosmopolitan and international,[11] reflecting its role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. Toronto is one of the world's most diverse cities by percentage of non-native-born residents, as about 49% of the population were born outside of Canada.[11] [12] [13] Because of the city's low crime rates, clean environment, high standard of living, and friendlier attitudes to diversity, Toronto is consistently rated as one of the world's most livable cities by the Economist Intelligence Unit[14] and the Mercer Quality of Living Survey.[15] In addition, Toronto was ranked as the most expensive Canadian city in which to live .[16] Residents of Toronto are called Torontonians.


See main article: History of Toronto and Name of Toronto.

When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Huron tribes, who by then had displaced the Iroquois tribes that had occupied the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is likely derived from the Iroquois word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water".[17] It refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name.

French traders founded Fort Rouillé on the current Exhibition grounds in 1750, but abandoned it in 1759.[18] During the American Revolutionary War, the region saw an influx of British settlers as United Empire Loyalists fled for the unsettled lands north of Lake Ontario. In 1787, the British negotiated the Toronto Purchase with the Mississaugas of New Credit, thereby securing more than a quarter million acres (1000 km²) of land in the Toronto area.[19]

In 1793 Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the existing settlement, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe chose the town to replace Newark as the capital of Upper Canada, believing the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the Americans.[20] Fort York was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day Parliament Street and Front Street (today the Corktown-St.Lawrence area).

In 1813 as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by American forces.[21] The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of Fort York and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation. The sacking of York was a primary motivation for the Burning of Washington by British troops later in the war.

York was incorporated as the City of Toronto on March 6, 1834, reverting to its original native name. The population of only 9,000 included escaped African American slaves fleeing Black Codes in some states.[22] Slavery was banned outright in Upper Canada in 1834. Reformist politician William Lyon Mackenzie became the first Mayor of Toronto, and led the unsuccessful Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 against the British colonial government. The city grew rapidly through the remainder of the 19th century, as a major destination for immigrants to Canada. The first significant population influx occurred with the Great Irish Famine brought a large number of Irish to the city, some of them transient and most of them Catholic. By 1851, the Irish-born population had become the largest single ethnic group in the city. Smaller numbers of Protestant Irish immigrants were welcomed by the existing Scottish and English population, giving the Orange Order significant and long lasting influence over Toronto society.

Toronto was twice for brief periods the capital of the united Province of Canada first from 1849 - 1852, following unrest in Montreal, and later 1856-1858 after which Quebec became capital until 1866 (one year before Confederation); since then, the capital of Canada has remained Ottawa.[23] As it had been for Upper Canada from 1793, Toronto became the capital of the province of Ontario after its official creation in 1867, the seat of government located at the Ontario Legislature located at Queen's Park. Because of its provincial capital status, the city was also the location of Government House, the residence of the vice-regal representative of the Crown.

In the 19th century an extensive sewage system was built, and streets became illuminated with gas lighting as a regular service. Long-distance railway lines were constructed, including a route completed in 1854 linking Toronto with the Upper Great Lakes. The Grand Trunk Railway and the Northern Railway of Canada joined in the building of the first Union Station in downtown. The advent of the railway dramatically increased the numbers of immigrants arriving and commerce, as had the Lake Ontario steamers and schooners entering port before which enabled Toronto to become a major gateway linking the world to the interior of the North American continent.

Throughout the 19th century Toronto became the largest alcohol distillation (in particular spirits) centre in North America, the Gooderham and Worts distillery became the world's largest whiskey factory by the 1860s. A preserved section of this once dominant local industry remains in the Distillery District, the harbour allowed for sure access of grain and sugar imports used in processing.

Horse-drawn streetcars gave way to electric streetcars in 1891, when the city granted the operation of the transit franchise to the Toronto Railway Company. The public transit system passed into public ownership in 1921 as the Toronto Transportation Commission, later renamed the Toronto Transit Commission. The system now has the third-highest ridership of any city public transportation system in North America.[24]

In 1954 the City of Toronto and 12 surrounding municipalities were federated into a regional government known as Metropolitan Toronto.[25] The postwar boom had resulted in rapid suburban development, and it was believed that a coordinated land use strategy and shared services would provide greater efficiency for the region. The metropolitan government began to manage services that crossed municipal boundaries, including highways, police services, water and public transit. In 1967, the seven smallest municipalities of Metropolitan Toronto were merged into their larger neighbours, resulting in a six-municipality configuration that included the old, i.e. pre-1954 City of Toronto and the surrounding municipalities of East York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough and York. In 1998, the metropolitan government was dissolved by the Provincial Government in the face of vigorous opposition from the smaller component municipalities and all six municipalities were amalgamated into a single municipality, creating the current City of Toronto, where David Miller is the current Mayor.

The Great Toronto Fire of 1904 destroyed a large section of downtown Toronto, but the city was quickly rebuilt. The fire had cost more than $10 million in damage, led to more stringent fire safety laws, and the expansion of the city's fire department. In 1954, a half-century later, disaster struck the city again when Hurricane Hazel brought intense winds and flash flooding. In the Toronto area, 81 people were killed, nearly 1,900 families were left homeless, and the hurricane caused more than $25 million in damage.[26]

The city received new immigrant groups beginning in the late 19th century into early 20th century, particularly Germans, Italians, and Jews from various parts of Eastern Europe. They were soon followed by Chinese, Russians, Poles and immigrants from other Eastern European nations, as the Irish before them, many of these new migrants lived in overcrowded shanty type slums, such as the "the Ward" which was centred on Bay Street, now the heart of the country's finances. Despite its fast paced growth, by the 1920s Toronto's population and economic importance in Canada remained second to the much longer established Montreal. However, by 1934 the Toronto Stock Exchange had become the largest in the country.

Following the Second World War refugees from war-torn Europe and Chinese job-seekers arrived. So too did construction labourers, particularly from Italy and Portugal. Following elimination of racially based immigration policies by the late 1960s, immigration began from all parts of the world. Toronto's population grew to more than one million in 1951 when large-scale suburbanization began, and doubled to two million by 1971. By the 1980s, Toronto had surpassed Montreal as Canada's most populous city and the chief economic hub. During this time, in part due to the political uncertainty raised by the resurgence of the Quebec sovereignty movement, many national and multinational corporations moved their head offices from Montreal to Toronto and other western Canadian cities.[27]

The city celebrated its 175th anniversary on March 6, 2009, since its in inception as Toronto (previously known as the Town of York) in 1834.


See main article: Geography and climate of Toronto. Toronto covers an area of 630km2,[28] with a maximum north-south distance of 21km and a maximum east-west distance of 430NaN0. It has a 460NaN0 long waterfront shoreline, on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. The Toronto Islands and Port Lands extend some distance out into the lake, allowing for a somewhat sheltered Toronto Harbour immediately south of the downtown core. The city's borders are formed by Lake Ontario to the south, Etobicoke Creek and Highway 427 to the west, Steeles Avenue to the north and the Rouge River to the east.


The city is intersected by two rivers and numerous tributaries: the Humber River in the west end and the Don River east of downtown at opposite ends of the Toronto Harbour. The harbour was naturally created by sediment build-up from lake currents that created the Toronto Islands. The many creeks and rivers cutting from north toward the lake created large tracts of densely forested ravines, and provide ideal sites for parks and recreational trails. However, the ravines also interfere with the city's grid plan, and this results in major thoroughfares such as Finch Avenue, Leslie Street, Lawrence Avenue, and St. Clair Avenue terminating on one side of ravines and continuing on the other side. Other thoroughfares such as the Prince Edward Viaduct are required to span above the ravines. These deep ravines prove useful for draining the city's vast storm sewer system during heavy rains, but some sections, particularly near the Don River are prone to sudden, heavy floods. Storage tanks at waste treatment facilities will often receive too much river discharge causing them to overflow, allowing untreated sewage to escape into Lake Ontario closing local beaches for swimming.

During the last ice age, the lower part of Toronto was beneath Glacial Lake Iroquois. Today, a series of escarpments mark the lake's former boundary, known as the Iroquois Shoreline. The escarpments are most prominent from Victoria Park Avenue to the mouth of Highland Creek, where they form the Scarborough Bluffs. Other observable sections include the area near St. Clair Avenue West between Bathurst Street and the Don River, and north of Davenport Road from Caledonia to Spadina Road; the Casa Loma grounds sit above this escarpment. Despite its deep ravines, Toronto is not remarkably hilly, but elevation differences range from 75m (246feet) above-sea-level at the Lake Ontario shore to 2700NaN0 ASL near the York University grounds in the city's north end.

Much of the current lakeshore land area fronting the Toronto Harbour is artificial landfill filled during the late 19th century. Prior to that the lakefront docks (then known as wharves) were set back further inland than today. Much of the adjacent Portlands are also fill. The Toronto Islands were a natural landspit until a storm in 1858 severed their connection to the mainland, creating a channel later used by shipping interests to access the docks.


Toronto's climate is moderate for Canada due to its southerly location within the country.It has a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa), with warm, humid summers and cold winters. The city experiences four distinct seasons with considerable variance in day to day temperature, particularly during the colder weather season. Due to urbanization and proximity to water, Toronto has a fairly low diurnal temperature range (day-night temperature difference). In general, the denser urban scape makes for warmer nights all year around and is not as cold throughout the winter than surrounding areas (particularly north of the city), however it can be noticeably cooler on many spring/early summer afternoons under the influence of a lake breeze.Other low-scale maritime effects on the climate include lake effect snow, fog and delaying of spring- and fall-like conditions, known as seasonal lag.

Toronto winters sometimes feature short cold snaps where maximum temperatures remain below -100NaN0, often made to feel colder by wind chill. Snowstorms, sometimes mixed with ice and rain can disrupt work and travel schedules, accumulating snow can fall anytime from November until mid-April. However, mild stretches with temperatures in the 5 to 12 °C (40 to 54 °F) range and infrequently higher also occur in most winters melting accumulated snow. Summer in Toronto is characterized by long stretches of humid weather. Usually in the range from 230NaN0 to 310NaN0, daytime temperatures occasionally surpass 350NaN0 accompanied by high humidity making it feel oppressive during these brief periods of hot weather. Spring and Autumn are transitional seasons with generally mild or cool temperatures with alternating dry and wet periods.

Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, but summer is usually the wettest season, the bulk falling during thunderstorms. There can be periods of dry weather, but drought-like conditions are rare. The average yearly precipitation is 830NaN0, with an average annual snowfall of about 1330NaN0. Toronto experiences an average of 2,038 sunshine hours or 44% of daylight hours, varying between a low of 27% in December to 59% in July. [29]

Metric First:yes
Single Line:yes
Location:Data recorded at The Annex, Toronto, Ontario
Jan Hi °C:-1.1
Jan Rec Hi °C:16.1
Feb Hi °C:-0.2
Feb Rec Hi °C:14.4
Mar Hi °C:4.6
Mar Rec Hi °C:26.7
Apr Hi °C:11.3
Apr Rec Hi °C:32.2
May Hi °C:18.5
May Rec Hi °C:34.4
Jun Hi °C:23.5
Jun Rec Hi °C:36.7
Jul Hi °C:26.4
Jul Rec Hi °C:40.6
Aug Hi °C:25.3
Aug Rec Hi °C:38.9
Sep Hi °C:20.7
Sep Rec Hi °C:37.8
Oct Hi °C:13.8
Oct Rec Hi °C:30
Nov Hi °C:7.4
Nov Rec Hi °C:23.9
Dec Hi °C:1.8
Dec Rec Hi °C:19.9
Year Hi °C:12.7
Year Rec Hi °C:40.6
Jan Lo °C:-7.3
Jan Rec Lo °C:-32.8
Feb Lo °C:-6.3
Feb Rec Lo °C:-31.7
Mar Lo °C:-2
Mar Rec Lo °C:-26.7
Apr Lo °C:3.8
Apr Rec Lo °C:-15
May Lo °C:9.9
May Rec Lo °C:-3.9
Jun Lo °C:14.8
Jun Rec Lo °C:-2.2
Jul Lo °C:17.9
Jul Rec Lo °C:3.9
Aug Lo °C:17.3
Aug Rec Lo °C:4.4
Sep Lo °C:13.2
Sep Rec Lo °C:-2.2
Oct Lo °C:7.3
Oct Rec Lo °C:-8.9
Nov Lo °C:2.2
Nov Rec Lo °C:-20.6
Dec Lo °C:-3.7
Dec Rec Lo °C:-30
Year Lo °C:5.6
Year Rec Lo °C:-32.8
Jan Mean °C:-4.2
Feb Mean °C:-3.2
Mar Mean °C:1.3
Apr Mean °C:7.6
May Mean °C:14.2
Jun Mean °C:19.2
Jul Mean °C:22.2
Aug Mean °C:21.3
Sep Mean °C:17
Oct Mean °C:10.6
Nov Mean °C:4.8
Dec Mean °C:-0.9
Year Mean °C:9.2
Jan Precip Mm:61.2
Feb Precip Mm:50.5
Mar Precip Mm:66.1
Apr Precip Mm:69.6
May Precip Mm:73.3
Jun Precip Mm:71.5
Jul Precip Mm:67.5
Aug Precip Mm:79.6
Sep Precip Mm:83.4
Oct Precip Mm:64.7
Nov Precip Mm:75.7
Dec Precip Mm:71
Year Precip Mm:834
Jan Snow Cm:38.2
Feb Snow Cm:26.6
Mar Snow Cm:22
Apr Snow Cm:6
May Snow Cm:0
Jun Snow Cm:0
Jul Snow Cm:0
Aug Snow Cm:0
Sep Snow Cm:0
Oct Snow Cm:0.1
Nov Snow Cm:8.1
Dec Snow Cm:32.2
Year Snow Cm:133.1
Jan Rain Mm:29.1
Feb Rain Mm:26.2
Mar Rain Mm:42
Apr Rain Mm:63.2
May Rain Mm:73.3
Jun Rain Mm:71.5
Jul Rain Mm:67.5
Aug Rain Mm:79.6
Sep Rain Mm:83.4
Oct Rain Mm:64.7
Nov Rain Mm:67.3
Dec Rain Mm:41.9
Year Rain Mm:709.8
Jan Sun:88.3
Feb Sun:110.3
Mar Sun:156.3
Apr Sun:185.4
May Sun:229.1
Jun Sun:256.2
Jul Sun:276.2
Aug Sun:241.3
Sep Sun:188
Oct Sun:148.4
Nov Sun:83.6
Dec Sun:74.7
Year Sun:2037.6
Source:Average data recorded over a 30 year span from 1971 to 2000 by Environment Canada. [30]
Accessdate:Jan. 19, 2009



See main article: Architecture in Toronto.

See also: List of tallest buildings in Toronto, Doors Open Toronto and List of oldest buildings and structures in Toronto.

Also according to some prominent Toronto residents, and architects who have designed buildings in the city, such as Will Alsop, Toronto has no single, dominant architectural style. Lawrence Richards, a member of the faculty of architecture at the University of Toronto, has said "Toronto is a new, brash, rag-tag place — a big mix of periods and styles."[31] Toronto buildings vary in design and age with some structures dating back to the mid-1800s, while other prominent buildings were just newly built in the 2000s.

Defining the Toronto skyline is the CN Tower. At a height of 553.33 metres (1,815 ft, 5 in) it was the world's tallest[32] freestanding structure until 2007 when it was surpassed by the Burj Dubai, but it is still the tallest tower in the western hemisphere surpassing Chicago's Sears Tower by 110 metres in height. It is an important telecommunications hub, and a centre of tourism in Toronto.

Toronto is a city of high-rises, having over 2,000 buildings over 90 metres (300 ft) in height, second only to New York (which has over 5,000 such buildings) in North America.[33] Most of these buildings are residential (either rental or condominium), whereas the Central business district contains the taller commercial office towers. There has been recent media attention given for the need to retrofit many of these buildings, which were constructed beginning in the 1950s as residential apartment blocks to accommodate a quickly growing population.

In contrast, Toronto has also begun to experience an architectural overhaul within the past five years. The Royal Ontario Museum, the Gardiner Museum, the Art Gallery of Ontario, and the Ontario College of Art and Design are just some of the many public art buildings that have undergone massive renovations.[34] The historic Distillery District, located on the eastern edge of downtown, is North America's largest and best preserved collection of Victorian era industrial architecture. It has been redeveloped into a pedestrian-oriented arts, culture and entertainment neighbourhood. Modern glass and steel highrises have begun to transform the majority of the downtown area as the condominium market has exploded and triggered widespread construction throughout the city's centre. Trump International Hotel and Tower, Ritz-Carlton, Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts, Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts are just some of the many high rise luxury condominium-hotel projects currently under construction in the downtown core.


See also: List of neighbourhoods in Toronto. The many residential communities of Toronto express a character distinct from that of the skyscrapers in the commercial core. Victorian and Edwardian-era residential buildings can be found in enclaves such as Rosedale, Cabbagetown, The Annex, and the Bridle Path. Wychwood Park is historically significant for the architecture of its homes, and for being one of Toronto's earliest planned communities. The Wychwood Park neighbourhood was designated as an Ontario Heritage Conservation district in 1985. The Casa Loma neighbourhood is named after Casa Loma, a castle built in 1911 that had an elevator, secret passages, and bowling alleys. Spadina House is a 19th century manor that is now a museum.

The City of Toronto encompasses a geographical area formerly administered by six separate municipalities. These municipalities have each developed a distinct history and identity over the years, and their names remain in common use among Torontonians. Throughout the city there exist hundreds of small neighbourhoods and some larger neighbourhoods covering a few square kilometres. Former municipalities include East York, Etobicoke, North York, Old Toronto, Scarborough, and York.

The Old City of Toronto covers the area generally known as Downtown. It is the historic core of Toronto and remains the most densely populated part of the city. The Financial District contains the largest cluster of skyscrapers in Canada, including the First Canadian Place, Toronto Dominion Centre, Scotia Plaza, Royal Bank Plaza, Commerce Court and Brookfield Place. From that point, the Toronto skyline extends northward along Yonge Street. Old Toronto is also home to many historically wealthy residential enclaves, such as Yorkville, Rosedale, The Annex, Forest Hill, Lawrence Park, Lytton Park, Moore Park, and Casa Loma, most stretching away from downtown to the north. These neighbourhoods generally feature upscale homes, luxury condominiums and high-end retail. At the same time, the downtown core vicinity includes neighbourhoods with a high proportion of recent immigrants and low-income families living in social housing and rental high-rises, such as St. James Town, Regent Park, Moss Park, Alexandra Park and Parkdale. East and west of Downtown, neighbourhoods such as Kensington Market, Leslieville, Cabbagetown and Riverdale are home to bustling commercial and cultural areas as well as vibrant communities of artists with studio lofts, with an increasing proportion of middle and upper class professionals that mix with the working poor or those on some form of government assistance. Other neighbourhoods in the central city retain an ethnic identity, including two Chinatowns, the popular Greektown area, the trendy Little Italy, Portugal Village, and Little India along with others.

The inner suburbs are contained within the former municipalities of York and East York. These are mature and traditionally working class areas, primarily consisting of post-World War I small, single-family homes and small apartment blocks. Neighbourhoods such as Crescent Town, Thorncliffe Park, Weston, and Oakwood-Vaughan mainly consist of high-rise apartments which are home to many new immigrant families. Recently, many neighbourhoods have become ethnically diverse and have undergone gentrification, as a result of increasing population and a housing boom during the late 1990s and 2000s. The first neighbourhoods affected were Leaside and North Toronto, gradually progressing into the western neighbourhoods in York. Some of the area's housing is in the process of being replaced or remodelled.

The outer suburbs comprising the former municipalities of Etobicoke (west), Scarborough (east) and North York (north) largely retain the grid plan laid before post-war development. Sections were long established and quickly growing towns before the suburban housing boom began and the advent of Metro Government, existing towns or villages such as Mimico, Islington and New Toronto in Etobicoke; Willowdale, Newtonbrook and Downsview in North York; Agincourt, Wexford and West Hill in Scarborough where suburban development boomed around or between these and other towns beginning in the late 1940s. Upscale neighbourhoods were built such as the Bridle Path in North York, the area surrounding the Scarborough Bluffs in Guildwood, and most of central Etobicoke, such as Humber Valley Village, and The Kingsway. One of largest and earliest "planned communities" was Don Mills, parts of which were first built in the 1950s.[35] Phased development mixing single-detached housing with higher density apartment blocks became more popular as a suburban model of development. To some this model has been copied in other GTA municipalities surrounding Toronto, albeit with less population density. Over the last few decades, the North York Centre that runs along Yonge Street and the Scarborough City Centre have emerged as secondary business centres outside the downtown core. High-rise development in these areas have given North York and Scarborough distinguishable skylines of their own and a more downtown feel with high-density transit corridors serving them.


In the earlier indsutrial era of Toronto, industry became concentrated along the Toronto Harbour and lower Don River mouth.

The Distillery District contains the largest and best-preserved collection of Victorian industrial architecture in North America. Once the largest alcohol processing centre in North America, related structures along the Harbour include the Canada Malting Co. grain porcessing towers and the Redpath Sugar Refinery. Although production of spirits has declined over the decades, Toronto still has a robust and growing microbreweryindustry.

The District is a national heritage site, it was listed by National Geographic magazine as a "top pick" in Canada for travellers. Similar areas that still retain their post-industrial character, but are now largely residential are the Fashion District, Corktown, and parts of South Riverdale and Leslieville. Toronto still has some active older industrial areas, such as Brockton Village, Mimico and New Toronto. In the west end of Old Toronto and York, the Weston/Mount Dennis and Junction areas have a sense of grit to them, as they still contain factories, meat packing facilities and railyards close to medium density residential.

Beginning in the late 19th century as Toronto sprawled out, industrial areas were set up on the outskirts. Over time, pockets of insutrial land mostly followed rail lines and later highway corridors as the city grew outwards. This trend continues to this day, the largest factories and distribution warehouses have mostly moved to the surburban environs of Peel and York Regions; but also within the current city: Etobicoke (concentrated around Pearson Airport), North York, and Scarborough. Many of Toronto's former industrial sites close to (or Downtown) have been redeveloped including parts of the Toronto waterfront and Liberty Village, large-scale development is underway in the West Don Lands.

The still mostly vacated Port Lands remain largely undeveloped, apart from a power plant, a shipping container facility and out-of-commision industrial facilities. There are future plans for development, including residential areas under the guidance of WATERFRONToronto.

Public spaces

See also: List of Toronto parks.

Toronto has a diverse array of public spaces, from city squares to public parks overlooking ravines. There is even a group called the Toronto Public Space Committee, formed to protect the city's public spaces. Nathan Phillips Square is the city's main square in downtown, and forms the entrance to City Hall. Yonge-Dundas Square, a newer square not far from City Hall, has also gained attention in recent years as one of the busiest gathering spots in the city. Other squares include Harbourfront Square, on the revitalized Toronto waterfront, and the civic squares at the former city halls of the defunct Metropolitan Toronto, most notably Mel Lastman Square in North York.

There are many large downtown parks, which include Grange Park, Moss Park, Allan Gardens, Queen's Park, Riverdale Park, Trinity Bellwoods Park, and Christie Pits. The Toronto Islands have several acres of park space, accessible from downtown by ferry. Large parks in the outer areas include High Park, Humber Bay Park, Centennial Park, Downsview Park, Guildwood Park, and Rouge Park.

Nathan Phillips Square is currently undergoing a major redesign by PLANT Architect Inc., Shore Tilbe Irwin & Partners, Peter Lindsay Schaudt Landscape Architecture Inc., and Adrian Blackwell (winners of the International Design Competition in 2006/2007). West 8, a Dutch architecture firm, won the Central Waterfront Innovative Design Competition in 2006 to redesign the central part of the Toronto waterfront.[36] [37] In 1999, Downsview Park initiated an international design competition to realise its vision of creating Canada's first national urban park. In May 2000, the winning park design was announced: "TREE CITY", by the team of Bruce Mau Design, Office for Metropolitan Architecture, Oleson Worland Architect and Inside/Outside.


See main article: Culture in Toronto.

See also: Recreation in Toronto and Annual events in Toronto.

Toronto is a major scene for theatre and other performing arts, with more than fifty ballet and dance companies, six opera companies, two symphony orchestras and a host of theatres. The city is home to the National Ballet of Canada, the Canadian Opera Company, the Toronto Symphony Orchestra and the Canadian Stage Company. Notable performance venues include the Four Seasons Centre for the Performing Arts, Roy Thomson Hall, the Princess of Wales Theatre, the Royal Alexandra Theatre, Massey Hall, the Toronto Centre for the Arts, the Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres and the Sony Centre for the Performing Arts (originally the "O'Keefe Centre" and formerly the "Hummingbird Centre").

Ontario Place features the world's first permanent IMAX movie theatre, the Cinesphere,[38] as well as the Molson Amphitheatre, an open-air venue for large-scale music concerts. Each summer, the Canadian Stage Company presents an outdoor Shakespeare production in Toronto’s High Park called "Dream in High Park". Canada's Walk of Fame acknowledges the achievements of successful Canadians, with of a series of stars on designated blocks of sidewalks along King Street and Simcoe Street.

The Distillery District is a pedestrian village containing boutiques, art galleries, restaurants, artist studios and small breweries, including the well-known Mill Street Brewery. A new theatre in the district, the Young Centre for the Performing Arts, is the home of the Soulpepper Theatre Company and the drama productions of nearby George Brown College.

The production of domestic and foreign film and television is a major local industry. Many movie releases are screened in Toronto prior to wider release in North America. The Toronto International Film Festival is one of the most important annual events for the international film industry. Europe's largest film studio, Pinewood Studios Group of London, is scheduled to open a major new film studio complex in west-end Toronto, with five sound stages, with the first two to open by fall 2008.

Toronto's Caribana festival takes place from mid-July to early August of every summer, and is one of North America's largest street festivals.[39] Primarily based on the Trinidad and Tobago Carnival, the first Caribana took place in 1967 when the city's Caribbean community celebrated Canada's Centennial year. Forty years later, it has grown to attract one million people to Toronto's Lake Shore Boulevard annually. Tourism for the festival is in the hundred thousands, and each year, the event generates about $300 million in revenue.

Pride Week in Toronto takes place in late June, and is one of the largest LGBT festivals in the world. One of the largest events in the city, it attracts more than one million people from around the world. Toronto is a major centre for gay and lesbian culture and entertainment, and the gay village is located in the Church and Wellesley area of Downtown.


See main article: Attractions in Toronto. See also: Buildings and structures in Toronto

Toronto's most prominent landmark is the CN Tower, which stood as the tallest free-standing land structure in the world at 553 metres (1,815 ft). To the surprise of its creators, the tower held the world record for over 30 years.[40]

The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) is a major museum for world culture and natural history. The Toronto Zoo, one of the largest in the world,[41] is home to over 5,000 animals representing over 460 distinct species. The Art Gallery of Ontario contains a large collection of Canadian, European, African and contemporary artwork. The Gardiner Museum of ceramic art is the only museum in Canada entirely devoted to ceramics, and the Museum's collection contains more than 2,900 ceramic works from Asia, the Americas, and Europe. The Ontario Science Centre always has new hands-on activities and science displays particularly appealing to children, and the Bata Shoe Museum features many unique exhibitions focussed on footwear. The centrally located Textile Museum possesses another niche collection of great quality and interest. The Don Valley Brick Works is a former industrial site, which opened in 1889, and has recently been restored as a park and heritage site. The Canadian National Exhibition is held annually at Exhibition Place, and it is the oldest annual fair in the world. It is Canada's largest annual fair and the fifth largest in North America, with an average attendance of 1.25 million.[42]

The Yorkville neighbourhood is one of Toronto's most elegant shopping and dining areas. On many occasions, celebrities from all over North America can be spotted in the area, especially during the Toronto International Film Festival. The Toronto Eaton Centre is one of North America's top shopping destinations, and Toronto's most popular tourist attraction with over 52 million visitors annually.[43]

Greektown on the Danforth, is another one of the major attractions of Toronto which boasts one of the highest concentrations of restaurants per kilometre in the world. It is also home to the annual "Taste of the Danforth" festival which attracts over one million people in 2 1/2 days.[44] Toronto is also home to Canada's most famous "castle" - Casa Loma, the former estate of Sir Henry Pellatt, a prominent Toronto financier, industrialist and military man. Other notable neighbourhoods and attractions include The Beaches, the Toronto Islands, Kensington Market, Fort York, and the Hockey Hall of Fame.


See main article: Professional sport in Toronto, Amateur sport in Toronto and List of sports teams in Toronto.

Toronto is the only Canadian city with representation in six major league sports through National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, Canadian Football League, National Lacrosse League, and Major League Soccer teams. The city's major sports venues include the Air Canada Centre, Rogers Centre (formerly known as SkyDome), Ricoh Coliseum, and BMO Field.

Toronto is home to the Toronto Maple Leafs, one of the National Hockey League's Original Six clubs, and has also served as home to the Hockey Hall of Fame since 1958. The city has a rich history of hockey championships. Along with the Maple Leafs' 13 Stanley Cup titles (second all-time), the Toronto Marlboros and St. Michael's College School-based Ontario Hockey League teams combined have won a record 12 Memorial Cup titles. The Toronto Marlies of the American Hockey League also play in Toronto at Ricoh Coliseum and are the farm team for the Maple Leafs. They are one of only two teams who are in the same market as their NHL affiliate (the other is the Philadelphia Phantoms, the AHL affiliate of the Philadelphia Flyers).

Toronto is currently home to the only National Basketball Association franchise outside the United States. The Toronto Raptors entered the league in 1995, and have since earned five playoff spots in 13 seasons. The Raptors won the Atlantic Division title in the 2006 - 07 season, led by star player Chris Bosh. The Toronto Rock are the city's National Lacrosse League team. They are one of the league's most successful franchises, winning five Champion's Cup titles in seven years in the late 1990s and early 2000s, and are currently second all-time in the number of Champion's Cups won. Both the Raptors and the Rock share the Air Canada Centre with the Maple Leafs.

The city is represented in the Canadian Football League by the Toronto Argonauts, who have won a league-leading 15 Grey Cup titles. Toronto played host to the 95th Grey Cup in 2007, the first held in the city since 1992. The city is also home to Major League Baseball's Toronto Blue Jays, who have won two World Series titles and is currently the only major league baseball team in Canada. Both teams play their home games at the Rogers Centre, in the downtown core.

Toronto is home to the International Bowl, an NCAA sanctioned post-season football game that puts a Mid-American Conference team against a Big East Conference team. Beginning in 2007, the game is played at the Rogers Centre annually in January. In addition, the city has hosted several National Football League exhibition games; Ted Rogers leased the Buffalo Bills from Ralph Wilson for the purposes of having the Bills play eight home games in the city between 2008 and 2012.

In addition to team sports, the city annually hosted Champ Car's Steelback Grand Prix of Toronto (formerly known as the Molson Indy Toronto) at Exhibition Place from 1986 to 2007. The race will be revived in 2009 (under the name of the Honda Indy Toronto) as part of the IndyCar Series schedule. Both thoroughbred and standardbred horse racing events are conducted at Woodbine Race Track in Rexdale.

Historic sports clubs of Toronto include the Granite Club (est. 1836), the Royal Canadian Yacht Club (est. 1852), the Toronto Cricket Skating and Curling Club (est. pre-1827), the Argonaut Rowing Club (est. 1872), the Toronto Lawn Tennis Club (est. 1881), and the Badminton and Racquet Club (est. 1924).

Toronto was a candidate city for the 1996 and 2008 Summer Olympics, which were awarded to Atlanta and Beijing respectively. The Canadian Olympic Committee is currently considering a Toronto bid for the 2020 or 2024 Summer Olympics.[45]

Toronto is officially a candidate city to host the 2015 Pan American Games, it was announced by the 2015 Pan Am Games Bid Committee on October 2, 2008.[46]

Toronto Argonauts
FootballRogers Centre
Toronto Maple Leafs
Ice hockeyAir Canada Centre
Toronto Maple Leafs
BaseballChristie Pits
Toronto Blue Jays
BaseballRogers Centre
Toronto Raptors
BasketballAir Canada Centre
Toronto Rock
Box lacrosseAir Canada Centre
Toronto Xtreme
Rugby unionFletcher's Fields
Toronto Marlies
Ice hockeyRicoh Coliseum
Toronto FC
SoccerBMO Field
Toronto Nationals
Field LacrosseBMO Field


See main article: Media in Toronto.

Toronto is Canada's largest media market,[47] and the fourth largest media centre in North America (behind New York City, Los Angeles and Chicago), with four conventional dailies and two free commuter papers in a greater metropolitan area of about 5.5 million inhabitants. The Toronto Star and the Toronto Sun are the prominent daily city newspapers, while the national dailies The Globe and Mail and the National Post are also headquartered in the city. Toronto contains the headquarters of the major English-language Canadian television networks, including the English-language branch of the national public broadcaster Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the largest private broadcaster CTV, and the flagship stations of Citytv and Global. Canada's premier sports television networks are also based in Toronto, including The Sports Network (TSN), Rogers Sportsnet and The Score. MuchMusic and MTV Canada are the main music television channels based in the city. The bulk of Canada's periodical publishing industry is centred in Toronto including magazines such as Maclean's, Chatelaine, Flare, Canadian Living, Canadian Business, and Toronto Life.


See main article: Economy of Toronto.

Toronto is a major international centre for business and finance. Generally considered the financial capital of Canada, Toronto has a high concentration of banks and brokerage firms on Bay Street, in the Financial District. The Toronto Stock Exchange is the world's seventh-largest stock exchange by market capitalization.[48] All of the Big Five banks of Canada are headquartered in Toronto, as are a majority of Canada's corporations.[9]

The city is an important centre for the media, publishing, telecommunications, information technology and film production industries; it is home to Thomson Corporation, CTVglobemedia, Rogers Communications, and Celestica. Other prominent Canadian corporations in Toronto include Four Seasons Hotels, the Hudson's Bay Company and Manulife Financial.

Although much of the region's manufacturing activities take place outside the city limits, Toronto continues to be an important wholesale and distribution point for the industrial sector. The city's strategic position along the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor and its extensive road and rail connections help support the nearby production of motor vehicles, iron, steel, food, machinery, chemicals and paper. The completion of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959 gave ships access to the Great Lakes from the Atlantic Ocean.


colspan=4Toronto population by year, within present boundaries
19912,275,771[54] 3,893,933[55] 4,235,756
19962,385,421[56] 4,263,7594,628,883[57]

See main article: Demographics of Toronto.

The last complete census by Statistics Canada estimated there were 2,503,281 people residing in Toronto in June 2006,[5] making it the largest city in Canada, and the fifth most populous municipality in North America.

The city's population grew by 4% (96,073 residents) between 1996 and 2001, and 1% (21,787 residents) between 2001 and 2006. Persons aged 14 years and under made up 17.5% of the population, and those aged 65 years and over made up 13.6%. The median age was 36.9 years. Foreign-born people made up 49.9% of the population.

As of 2006, 46.9% of the residents of the city proper belong to a visible minority group, and visible minorities are projected to comprise a majority in Toronto by 2017.[60] According to the United Nations Development Programme, Toronto has the second-highest percentage of foreign-born population among world cities, after Miami, Florida. Statistics Canada's 2006 figures indicate that Toronto has surpassed Miami in this year. While Miami's foreign-born population consists mostly of Cubans and other Latin Americans, no single nationality or culture dominates Toronto's immigrant population, placing it among the most diverse cities in the world.

In 2006, people of European ethnicities formed the largest cluster of ethnic groups in Toronto, 52.6%,[61] mostly of British, Irish, Italian, and French origins, while the five largest visible minority groups in Toronto are Indian/Indo-Caribbean (12.0%), Chinese (11.4%), Black/Afro-Caribbean (8.4%), Filipino (4.1%) and Latin American (2.6%).[61] Aboriginal peoples, who are not considered visible minorities, formed 0.5% of the population.[61] This diversity is reflected in Toronto's ethnic neighbourhoods which include Little Italy, The Junction, Little Jamaica, Little India, Chinatown, Koreatown, Greektown, Portugal Village, Corso Italia, Kensington Market, and The Westway.

Christianity is the largest religious group in Toronto. The 2001 Census reports that 31.1% of the city's population is Catholic, followed by Protestant (21.1%), Christian Orthodox at (4.8%), Coptic Orthodox (0.2%),[62] and other Christians (3.9%). Other religions in the city are Islam (6.7%), Hinduism (4.8%), Judaism (4.2%), Buddhism (2.7%), Sikhism (0.9%), and other Eastern Religions (0.2%). 18.7% of the population professes no religion.[63]

While English is the predominant language spoken by Torontonians, many other languages have considerable numbers of local speakers, including French, Italian, Chinese, Spanish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Tagalog, Tamil and Hindi.[64] Chinese and Italian are the second and third most widely spoken languages at work.[65] [66] As a result, the city's 9-1-1 emergency services are equipped to respond in over 150 languages.[67]


See main article: Municipal government of Toronto.

Toronto is a single-tier municipality governed by a mayor-council system. The structure of the municipal government is stipulated by the City of Toronto Act. The Mayor of Toronto is elected by direct popular vote to serve as the chief executive of the city. The Toronto City Council is a unicameral legislative body, comprising 44 councillors representing geographical wards throughout the city. The mayor and members of the city council serve four-year terms without term limits. (Prior to the 2006 municipal election, the mayor and city councillors served three-year terms.)

At the start of the 2007 term, the city council will have seven standing committees, each consisting of a chair, a vice-chair and four other councillors. The Mayor names the committee chairs and the remaining membership of the committees is appointed by City Council.[68] An executive committee is formed by the chairs of each of standing committee, in addition to the mayor, the deputy mayor and four other councillors. Councillors are also appointed to oversee the Toronto Transit Commission and the Toronto Police Services Board.

There are about 40 subcommittees, advisory committees and round tables within the city council. These bodies are made up of city councillors and private citizen volunteers. Examples include the Pedestrian Committee, Waste Diversion Task Force 2010, and the Task Force to Bring Back the Don.[69] Additionally, the city has four community councils that make recommendations on local matters to the city council, but possess no final authority. Each city councillor serves as a member on a community council.

Toronto had an operating budget of C$7.6 billion in 2006.[70] The city receives funding from the Government of Ontario in addition to tax revenues and user fees, spending 36% on provincially mandated programmes, 53% on major municipal purposes such as the Toronto Public Library and the Toronto Zoo, and 11% on capital financing and non-programme expenditures.[71]


See main article: Crime in Toronto.

See also: Crime in Canada and Gun politics in Canada. The low crime rate[72] in Toronto has resulted in the city having a reputation as one of the safest major cities in North America. In 1999, the homicide rate for Toronto was 1.9 per 100,000 people,[73] compared to Atlanta (34.5), Boston (5.5), New York City (7.3), Vancouver (2.8), and Washington, D.C. (45.5). For robbery rates, Toronto also ranks low, with 115.1 robberies per 100,000, compared to Dallas (583.7), Los Angeles (397.9), Montreal (193.9), New York City (287.9), and Washington, D.C. (670.6). Toronto has a comparable rate of car theft to various U.S. cities, although it is not among the highest in Canada.[72] The overall crime rate in general was an average of 48 incidents per 100,000, compared to Cincinnati (326), Los Angeles (283), New York City (195.2), and Vancouver (239). However, many in the city, especially the local media, have concerns regarding gun violence, gangs, and racial profiling by Toronto Police against minorities.[74]

Toronto recorded its largest number of homicides in 1991 with 89, a rate of 3.9 per 100,000.[73] [75] In 2005, Toronto media coined the term "Year of the Gun", because there was a record number of gun-related homicides, 52, out of 80 homicides in total (65% – similar to the average in U.S. cities).[76] [77] The total number of homicides dropped to 69 in 2006, that year, nearly 2,000 people in Toronto were victims of a violent gun-related crime, about one-quarter of the national total.[78] 84 homicides were committed in 2007, roughly half of them involved guns. Gang-related incidents have also been on the rise; between the years of 1997 and 2005, over 300 gang-related homicides have occurred. As a result, the Ontario government came up with an anti-gun strategy.[79]


See main article: Education in Toronto.

Toronto is home to a number of post-secondary academic institutions. The University of Toronto, established in 1827, is the oldest university in Ontario and a leading public research institution. It is a worldwide leader in biomedical research and houses North America's third largest library system, after that of Harvard University and Yale University. York University, located in the north end of Toronto, houses the largest law library in the Commonwealth of Nations. The city is also home to Ryerson University, Ontario College of Art & Design, and the University of Guelph-Humber.

There are four diploma-granting colleges in Toronto, Seneca College, Humber College, Centennial College and George Brown College. The city is also home to a satellite campus of the francophone Collège Boréal. In nearby Oshawa, usually considered part of the Greater Toronto Area, are Durham College and the new University of Ontario Institute of Technology, while Halton Region is home to Sheridan College and a campus of the University of Toronto.

The Royal Conservatory of Music, which includes The Glenn Gould School, is a noted school of music located downtown. The Canadian Film Centre is a film, television and new media training institute founded by filmmaker Norman Jewison. Tyndale University College and Seminary is a transdenominational Christian post-secondary institution and Canada's largest seminary.

The Toronto District School Board (TDSB) operates 558 public schools. Of these, 451 are elementary and 102 are secondary (high) schools. This makes the TDSB the largest school board in Canada. Additionally, the Toronto Catholic District School Board manages the city's publicly funded Roman Catholic schools, while the Conseil scolaire de district du Centre-Sud-Ouest and the Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud manages public and Roman Catholic French-language schools. There are also numerous private university-preparatory schools, such as Greenwood College School, Upper Canada College, Crescent School, Toronto French School, University of Toronto Schools, Bayview Glen School, Havergal College, Bishop Strachan School, Branksome Hall, and St. Michael's College School.

The Toronto Public Library is the largest public library system in Canada, consisting of 99 branches with more than 11 million items in its collection.[80]


Health and medicine

See main article: Health in Toronto.

See also: List of hospitals in Toronto and XVI International AIDS Conference, 2006.

Toronto is home to at least 20 public hospitals, including the Hospital for Sick Children, Mount Sinai Hospital, St. Michael's Hospital, North York General Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto Western Hospital, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), and Princess Margaret Hospital, as well as the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine.

Toronto's Discovery District[81] is centre of research in biomedicine. It is located on a 2.5 square kilometre (620 acre) research park that is fully integrated into Toronto’s downtown core. It is also home to the Medical and Related Sciences Centre (MaRS),[82] which was created in 2000 to capitalize on the research and innovation strength of the Province of Ontario. Another institute is the McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine (MCMM).[83]


See main article: Transportation in Toronto.

The Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) is the third largest public transit system in North America after the New York City Transit Authority, and the Mexico City Metro.[24] The TTC provides public transit within the City of Toronto. The backbone of its public transport network is the subway system. The TTC also operates an extensive network of buses and streetcars.

The Government of Ontario also operates an extensive rail and bus transit system called GO Transit in the Greater Toronto Area., GO Transit carries over 205,000 passengers every weekday on its seven train lines and extensive bus system[84] .

Canada's busiest airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport (IATA: YYZ), straddles the city's western boundary with the suburban city of Mississauga. Limited commercial and passenger service is also offered from the Toronto City Centre Airport, on the Toronto Islands. Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport in Markham provides general aviation facilities. Toronto/Downsview Airport, near the city's north end, is owned by de Havilland Canada and serves the Bombardier Aerospace aircraft factory.

There are a number of expressways and highways that serve Toronto and the Greater Toronto Area. In particular, Highway 401 bisects the city from west to east, bypassing the downtown core. It is one of the busiest highways in the world.[85] [86] The square grid of major city streets was laid out by the concession road system.

Sister cities

See main article: Sister cities of Toronto.

Partnership Cities
Friendship Cities

Further reading

External links

Notes and References

  1. Web site: Population and dwelling counts, for urban areas, 2006 and 2001 censuses - 100% data. 2007-03-13. Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population. 2007-03-19.
  2. Total population of the Greater Toronto Area comprises the regional municipalities of Durham (561,258), Halton (439,256), Peel (1,159,405) and York (892,712). These population figures are taken from Web site: Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census divisions, 2006 and 2001 censuses - 100% data. Statistics Canada. 2007-03-13. 2007-03-18.
  3. The fact that these municipalities form the GTA is stated in Web site: Ontario Population Projections Update, 2005-2031 Ontario and Its 49 Census Divisions. Ministry of Finance, Government of Ontario. 2006. April. 2007-03-18. The Greater Toronto Area (GTA), comprising the City of Toronto and the regional municipalities of Durham, Halton, Peel and York, ....
  4. Web site: Portrait of the Canadian Population in 2006: Subprovincial population dynamics, Greater Golden Horseshoe. Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population. 2007-03-13. 2007-03-13.
  5. Web site: Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, census metropolitan areas, census agglomerations and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2006 and 2001 censuses - 100% data. Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population. 2007-03-13. 2007-03-19.
  6. "What makes a global city?", (2007)
  7. "", Toronto Star (2004). Retrieved on 2007-07-08.
  8. "Toronto (#10)", "World's Most Economically Powerful Cities." Forbes (2008). Retrieved on 2008-10-31.
  9. City of Toronto
  10. Web site: Toronto Competes. ICF Consulting. 2000. February. 2007-03-01.
  11. Book: Flew, Janine. Humphries, Lynn ; Press, Limelight ; McPhee, Margaret. The Children's Visual World Atlas. Fog City Press. 2004. Sydney, Australia. 76. 1 740893 17 4.
  12. Web site: City of Toronto, Ontario. 2007-07-06.
  13. Web site: Canada-Ontario-Toronto Memorandum of Understanding on Immigration and Settlement (electronic version). Citizenship and Immigration Canada. 2006. September. 2007-03-01. 2008-08-25.
  14. News: Vancouver is 'best city to live'. CNN. 2005-10-05. 2007-03-05.
  15. Web site: Mercer 2006 Quality of Living Survey. PDF. Mercer Human Resource Consulting. 2006. 2007-03-05.
  16. News: Eric. Beauchesne. Toronto pegged as priciest place to live in Canada. CanWest News Service. June 24, 2006. 2007-03-05.
  17. Web site: The real story of how Toronto got its name. Natural Resources Canada (2005). 2006-12-08.
  18. Fort Rouillé
  19. Natives and newcomers, 1600-1793
  20. Web site: Welcome to the birthplace of Toronto. Friends of Fort York (2006). 2006-12-08.
  21. Web site: Battle of York. 2007-07-10.
  22. City of Toronto, Black History
  23. Web site: 2007-07-10.
  24. Toronto transit chief says searches unlikely
  25. Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto Act
  26. SOS! Canadian Disasters
  27. Westward ho? The shifting geography of corporate power in Canada
  28. Population statistics and land area
  29. Canadian climate normals for 1971 to 2000
  30. Web site: Environment Canada Average data recorded over a 30 year span from 1971 to 2000.. mdy. Jan 17 2009. Environment Canada. English & Francais.
  31. Web site: Toronto Architecture.
  32. Dubai building surpasses CN Tower in height
  33. Emporis list of cities by high rise building.
  34. Toronto’s Cultural Renaissance
  35. "Plan town of 45,000 on Don Mills farms; Will cost $200,000,000," Paul L. Fox, Toronto Star, March 12, 1953, p. 3. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  36. Web site: West 8 Wins Waterfront Corp. Design Competition. City of Toronto: News releases. 2006-06-02. 2007-03-18.
  37. Web site: The Multiple Waterfront. du Toit Allsopp Hiller. 2007-03-18.
  38. The World's First Permanent IMAX Theatre
  39. Toronto Caribbean Carnival (Caribana) Festival 2006
  40. News: CN Tower Marks 30 Years At The Top. Edward. Chamberlain. Emporis Buildings. 2006-12-08.
  41. Web site: About the Toronto Zoo. Toronto Zoo. 2007-10-11.
  42. CNE - About Us
  43. Who uses the square (Demographics)
  44. Web site: Welcome to the Taste of the Danforth. 2007-07-07.
  45. Web site: Third time lucky for T.O. Games bid?,, 2007.
  46. Web site: - Toronto 2015 Pan American Games Bid Officialy Launched.
  47. Media Job Search Canada
  48. Market Statistics
  49. Web site: Toronto history FAQs: What was the population of Toronto in various years?. City of Toronto Archives. 2007-03-18.
  50. Web site: Population Tables for Toronto. Statistics Canada. 1971.
  51. Web site: Population Tables for Toronto. Statistics Canada. 1976.
  52. Web site: Population Tables for Toronto. Statistics Canada. 1981.
  53. Web site: 1986 Community Profile for Toronto. Statistics Canada. City of Toronto. 2003. pdf. 2007-05-08.
  54. Web site: 1991 Community Profile for Toronto. Statistics Canada. City of Toronto. 2003. pdf. 2007-05-08.
  55. Web site: Population and Dwelling Counts, for Census Metropolitan Areas in Decreasing Order of 1996 Population, 1991 and 1996 Censuses - 100% Data. Statistics Canada. 2001-04-17. 2007-03-18.
  56. Web site: Population and Dwelling Counts, for Canada, Census Metropolitan Areas, Census Agglomerations and Census Subdivisions (Municipalities), 2001 and 1996 Censuses - 100% Data. Statistics Canada. 2007-03-18.
  57. Web site: 1996 Community Profile for Toronto. Statistics Canada. City of Toronto. 2003. pdf. 2007-05-08.
  58. Web site: 2001 Community Profile for Toronto. Statistics Canada. City of Toronto. 2001. pdf. 2007-05-08.
  59. Web site: 2006 Community Profile for Toronto, Ontario. Statistics Canada. March 17, 2007.. 2007-05-08.
  60. Canada's visible minority population in 2017
  61. Web site: 2006 Community Profile for Toronto: Ethnicities. Statistics Canada. 2006. 2008-07-15.
  62. Religion (95A), Age Groups (7A) and Sex (3) for Population, for Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 1991 and 2001 Censuses - 20% Sample Data
  63. Community Highlights for Toronto
  64. Various Languages Spoken - Toronto
  65. Language used at work by mother tongue in Toronto
  66. Language used at work by mother tongue (City of Toronto)
  67. Web site: City of Toronto: Emergency Services - 9-1-1 = EMERGENCY in any language. City of Toronto. 2007-01-05.
  68. Web site: City Council names Speaker and members to Standing Committees, Agencies, Boards and Commissions. CNW Group. 2006-12-06. 2007-03-18.
  69. Web site: Directory of committees, task forces and round tables. City of Toronto. 2007-03-18.
  70. Web site: 2006 City Budget. City of Toronto. 2006. 2007-03-18.
  71. Web site: 2006 Operating Budget. PDF. City of Toronto. 2006. 2007-03-18.
  72. Web site: Crime statistics. Statistics Canada, The Daily. 2006-07-21. 2007-03-05.
  73. Web site: PDF.
  74. Web site: Torontoisms - Crime and Safety.
  75. Web site: Double murder occurred on Christmas Day: police.
  76. Web site: Despite rise, police say T.O. murder rate 'low'.
  77. Web site: CTV Toronto - Toronto sets a new record for gun-related carnage - CTV News, Shows and Sports - Canadian Television.
  78. Web site: Gun crime in Metro Vancouver highest per capita in Canada.
  79. Web site: Ministry of the Attorney General - Backgrounder.
  80. "Toronto Public Library contributes 63 millionth record" OCLC (2006-02-03). Retrieved on 2007-07-08.
  81. Toronto Discovery District FAQ
  82. Medical and Related Sciences Centre
  83. McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine (MCMM)
  84. Web site: GO by the numbers. 2009-01-19.
  85. Web site: Ontario government investing $401 million to upgrade Highway 401. Ontario Ministry of Transportation. 2002-08-06. 2007-03-18. Highway 401 is one of the busiest highways in the world and represents a vital link in Ontario's transportation infrastructure, carrying more than 400,000 vehicles per day through Toronto..
  86. Web site: GTA Economy Dinged by Every Crash on the 401 - North America's Busiest Freeway. Brian Gray. Toronto Sun, transcribed at Urban Planet. 2004-04-10. 2007-03-18. The "phenomenal" number of vehicles on Hwy. 401 as it cuts through Toronto makes it the busiest freeway in the world....
  87. Web site: Prefeitura.Sp - Descentralized Cooperation.
  88. Friendship cities of Vologorad