The Passion of the Christ explained

The Passion of the Christ
Director:Mel Gibson
Producer:Bruce Davey
Mel Gibson
Stephen McEveety
Enzo Sisti
Screenplay:Benedict Fitzgerald
Mel Gibson
William Fulco (translation)
Based On:Passion
Starring:Jim Caviezel
Maia Morgenstern
Monica Bellucci
Hristo Shopov
Music:John Debney
Cinematography:Caleb Deschanel
Editing:John Wright
Studio:Icon Productions
Distributor:Newmarket Films
Runtime:126 minutes
Language:Aramaic
Latin
Hebrew
Budget:$30 million
Gross:$611,899,420

The Passion of the Christ (sometimes referred to as The Passion) is a 2004 American drama film directed by Mel Gibson and starring Jim Caviezel as Jesus Christ. It depicts the Passion of Jesus largely according to the New Testament Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. It also draws on other devotional writings, such as those disputedly attributed to Anne Catherine Emmerich.[1] [2] [3] [4]

The Passion of the Christ covers the final 12 hours of Jesus' life beginning with the Agony in the Garden and ending with a brief depiction of his resurrection. Flashbacks of Jesus as a child and as a young man with his mother, giving the Sermon on the Mount, teaching the Twelve Apostles, and at the Last Supper are also included. The dialogue is entirely in reconstructed Aramaic and Latin with vernacular subtitles.

The film was a major commercial hit, grossing in excess of $600 million during its theatrical release, becoming the highest grossing non-English language film of all time.[5] The film has also been highly controversial and received mixed reviews, with some critics claiming that the extreme violence in the movie "obscures its message." Catholic sources have questioned the authenticity of the non-biblical material the film drew on.[1]

Plot

The film opens in Gethsemane as Jesus prays and is tempted by Satan, while his apostles, Peter, James and John sleep. After receiving thirty pieces of silver, one of Jesus' other apostles, Judas, approaches with the temple guards and betrays Jesus with a kiss. As the guards move in to arrest Jesus, Peter cuts off the ear of Malchus, but Jesus heals the ear. The temple guards arrest Jesus and the apostles flee. John tells Mary and Mary Magdalene of the arrest. Peter follows Jesus at a distance. Caiaphas holds trial over the objection of some of the other priests, who are expelled from the court. When questioned by Caiaphas whether he is the son of God, Jesus replies "I am." Caiaphas is horrified and tears his robes and Jesus is condemned to death for blasphemy. Three times Peter denies knowing Jesus but then runs away sobbing. Meanwhile, the remorseful Judas attempts to return the money to have Jesus freed but is refused by the priests. Tormented by demons, he flees the city and hangs himself with a rope he finds on a dead donkey.

Caiaphas brings Jesus before Pontius Pilate to be condemned to death, but after questioning Jesus, Pilate sends him instead to the court of Herod, as Jesus is from Herod's ruling town of Nazareth. After Jesus is returned, Pilate offers the crowd that he will chastise Jesus and then will set him free. Pilate attempts to have Jesus freed by giving the people an option of freeing Jesus or the violent criminal Barabbas. To Pilate's dismay, the crowd demands to have Barabbas freed and Jesus killed. In an attempt to appease the crowd, Pilate has Jesus brutally scourged and mocked with a crown of thorns, yet the crowd continues to demand that Jesus be crucified. Pilate reluctantly orders Jesus' crucifixion.

As Jesus carries the cross along the Via Dolorosa to Calvary, Seraphia wipes Jesus's face with her veil. Simon of Cyrene is unwillingly pressed into carrying the cross with Jesus. Jesus is then crucified. As he hangs from the cross, Jesus prays forgiveness for those who did this to him and redeems a criminal crucified next to him. After Jesus gives up his spirit and dies, a single drop of rain falls from the sky, triggering an earthquake which destroys the Temple and rips the cloth covering the Holy of Holies in two, to the horror of Caiaphas and the other priests. Satan is then shown screaming in defeat. The story ends with Jesus rising from the dead and exiting his tomb.

Cast

Themes

In The Passion: Photography from the Movie "The Passion of the Christ", Gibson says: "This is a movie about love, hope, faith and forgiveness. He [Jesus] died for all mankind, suffered for all of us. It's time to get back to that basic message. The world has gone nuts. We could all use a little more love, faith, hope and forgiveness."

He also explains one of his appearances in the film, the close-up of his hands nailing Jesus to the cross: "It was me that put Him on the cross. It was my sins [that put Jesus there]."

Source material

New Testament

According to director Mel Gibson, the primary source material for The Passion of the Christ is the four Gospel narratives of Christ's passion. The film also draws from other parts of the New Testament. The portion spoken by Jesus in the film, "I make all things new," is found in the Book of Revelation.[6]

Hebrew Bible

The Passion of the Christ also refers to the Hebrew Bible. The film begins with an epigraph from the Fourth Song of the Suffering Servant from Isaiah.[7] In the opening scene set in the Garden of Gethsemane, Jesus crushes a serpent's head in direct visual allusion to Genesis 3:15.[8] Throughout the film, Jesus quotes from the Psalms, beyond the instances recorded in the New Testament.

Traditional iconography and stories

Many of the depictions in The Passion of the Christ deliberately mirror traditional representations of the Passion in art. For example, the fourteen Stations of the Cross are central to the depiction of the Via Dolorosa in The Passion of the Christ. All of the stations are portrayed except for the eighth station (Jesus meets the women of Jerusalem, a deleted scene on the DVD) and the fourteenth station (Jesus is laid in the tomb). Gibson was also visually inspired by the representation of Jesus on the Shroud of Turin.[9]

At the suggestion of actress Maia Morgenstern, the Passover Seder is quoted early in the film. Mary asks "Why is this night different than other nights?", and Mary Magdalene replies with the traditional response: "Because once we were slaves and we are slaves no longer".[10]

The conflation of Mary Magdalene with the adulteress saved from stoning by Jesus has some precedent in tradition but according to the director was done for dramatic reasons. The names of some of the characters in the film are traditional and extra-Scriptural, such as the thieves crucified alongside the Christ, Dismas and Gesmas (also Gestas).

Catholic devotional writings

Screenwriters Mel Gibson and Benedict Fitzgerald said that they read many accounts of Christ's Passion for inspiration, including the devotional writings of Roman Catholic mystics. A principal source is The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ[11] the reported (yet disputed) visions of the stigmatic German nun Anne Catherine Emmerich (1774–1824), as written by to the poet Clemens Brentano.[2] [4] [12] A careful reading of Emmerich's book shows the film's high level of dependence on it.[13] [14] [15]

However, Clemens Brentano's attribution of the book The Dolorous Passion to Emmerich has been subject to dispute, with allegations that Brentano wrote much of the book himself; a Vatican investigation concluding that: "It is absolutely not certain that she ever wrote this".[16] [17] [18] In his review of the movie in the catholic publication America, Jesuit priest John O' Malley used the terms "devout fiction" and "well-intentioned fraud" to refer to the writings of Clemens Brentano.[1] [18]

Among the many elements taken from the Dolorous Passion are scenes such as the suspension of Jesus from a bridge after his arrest by the Temple guards, the torment of Judas by demons after he had handed over Jesus to the Sanhedrin, the wiping up of the blood of Jesus after his scourging, and the dislocation of Jesus’ shoulder so that his palm would reach the hole bored for the nail.[11] A second source mentioned was The Mystical City of God by María de Ágreda (1602–1665), a 17th-century Spanish nun.

Differences from traditional Passion story

Certain elements of The Passion of the Christ do not have precedent in earlier depictions of the Passion. In the Garden of Gethsemane scene at the beginning of the movie, Satan appears and attempts to distract Jesus while he is praying. Jesus then crushes a serpent beneath his heel (this is a reference to the protoevangelium, Genesis 3:15 – a prophecy of Messiah); this does not occur in any of the gospels. In another example, Judas Iscariot is tormented by demons who appear as children to him. The film gives focus to the fragile relationship of Tiberius Caesar with Pontius Pilate through Pilate's discussion with his wife about imperial orders to avert further Judean revolts. The movie clearly identifies Simon of Cyrene as Jewish, although the Synoptic Gospels provide only his name and place of origin. In the film, a Roman soldier derides Simon (who helps Jesus bear the cross) by derisively calling him Jew. In contrast, Simon is described as a pagan in The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ.[11]

Other scenes unique to The Passion of the Christ include the one in which the crucified thief who taunted Jesus has his eye pecked out by a crow, and the flashback of the carpenter Jesus building an elevated, four-legged table for a Roman. The scene of Satan carrying a demonic baby during Christ’s flogging has been construed as an imitation of traditional depictions of the Madonna and Child. Mel Gibson described this scene as follows:

"...it's evil distorting what’s good. What is more tender and beautiful than a mother and a child? So the Devil takes that and distorts it just a little bit. Instead of a normal mother and child you have an androgynous figure holding a 40-year-old ‘baby’ with hair on his back. It is weird, it is shocking, it's almost too much – just like turning Jesus over to continue scourging him on his chest is shocking and almost too much, which is the exact moment when this appearance of the Devil and the baby takes place."[19]

Production

Script and language

Gibson originally announced that he would use two old languages without subtitles and rely on "filmic storytelling." Because the story of the Passion is so well-known, Gibson felt the need to avoid vernacular languages in order to surprise audiences: "I think it's almost counterproductive to say some of these things in a modern language. It makes you want to stand up and shout out the next line, like when you hear 'To be or not to be' and you instinctively say to yourself, 'That is the question.'"[20] The script was written in English by Gibson and Benedict Fitzgerald, then translated by William Fulco, S.J., a professor at Loyola Marymount University, into Latin, reconstructed Aramaic, and Hebrew. Gibson chose to use Latin instead of Greek, which was the "lingua franca" of that particular part of the Roman Empire at the time, so that the audience could easily distinguish between the sound of Italianate Latin and Semitic Aramaic.[21] Fulco sometimes incorporated deliberate errors in pronunciations and word endings when the characters were speaking a language unfamiliar to them, and some of the crude language used by the Roman soldiers was not translated in the subtitles.[22] The pronunciation of Latin in the film is closer to ecclesiastical Latin than to "more historically accurate" classical Latin. (Clear instances of this can be heard when Pontius Pilate says "veritas" and "ecce".)

Filming

The film was produced independently and filmed in Italy – primarily at Cinecittà Studios in Rome, and in the old city of Matera, and at Craco (Basilicata). The estimated $30 million production cost, plus an additional estimated $15 million in marketing costs, were fully borne by Gibson and his company, Icon Productions. It was released on Ash Wednesday, February 25, 2004. It was rated R by the Motion Picture Association of America for "sequences of graphic violence". Newmarket Films distributed the theatrical version of the film, and 20th Century Fox distributed the VHS/DVD/Blu-ray version of the film.

Gibson consulted several theological advisors during filming, including Fr. Jonathan Morris. During filming, assistant director Jan Michelini was struck twice by lightning. The second time this happened, the lightning bolt also hit James Caviezel.[23]

Music

Three CDs were released with Mel Gibson's co-operation: (i) the film soundtrack of John Debney's original orchestral score conducted by Nick Ingman; (ii) , by producers Mark Joseph and Tim Cook, with original compositions by various artists, and (iii) The Passion of the Christ: Songs Inspired By. The first two albums each received a 2005 Dove award, and the soundtrack received an Academy Award nomination of Best Music Score.

A preliminary score was composed and recorded by Lisa Gerrard and Patrick Cassidy, but was incomplete at film's release. Jack Lenz was the primary musical researcher and one of the composers;[24] several clips of his compositions have been posted online.[25]

Post-production

Title change

Although Gibson wanted to call his film The Passion, on October 16, 2003 his spokesman announced that the title used in the United States would be The Passion of Christ because Miramax had already registered the title The Passion with the MPAA for the 1987 novel by Jeanette Winterson.[26] Later, the title was changed again to The Passion of the Christ for all markets.

Distribution and marketing

Gibson began production on his film without securing outside funding or distribution. In 2002, he explained why he could not get backing from the Hollywood studios: "This is a film about something that nobody wants to touch, shot in two dead languages. In Los Angeles they think I am insane, and maybe I am."[27] Gibson and his Icon Productions company provided the film's sole backing, spending about $30 million on production costs and an estimated $15 million on marketing.[28] After early accusations of anti-Semitism, it became difficult for Gibson to find an American distribution company. 20th Century Fox had a first-look deal with Icon and passed on the film in response to public protests.[29] In order to avoid the spectacle of other studios turning down the film and to avoid subjecting the distributor to the same intense public criticism he had received, Gibson decided to distribute the movie in the United States himself, with Newmarket Films.[30]

Gibson departed from the usual film marketing formula. He employed a small-scale television advertising campaign, and added faith guru Rick Hendrix with no press junkets.[31] Yet The Passion of the Christ was heavily promoted by many church groups, both within their organizations and to the general public, often giving away free tickets.[32]

Release

Domestic release

The film opened in the United States on February 25, 2004 (Ash Wednesday, the beginning of Lent). It earned $83,848,082 in its opening weekend, ranking it 4th overall in domestic opening weekend earnings for 2004. It went on to earn $370,782,930 overall in the United States.[33]

International release

Government censorship

In Malaysia, government censors initially banned it completely, but after Christian leaders protested, the restriction was lifted, but only for Christian audiences, allowing them to view the film in specially designated theatres.[34] In Israel, the film was not banned. However, it never received theatrical distribution because no Israeli distributor sought to market the movie.[35]

International box office

Despite the various controversies and refusals of certain governments to allow the film to be viewed in wide release, The Passion of the Christ earned $611,899,420 worldwide.[33] The movie was also a relative success in certain countries with large Muslim populations,[36] such as in Egypt, where it ranked 20th overall in its box office numbers for 2004.[37]

Theatrical re-release

An edited version titled The Passion Recut was released on March 11, 2005, with five minutes of the most explicit violence deleted to broaden the audience for the film. Gibson explained his reasoning for the new version of the film:

After the initial run in movie theaters, I received numerous letters from people all across the country. Many told me they wanted to share the experience with loved ones but were concerned that the harsher images of the film would be too intense for them to bear. In light of this I decided to re-edit The Passion of the Christ.[38]

Despite the attempt to tone down the content, the Motion Picture Association of America deemed the film too violent to rate PG-13, so Gibson released it as unrated.[38] The re-release did not end up being a commercial success, only showing for three weeks before its poor box office results caused it to be pulled from theaters.[39]

Home media

On August 31, 2004, the film was released on DVD, VHS, and later D-VHS in North America. As with the original theatrical release, the film's release on home video formats proved to be very popular. Early reports indicated that over 2.4 million copies of the film were sold by the middle of the day. The film was available on DVD with English and Spanish subtitles, and on VHS tape with English subtitles. On February 17, 2009, the film was released on Blu-ray in North America as a two-disc Definitive Edition set. It was also released on Blu-ray in Australia a week before Easter.

Although the original DVD release of The Passion of The Christ sold well, it contained no extra materials other than soundtrack language selections. The no-frills edition provoked speculation about when a special edition would be released. On Tuesday, January 30, 2007, a two-disc Definitive Edition of The Passion of The Christ was released in the American markets, and March 26 elsewhere. It contains several documentaries, soundtrack commentaries, deleted scenes, outtakes, the 2005 unrated version, and the original 2004 theatrical version.[40]

The British version of the 2 disc DVD contains two deleted scenes. In the first deleted scene, Jesus meets the women of Jerusalem which is the eighth station of the cross, Jesus falls to the ground as the women wail around him and Simon of Cyrene attempts to hold up the cross and help up Jesus simultaneously. Afterwards, while both are holding up the cross, Jesus says to Simon, "Do not weep for me, but for yourselves and for your children". In the second scene Pilate washes his hands and turns to Caiaphas and says "Look you to it" (ie: the Pharisees wish to have him crucified). Pilate turns to Abanader and says "Do as they wish". The scene then shows Pilate calling to his servant who is carrying a wooden board on which Pilate writes 'Jesus of Nazareth king of the Jews' in Latin and Hebrew. He then holds the board above his head in full view of Caiaphas, who after reading it challenges Pilate on its content. Pilate replies (...) angrily to Caiaphas in Aramaic (content not translated). The disc contains only two deleted scenes in total. No other scenes from the movie are shown on disc 2.[41]

Television broadcast

On April 17, 2011 (Palm Sunday), Trinity Broadcasting Network (TBN) presented a world television premiere of the film at 7:30PM ET/PT, with multiple showings scheduled. TBN presented the film with much of the graphic violence left in; as a result, TBN rated the film "TV-MA-V" – a rarity for many Christian networks.[42] [43]

Reception

Critical reviews

The film received mixed reviews from critics; critics have praised the performance of Jim Caviezel as Jesus. The review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported that 50% gave the film positive reviews, based on 260 reviews total; with the consensus that "the graphic details of Jesus' torture make the movie tough to sit through and obscure whatever message it is trying to convey."[44] Metacritic reported the film had an average score of 47 out of 100, based on 43 reviews.[45]

Roger Ebert gave the film four out of four stars, and called it "the most violent film I have ever seen", also reflecting on how the movie personally impacted him as a former altar boy.[46] New York Press film critic Armond White praised Gibson's work, comparing him to Dreyer, for transforming Art into spirituality.[47] However, Slate reviewer David Edelstein called it "a two-hour-and-six-minute snuff movie,"[48] while Jami Bernard of the New York Daily News called it "the most virulently anti-Semitic movie made since the German propaganda films of World War II."[49] Time magazine listed it as one of the most violent films of all time.[50]

The June 2006 issue of Entertainment Weekly named The Passion of the Christ the most controversial film of all time, followed by Stanley Kubrick's film A Clockwork Orange.

Independent promotion and discussion

A number of independent websites such as MyLifeAfter.com and Passion-Movie.com were launched to promote the film and its message and to allow people to discuss the film's effect on their lives. Documentaries such as Changed Lives: Miracles of the Passion chronicled stories of miraculous savings, forgiveness, new-found faith, and the story of a man who confessed to murdering his girlfriend after authorities determined her death was due to suicide.[51] Another documentary, Impact: The Passion of the Christ, chronicled the popular response of the film in the United States, India, and Japan and examined the claims of anti-Semitism against Mel Gibson and the film.

Controversies

Questions of historical and biblical accuracy

Despite criticisms that Gibson deliberately and severely departed from historical accounts of first century Judea and Biblical accounts of Christ's crucifixion, some scholars defend the film as not meaning to be historically accurate. Biblical scholar Mark Goodacre protested that he could not find one documented example of Gibson explicitly claiming the film to be historically accurate.[52] [53] Gibson has been quoted as saying, "I think that my first duty is to be as faithful as possible in telling the story so that it doesn't contradict the Scriptures. Now, so long as it didn't do that, I felt that I had a pretty wide berth for artistic interpretation, and to fill in some of the spaces with logic, with imagination, with various other readings."[54]

In the film, Romans use Latin amongst themselves, Jews do the same with Aramaic, and the two groups adopt one or the other of these languages in communicating with each other. The latter is historically improbable, however, as the eastern parts of the Roman empire were extensively Hellenized, and Greek was the lingua franca.[55]

When asked about the film's faithfulness to the account given in the New Testament, Father Di Noia of the Doctrinal Congregation replied: "Mel Gibson's film is not a documentary but a work of artistic imagination" and "Gibson's film is entirely faithful to the New Testament."[56]

Promotional screenings

Gibson was criticized by Abraham Foxman, National Director of the Anti-Defamation League (whose stated purpose is to fight anti-Semitism and all forms of bigotry in the U.S.), for holding private screenings for prominent, politically and socially conservative Christian and Jewish religious leaders yet not inviting those who had already criticized the film.[57]

Disputed papal endorsement

In early December 2003, Passion of the Christ co-producer Stephen McEveety provided the film to Archbishop Stanislaw Dziwisz, the pope's secretary. Archbishop Dziwisz returned the film to McEveety and said he had watched it with John Paul II. On December 16, Daily Variety reported that the pope had seen the film, and on Dec. 17, Wall Street Journal columnist Peggy Noonan reported that John Paul II had said: "It is as it was," sourcing McEveety, who said he heard it from Dziwisz.[58] National Catholic Reporter journalist John Allen published a similar account on the same day, quoting an unnamed senior Vatican official.[59] The following day, Reuters and the Associated Press each independently confirmed the story, citing Vatican sources.[60] [59] On December 24, an anonymous Vatican official told Catholic News Service, "There was no declaration, no judgment from the pope." On January 9, John Allen defended his earlier reporting, saying that his official source was adamant about the veracity of the original story.[61] In a January 18 column, Frank Rich interviewed the Italian translator who quoted Dziwisz as saying that the pope called the film "incredible" and said "it is as it was." Rich attacked the marketing of the film and suggested Dziwisz wielded too much influence over the pope. The next day Archbishop Dziwisz told CNS, "The Holy Father told no one his opinion of this film."[62] This denial resulted in a round of commentators who accused the film producers of fabricating a papal quote to market their movie.

However, the Icon Productions spokesman stood by the story, and a source close to the situation said McEveety had asked for and received Vatican officials' permission to repeat the "It is as it was" statement before speaking to Noonan.[63] Journalist Rod Dreher reported that McEveety had received an email from papal spokesman Dr. Joaquin Navarro-Valls on December 28, backing the Noonan account and ending: "I would try to make the words 'It is as it was' the leit motive [sic] in any discusion [sic] on the film. Repeat the words again and again and again."[64]

Peggy Noonan had also received email confirmation of the quote from Navarro-Valls before writing her December 17 column. Complicating the situation, Navarro-Valls told Dreher that the email sent to McEveety was not genuine, suggesting it was fabricated. However Noonan verified that all of the Navarro-Valls emails came from the same Vatican IP address.[60] The Los Angeles Times reported that they had previously confirmed the accuracy of the quote from Navarro-Valls when the story first broke. On CNN, John Allen reported Vatican sources who claim to have heard Dziwisz on other occasions affirm the accuracy of the quotation.[65]

On January 22, Navarro-Valls released the following official statement:

"The film is a cinematographic transposition of the historical event of the Passion of Jesus Christ according to the accounts of the Gospel. It is a common practice of the Holy Father not to express public opinions on artistic works, opinions that are always open to different evaluations of aesthetic character."[66]

Allegations of anti-Semitism

Before the film was even released, there were prominent criticisms of perceived anti-Semitic content in the movie. 20th Century Fox told New York Assemblyman Dov Hikind they had passed on distributing the film in response to a protest outside the News Corp. building. Hikind warned other movie companies that "they should not distribute this film. This is unhealthy for Jews all over the world."[29]

A joint committee of the Secretariat for Ecumenical and Inter-religious Affairs of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops and the Department of Inter-religious Affairs of the Anti-Defamation League obtained a version of the script before it was released in theaters. They released a statement, calling it

one of the most troublesome texts, relative to anti-Semitic potential, that any of us had seen in twenty-five years. It must be emphasized that the main storyline presented Jesus as having been relentlessly pursued by an evil cabal of Jews, headed by the high priest Caiaphas, who finally blackmailed a weak-kneed Pilate into putting Jesus to death. This is precisely the storyline that fueled centuries of anti-Semitism within Christian societies. This is also a storyline rejected by the Roman Catholic Church at Vatican II in its document Nostra Aetate, and by nearly all mainline Protestant churches in parallel documents . . . . Unless this basic storyline has been altered by Mr. Gibson, a fringe Catholic who is building his own church in the Los Angeles area and who apparently accepts neither the teachings of Vatican II nor modern biblical scholarship, The Passion of the Christ retains a real potential for undermining the repudiation of classical Christian anti-Semitism by the churches in the last forty years.[67]

The ADL itself also released a statement about the yet to be released movie:

For filmmakers to do justice to the biblical accounts of the passion, they must complement their artistic vision with sound scholarship, which includes knowledge of how the passion accounts have been used historically to disparage and attack Jews and Judaism. Absent such scholarly and theological understanding, productions such as The Passion could likely falsify history and fuel the animus of those who hate Jews.[68]
Rabbi Daniel Lapin, the head of the Toward Tradition organisation, criticized this statement, and said of Foxman, the head of the ADL, "what he is saying is that the only way to escape the wrath of Foxman is to repudiate your faith."[69]

In The Nation, reviewer Katha Pollitt said, "Gibson has violated just about every precept of the (United States Conference of Catholic Bishops) conference's own 1988 "Criteria" for the portrayal of Jews in dramatizations of the Passion (no bloodthirsty Jews, no rabble, no use of Scripture that reinforces negative stereotypes of Jews, etc.) ... The priests have big noses and gnarly faces, lumpish bodies, yellow teeth; Herod Antipas and his court are a bizarre collection of oily-haired, epicene perverts. The "good Jews" look like Italian movie stars (Italian sex symbol Monica Bellucci is Mary Magdalene); Mary, who would have been around 50 and appeared 70, could pass for a ripe 35."[70] Jesuit priest Fr. William Fulco, S.J., of Loyola Marymount University – and the film's Aramaic dialogue translator – specifically disagreed with that assessment, and disagreed with concerns that the film accused the Jewish community of deicide.[71]

One specific scene in the movie perceived as an example of anti-Semitism was in the dialogue of Caiaphas, when he states "His blood [is] on us and on our children!", a quote historically interpreted by some as a curse taken upon by the Jewish people. Certain Jewish groups asked this be removed from the film. However, only the subtitles were removed; the original dialogue remains in the Aramaic soundtrack.[72]

When asked about this scene, Gibson said, "I wanted it in. My brother said I was wimping out if I didn't include it. But, man, if I included that in there, they'd be coming after me at my house. They'd come to kill me."[73] In another interview when asked about the scene, he said, "It's one little passage, and I believe it, but I don't and never have believed it refers to Jews, and implicates them in any sort of curse. It's directed at all of us, all men who were there, and all that came after. His blood is on us, and that's what Jesus wanted. But I finally had to admit that one of the reasons I felt strongly about keeping it, aside from the fact it's true, is that I didn't want to let someone else dictate what could or couldn't be said."[74]

In the New Republic, Leon Wieseltier said: "In its representation of its Jewish characters, The Passion of the Christ is without any doubt an anti-Semitic movie, and anybody who says otherwise knows nothing, or chooses to know nothing, about the visual history of anti-Semitism, in art and in film. What is so shocking about Gibson's Jews is how unreconstructed they are in their stereotypical appearances and actions. These are not merely anti-Semitic images; these are classically anti-Semitic images."[75]

Asked by Bill O'Reilly if his movie would "upset Jews", Gibson responded, "It's not meant to. I think it's meant to just tell the truth. I want to be as truthful as possible."[76] In a Globe and Mail newspaper interview, he added, "If anyone has distorted Gospel passages to rationalize cruelty towards Jews or anyone, it's in defiance of repeated Papal condemnation. The Papacy has condemned racism in any form... Jesus died for the sins of all times, and I'll be the first on the line for culpability".[77]

Conservative columnist Cal Thomas also tried to dispel the allegations of anti-Semitism, saying "To those in the Jewish community who worry that the film, which is scheduled for release next Easter season, might contain anti-Semitic elements, or encourage people to persecute Jews, fear not. The film does not indict Jews for the death of Jesus."[78] Two Orthodox Jews, Rabbi Daniel Lapin and conservative talk-show host and author Michael Medved, also vocally rejected claims that the film is anti-Semitic. They have noted the film's many sympathetic portrayals of Jews: Simon of Cyrene (who helps Jesus carry the cross), Mary Magdalene, the Virgin Mary, St. Peter, St. John, Veronica (who wipes Jesus' face and offers him water), and several Jewish priests who protest Jesus' arrest during Caiaphas's trial of Jesus.

Bob Smithouser of Plugged in Online believed that film was trying to convey the evils and sins of humanity rather than specifically targeting Jews, stating "The anthropomorphic portrayal of Satan as a player in these events brilliantly pulls the proceedings into the supernatural realm – a fact that should have quelled the much-publicized cries of anti-Semitism since it shows a diabolical force at work beyond any political and religious agendas of the Jews and Romans."[79]

Moreover, Senior Vatican officer Cardinal Darío Castrillón Hoyos, who has seen the film, addressed the matter so:

Anti-Semitism, like all forms of racism, distorts the truth in order to put a whole race of people in a bad light. This film does nothing of the sort. It draws out from the historical objectivity of the Gospel narratives sentiments of forgiveness, mercy, and reconciliation. It captures the subtleties and the horror of sin, as well as the gentle power of love and forgiveness, without making or insinuating blanket condemnations against one group. This film expressed the exact opposite, that learning from the example of Christ, there should never be any more violence against any other human being.[80]

Allegation of excessive violence

Several critics were troubled by the film's explicitly detailed violence, and especially cautioned parents to avoid taking their children to the cinema. Although only one sentence in three of the Gospels mentions Jesus's flogging, and it is unmentioned in the fourth, The Passion of the Christ devotes ten minutes to the portrayal of the flogging. Film critic Roger Ebert, who rated the movie four-out-of-four stars, said in his review:

The movie is 126 minutes long, and I would guess that at least 100 of those minutes, maybe more, are concerned specifically and graphically with the details of the torture and death of Jesus. This is the most violent film I have ever seen.[81]

Ebert also mentioned that the R-rated film merits the MPAA NC-17 rating in a "Movie Answer Man" response, adding that no level-minded parent should ever allow children to see it.[82]

A. O. Scott, in The New York Times, said, "'The Passion of the Christ' is so relentlessly focused on the savagery of Jesus' final hours that this film seems to arise less from love than from wrath, and to succeed more in assaulting the spirit than in uplifting it."[83] David Edelstein, Slate's film critic, dubbed the film "a two-hour-and-six-minute snuff movieThe Jesus Chainsaw Massacre – that thinks it's an act of faith", and further criticised Gibson for focusing on the brutality of Jesus' execution, instead of his religious teachings.[84]

During Diane Sawyer's interview of him, Gibson said:

I wanted it to be shocking; and I wanted it to be extreme ... So that they see the enormity – the enormity of that sacrifice; to see that someone could endure that and still come back with love and forgiveness, even through extreme pain and suffering and ridicule. The actual crucifixion was more violent than what was shown on the film, but I thought no one would get anything out of it.

Response from evangelicals

The Passion of the Christ received support and endorsement from most known evangelical leaders and representatives of USA's conservative church organizations: Billy Graham, James Dobson, Mission America Coalition, Salvation Army, Promise Keepers, National Association of Evangelicals, Campus Crusade for Christ, Focus on the Family, Pat Robertson, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Trinity Broadcasting Network, Rick Warren, Southern Baptist Convention, Jerry Falwell, Max Lucado, Young Life, Tim LaHaye, Chuck Colson, Lee Strobel, Northern Baptist Theological Seminary, Mothers of Pre-Schoolers (MOPS).[85] The United Methodist Church stated that many of its members, like other Christians, felt that the movie was a good way to evangelize non-believers.[86] As a result, many congregations planned to be at the theaters, some of whom set up tables to answer questions and share prayers.[86]

Accolades

Wins
Nominations

See also

External links

Notes and References

  1. Father John O' Malley A Movie, a Mystic, a Spiritual Tradition America Magazine, March 15, 2004 http://americamagazine.org/content/article.cfm?article_id=3481&comments=1
  2. Jesus and Mel Gibson's The Passion of the Christ by Kathleen E. Corley, Robert Leslie Webb 2004 ISBN 0-8264-7781-X pages 160-161
  3. Mel Gibson's Passion and philosophy by Jorge J. E. Gracia 2004 ISBN 0-8126-9571-2 page 145
  4. Movies in American History: An Encyclopedia edited by Philip C. Dimare 2011 ISBN 1-59884-296-X page 909
  5. Web site: All Time Worldwide Box Office Grosses. Box Office Mojo. 2011-02-02.
  6. Book: The Holy Bible, Book of Revelation 21:5.
  7. Book: The Holy Bible, Book of Isaiah 53:5.
  8. Book: The Holy Bible, Book of Genesis 3:15.
  9. Web site: Cooney Carrillo. Jenny. The Passion of Mel. Urbancinefile. 2004-02-26.
  10. News: Abramowitz. Rachel. Along came Mary; Mel Gibson was sold on Maia Morgenstern for 'Passion' at first sight. Los Angeles Times. 2004-03-07.
  11. Book: The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ. Clement Brentano.
  12. Mel Gibson's Passion and philosophy by Jorge J. E. Gracia 2004 ISBN 0-8126-9571-2 page 145
  13. Jesus and Mel Gibson's The Passion of the Christ by Kathleen E. Corley, Robert Leslie Webb 2004 ISBN 0-8264-7781-X pages 160-161
  14. Mel Gibson's Passion and philosophy by Jorge J. E. Gracia 2004 ISBN 0-8126-9571-2 page 145
  15. Movies in American History: An Encyclopedia edited by Philip C. DiMare 2011 ISBN 1-59884-296-X page 909
  16. John Thavis, Catholic News Service February 4, 2004: "Vatican confirms papal plans to beatify nun who inspired Gibson film" http://www.catholicnews.com/data/stories/cns/20040616y.htm
  17. John Thavis, Catholic News Service October 4, 2004: "Pope beatifies five, including German nun who inspired Gibson film" http://www.catholicnews.com/data/stories/cns/0405425.htm
  18. Emmerich, Anne Catherine, and Clemens Brentano. The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ. Anvil Publishers, Georgia, 2005 pages 49-56
  19. News: Moring. Mark. What's Up With the Ugly Baby?. Christianity Today. 2004-03-01. 2008-08-20. http://web.archive.org/web/20080709113146/http://www.christianitytoday.com/movies/news/040301-passion.html. July 9, 2008.
  20. News: Mel Gibson’s Great Passion. Zenit. 2003-03-06.
  21. Web site: SBL Passion of the Christ interview – Fulco and Fitzgerald. Mark Goodacre. NT Gateway Weblog. November 26, 2004.
  22. Web site: TRANSLATING THE PASION. Language Hat. March 8, 2004.
  23. News: Jesus actor struck by lightning. BBC. 23 October 2003.
  24. Web site: Jack Lenz Bio. JackLenz.com.
  25. Web site: Clips of Musical Compositions by Jack Lenz. JackLenz.com.
  26. Web site: Susman. Gary. Napoleon Branding. “Entertainment Weekly”. 2004-10-16. 2008-08-16.
  27. News: Gibson To Direct Christ Tale With Caviezel As Star. Nick Vivarelli. The Hollywood Reporter. 2002-09-23. 2008-10-20.
  28. News: What Mel's Passion Will Earn Him. Forbes.com. 2004-03-03. Patsuris. Penelope.
  29. News: Fox passes on Gibson’s ‘The Passion’. Los Angeles Times. 2004-10-22. 2008-08-30.
  30. News: Gibson to Market ‘Christ’ on His Own, Sources Say. Horn. John. Los Angeles Times. 2004-10-22. 2008-10-20.
  31. Web site: Marketing 'The Passion of the Christ'. MSNBC.com. Cobb. Jerry. 2004-02-25.
  32. Web site: Mel Gibson's The Passion Of The Christ: Market Segmentation, Mass Marketing and Promotion, and the Internet. The Journal of Religion and Popular Culture. Maresco. Peter A.. Fall 2004.
  33. Web site: The Passion of the Christ (2004). Box Office Mojo. 2009-02-05.
  34. News: Censors in Malaysia give OK to ‘Passion’. Los Angeles Times. 2004-07-10. 2008-10-20.
  35. News: ‘Passion’ goes unseen in Israel. Laura King. Los Angeles Times. 2004-03-15. 2008-10-20.
  36. Web site: Gibson's movie unlikely box-office hit in Arab world. The Christian Science Monitor. 2004-04-09. Blanford. Nicholas.
  37. Web site: 2004 Box Office Totals for Egypt. BoxOfficeMojo.com.
  38. Web site: The Passion of the Christ Review. PluggedInOnline.com.
  39. Web site: Box Office Stats for The Passion Recut. BoxOfficeMojo.com.
  40. Web site: Re-Release of The Passion. Miserere.org.
  41. http://www.bbc.co.uk/films/2007/03/19/the_passion_of_the_christ_special_edition_dvd_2007_review.shtml
  42. http://www.tbn.org/watch-us/our-programs/the-passion-of-the-christ TBN: "The Passion of the Christ"
  43. http://www.skyangel.com/blog/index.php/2011/04/11/the-passion-movie-premier-alert/ Sky Angel: "“The Passion” Movie Premier Alert!", April 11, 2011.
  44. Web site: The Passion of the Christ Movie Reviews, Pictures – Rotten Tomatoes. 2008-07-16. Rotten Tomatoes.
  45. Web site: Passion of the Christ, The (2004): Reviews. 2008-07-16. Metacritic.
  46. News: Ebert. Roger. Movie Reviews: The Passion of the Christ. Chicago Sun–Times. 2004-02-24. 2006-08-02.
  47. White, Armond (2008-03-18). "Steve McQueen's Hunger", New York Press. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
  48. News: David. Edelstein. David Edelstein. Jesus H. Christ. 2004-02-24. Slate. 2009-11-18.
  49. News: Jami. Bernard. Jami Bernard. The Passion of the Christ. 2004-02-24. The New York Daily News. 2009-11-18.
  50. Web site: Top 10 Ridiculously Violent Movies. Josh Sanburn. September 3, 2010. Time.
  51. http://news.scotsman.com/passionofchrist/Film-prompts-murder-confession.2515150.jp Film prompts murder confession – Scotsman.com News
  52. Web site: Historical Accuracy of The Passion of the Christ. Mark Goodacre. 2004-05-02. 2008-10-20.
  53. Mark Goodacre, “The Power of The Passion: Reacting and Over-reacting to Gibson's Artistic Vision” in “Jesus and Mel Gibson's The Passion of the Christ. The Film, the Gospels and the Claims of History,” ed. Kathleen E. Corley and Robert L. Webb, 2004
  54. Web site: 'Dude, That Was Graphic': Mel Gibson talks about The Passion of The Christ. David Neff and Jane Johnson Struck. Christianity Today. February 23, 2004. 2008-10-20. http://web.archive.org/web/20080709100026/http://www.christianitytoday.com/movies/interviews/melgibson.html. July 9, 2008.
  55. Longhenry, E.R "The Passion of the Christ:" A Review March 2004 retrieved 03 September 2010
  56. http://www.zenit.org/article-8894?l=english
  57. Web site: Mel Gibson's The Passion of the Christ:Legitimizing Anti-Semitism. Abraham Foxman. Institute for Global Jewish Affairs. 2006-05-01.
  58. News: 'It Is as It Was' Mel Gibson's "The Passion" gets a thumbs-up from the pope.. Peggy Noonan. Wall Street Journal. 2003-12-17. 2008-10-20.
  59. News: The Word From Rome. John L. Allen, Jr.. National Catholic Reporter. 2004-01-23. 2008-10-20.
  60. News: The story of the Vatican and Mel Gibson's film gets curiouser. Peggy Noonan. Wall Street Journal. 2004-01-22. 2008-10-20.
  61. News: [http http://www.nationalcatholicreporter.org/word/word010904.htm The Word From Rome]. John L. Allen, Jr.. National Catholic Reporter. 2004-01-09. 2008-10-20.
  62. News: Wooden. Cindy. Pope never commented on Gibson's 'Passion' film, says papal secretary. Catholic News Service. 2004-01-19. 2008-08-20.
  63. News: Did Pope really plug 'Passion'?. Gabriel Snyder. Daily Variety. 2004-01-19. 2008-10-20.
  64. News: Did the Vatican endorse Gibson's film – or didn't it?. Rod Dreher. Dallas Morning News. 2004-01-21. 2008-10-19. http://osdir.com/ml/music.dadl.ot/2004-01/msg00784.html. January 2004.
  65. News: 'The Passion' Stirs Controversy at the Vatican. CNN transcript. 2004-01-21. 2008-10-20.
  66. News: The Word From Rome... John L. Allen, Jr.. National Catholic Reporter. 2004-01-23. 2008-10-20.
  67. Pawlikowski. John T.. Christian Anti-Semitism: Past History, Present Challenges Reflections in Light of Mel Gibson's The Passion of the Christ. Journal of Religion and Film. February 2004.
  68. ADL Statement on Mel Gibson's 'The Passion'. Anti-Defamation League. 2003-06-24. 2008-08-20.
  69. Web site: "Passion" Critics Endanger Jews, Angry Rabbis Claim, Attacking Groups, Foxman. Nacha Cattan. The Jewish Daily Forward. 2004-03-05.
  70. News: Pollitt. Katha. The Protocols of Mel Gibson. The Nation. 2004-03-11. 2008-08-20.
  71. News: Wooden. Cindy. As filming ends, `Passion' strikes some nerves. National Catholic Reporter. 2003-05-02. 2008-08-20.
  72. News: Vermes. Geza. Celluloid brutality. The Guardian. 2003-02-27. 2008-08-20. London.
  73. Web site: The Jesus War.
  74. News: Mel Gibson and Other "Passion" Filmakers say the Movie was Guided by Faith. Detroit Free Press. Terry Lawson. 2004-02-17.
  75. Web site: [https://ssl.tnr.com/p/docsub.mhtml?i=20040308&s=wieseltier030804 The Passion of the Christ]. 2004-03-08. Leon Wieseltier. The New Republic.
  76. News: The Passion of Mel Gibson. Time. 2003-01-19. 2010-05-25. Richard. Corliss.
  77. News: Mel Gibson Interview. Globe and Mail. 2004-02-14.
  78. Web site: The Greatest Story Ever Filmed. TownHall.com. 2003-08-05.
  79. Web site: The Passion of the Christ. Pluggedin.com.
  80. News: Gaspari. Antonio. The Cardinal & the Passion. National Review Online. 2003-09-18. 2008-08-20.
  81. Roger Ebert,The Passion of the Christ (review), February 24, 2004
  82. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20040307/ANSWERMAN/403070305 "The Movie Answer Man", Chicago Sun-Times, March 7, 2004
  83. News: Good and Evil Locked In Violent Showdown. A. O. Scott. The New York Times. 2004-02-25. Retrieved July 8, 2007..
  84. Web site: Jesus H. Christ. David Edelstein. Slate Magazine.
  85. Web site: Comments about Mel Gibsons the Passion of the Christ. 2008-04-10.
  86. Web site: Many churches look to 'Passion' as evangelism tool. United Methodist Church. 2009–06–07.