Theni district explained

Type:District
Native Name:Theni District
State Name:Tamil Nadu
Skyline:TN Districts Teni.gif
Locator Position:left
Base Map Label:no
Inset Map Marker:yes
Area Total:2889
Coastline:0
Precip:833.5
Temp Winter:15
Temp Summer:40.5
Hq:Theni
Largest City:Theni
District:Theni
Taluk Names:Periyakulam, Theni, Andipatti, Uthamapalayam, Bodinayakanur
Population Total:1243684
Population As Of:2011
Population Total Cite:[1]
Population Metro:591841
Population Metro As Of:2001
Sex Ratio:M-50.5%/F-49.5%
Literacy:71.58%
Literacy Male:81.88%
Literacy Female:61.19%
Official Languages:Tamil
Leader Title 1:Collector & District Magistrate
Leader Name 1:Dr K.S Palanisami IAS
Established Date:July 07, 1996
Legislature Type:elected
Legislature Strength:5
Blank Title 1:Central location:
Area Telephone:04546
Postal Code:626531
Vehicle Code Range:TN-60
Website:www.theni.nic.in/
Website Caption:Official website of District Collectorate, Theni

Theni District (Tamil: தேனி மாவட்டம்) is a district of Tamil Nadu state in South India. The city of Theni is the district headquarters. The district is divided into two natural divisions: The hilly areas constituted by parts of the three taluks Periyakulam, Uthamapalayam and Andipatti with thick vegetation and perennial streams from the hills on the western side and Cumbum valley which lies in Uthamapalayam taluk.[2]

History

Theni District was formed by the bifurcation from erstwhile Madurai District as per G.O. Ms. No. 679 Revenue Department Dated July 7, 1996. Consequent to the bifurcation, one new Revenue Division with headquarters at Uthamapalayam and two new Taluks at Theni and Bodinayakanur were also created with effect from January 1, 1997. Theni Municipal town was only a firka headquarters until December 31, 1996. Consequent to the formation of the new District, Theni Municipal Town was upgraded as the Taluk and District headquarters on January 1, 1997.[3]

The region covered by present day Theni District was scarcely populated before 1900s. In 1886 Mullaperiyar dam project brings some part of water from Periyaar River downhill to Cumbum Valley and merge into Mullai river. This project helped more people to settle down in Cumbum Valley. Also to be noted that Theni is itself a small and less-known town by 1900s. After the Mulllai-Periyaar merger project lots of people from nearby dry arid regions (Sivakasi, Kovilpatti, Virudhunagar, Sattur and several nearby towns) settled in Cumbum-Valley (present day Theni District). So there was influx of people by 1890s to 1920s. Bodi and Allinagaram are famous places at that age. Later Theni developed in rapid pace due to lots of business activities.

Geography

The 2889km2 district lies at the foot of the Western Ghats between 9' 39' and 10' 30' North latitude and between 77' 00' and 78' 30' of East Longitude. Central location: . The district is bounded by Dindigul District to the north, Madurai District to the east, Virudhunagar District to the southwest, and Idukki district of the Kerala State to the west. The district is home to Theni, Periyakulam, Bodinayakanur, Cumbum, Uthamapalayam, kombai, Gudalur, Chinnamanur, Andipatti, Thevaram, Lakshmipuram and several other small villages like SukkangalPatti, Meenatchipuram, Melasindalaichery, Kottur, Pallavarayan patti a popular village in Tamilnadu JallikattuKamatchipuram. It is diversified by several ranges and hills. A range of hills which runs parallel to Western Ghats from north to south separate it from the neighboring state of Kerala.[4]

Climate-In the plains, the temperatures range from a minimum of 13 °C to a maximum of 39.5 °C. In the hills the temperatures can range from as low as 4-5 °C to 25 °C. The district is known for its salubrious climate, hills and lakes.

Rivers and dams-The Vaigai River, Kottagudi River, Suruliyar River, Varaganathi River, Manjalar River and Varattaru River flow through the district. The important reservoirs in the district are Vaigai Dam, Manjalaru Dam, Sothuparai Dam, Sanmughanathi Dam, Manalaru Dam and Melmanalaru Dam.

Economy

Its economy is mostly agricultural. Utilisation of land area for cultivation in Theni district is 40.33%.[2] [5] The principal crop production (in tonnes) in 2005-2006 was: sugarcane 1,201,221, cotton 95,360 (561 bales of 170. kg lint each), rice (paddy) 66,093, millets and other cereals 57,081, pulses 6,677, groundnut 4,021 and gingelly 325.[6] Silk, Banana, Coconut, Tea, Coffee, Cardamom, Grapes and Mangoes are other main produce of the district.[7]

Cumbum Valley is a major centre for grape production with 4,000 small farmers producing over 90,000 tonnes of Muscat grapes, know locally as panneer dhrakshai and about 10,000 tonnes of Thomson seedless grapes. The unique feature here is that the grapes are harvested throughout the year, while in most grape growing centres elsewhere the season ends with summer.

Cotton Spinning Mills and Sugar Mills are the major industries in this District. In Andipatti Taluk Handloom weaving and power looms are flourishing. In Uthamapalayam Taluk, the Highwavis Estate produces an important amount of Tea. Bodinayakanur is a major market place for cardamom, coffee, tea and black pepper. This city is also called "Cardamom City" because of the large quantity of cardamom trade in this area. It has an auction centre for cardamom.[4]

The Periyar and Surliar Hydro Power Stations and the Vaigai Micro Hydro Power Station have 181 MW installed capacity and actual power generation of 494 MW in 1996 in this District.[2] [8] Theni is one of the active business hubs in the western side of Tamilnadu, inviting more industries to its locality. The district currently has 41.09 km of Metre gauge track serving 3 Railway Stations which connect to Madurai.[2] [5]

Forest resources

The forest area in Theni district is about 33.70%. There are 27 forest areas in Theni district constituting a total area of 795.81km2. 19 areas fall under the Reserve Forest category with 255.44km2, 8 areas under Reserve Land category with 540.37km2. Total area of forest under green cover classification was 806.86km2. Dense forest and Sparse forest are 292.81km2 and 22.43km2 respectively. There is no Unclassed Forest type in the district. About 44.65km2 of Man Made Forest Area are cultivated in the district. Wattle, Softwood, Fuel wood, Cashew, Neem, Tamarind are the main forest plantation species in Theni district.[2]

There has been no conservation of biological resources in the district. The information of wild life census in Theni district is yet to be made available.[2]

Demographics

According to the 2011 census Theni district has a population of 1,243,684,[9] roughly equal to the nation of Trinidad and Tobago[10] or the US state of New Hampshire.[11] This gives it a ranking of 386th in India (out of a total of 640).[9] The district has a population density of 433PD/sqkm .[9] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 13.69 %.[9] Theni has a sex ratio of 990 females for every 1000 males,[9] and a literacy rate of 77.62 %.[9]

Tourism

Cumbum, Uthamapalayam and Theni are charming towns in the district. Resounding cascades, silver-lined clouds resting a top billiard green hill tops, sheer rock faces and temples of antiquity distinguish these places. These unique places warm the soul and provide the much-needed balm to the mind.

Places of interest-

  1. Vaigai Dam (~20 km from Theni)
  2. Suruli falls (~50 km from Theni)
  3. Meghamalai Hill (~67 km from Theni)
  4. Bodi Mettu Hill (~45 km from Theni)
  5. Kumbakarai Falls (~24 km from Theni)
  6. Sothuparai Dam (~24 km from Theni)
  7. Shanmuganathi Dam (~50 km from Theni)
  8. Chinna Suruli falls (~15 km from Theni)

Nearest Places in Kerala

  1. Thekkadi (~ 80 km from theni)
  2. Munnar (~ 95 km from theni)

Festivals

The Ramzan Peru naal Thozhuhai at Uthamapalayam in Theni is a very famous for the district. The celebration of Gowmariyamman temple festival at Veerapandi and cumbum during the month of May, Veerappa Ayyanar festival at Theni, Kamatchi Amman festival at Devadhanapatti and Saneeswaran Temple festival at Kuchanoor are the most important festivals of the district. Theni district is known for its brilliant celebration of Pongal, which is considered to be one of the most important festivals of Tamil Nadu. Pallavarayanpatti, Ayyampatti and pudupatti is very famous for its Jallikattu during the Pongal festival. Another important festival is Chitra Pournami festival, which is celebrated at Sri Mangala Devi Kannagi temple, on the Western Ghats near Gudalur during the month of May. Other important festivals of the region are the festivals of Masi Maham and Shivarathri which are celebrated in the Kamatchi Amman Temple during the months of February–March and kottur eagaadesi.

Christmas and New Year are very majestically celebrated in Anaimalayanpatty.

Famous personalities

Theni District is home to several well known Tamil entertainment personalities including:

political speakers

Tamil writers

Theni District is home to several well known Tamil Literary writers including:

Cinema Directors

Theni.M.Subramani

Theni.M.Subramani writing Tamil story, essays and jokes in various Tamil magazine. He has contributed Four Tamil books.

  1. Tamil Inaya Sitrithalkal- Manivasakar Publications, Chennai
  2. Tamil Wikipedia - Manivasakar Publications, Chennai
  3. Suvaiyana 100 Inayathalankal - Gowtham pathippagam, Chennai
  4. Manavarkalukkana 100 Inayathalankal - Gowtham Pathippagam, Chennai

He has been a Textile Mill Labour's son, graduated M.Phil. (JMC) from Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai. He starded Muthukamalam Tamil web magazine from 01-06-2006.

Dewan V. Selvam

A notable personality in English literary field Mr. Dewan V. Selvam, an emerging English writer in Poetry is from Theni-Palacombai. Through his writings in English Poetry he has contributed three volume of books to the English literary world. He has been a farmer's son, graduated (M.Phil) from Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai. And he actively participates in social activities for the reformation of society especially for the caste-free society through his writings.

External links

Notes and References

  1. Web site: 2011 Census of India. 16 April 2011. Indian government. Excel.
  2. Web site: National Environmental Information System (India). Environment Profile for Theni district. 2008-09-14. ENVIS. 1–29.
  3. Web site: M.Subramani M.A., M.Phil., P.G.D.J & M.C., D.L.L & A.L.,. History of Theni District.. 2008-09-14. thenitimes.sitesled.com. history p1/2.
  4. Web site: M.Subramani M.A., M.Phil., P.G.D.J & M.C., D.L.L & A.L.,. History of Theni District.. 2008-09-14. thenitimes.sitesled.com. history p2/2.
  5. p.29
  6. Web site: 2006-2007. Collectorate staff. District Profile Theni District. 2008-09-15. District Collectorate, Theni. 1–15. PDF.
  7. Web site: 2006-2007. Collectorate staff. District Statistical Handbook 2006-2007 Theni District. 2008-09-15. District Collectorate, Theni. 1–47. PDF.
  8. p.15
  9. Web site: District Census 2011. 2011-09-30. 2011. Census2011.co.in.
  10. Web site: US Directorate of Intelligence. [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html Country Comparison:Population]. 2011-10-01. Trinidad and Tobago1,227,505July 2011 est..
  11. Web site: 2010 Resident Population Data. U. S. Census Bureau. 2011-09-30. New Hampshire1,316,470.