See also: Hebrew Bible, Old Testament, Septuagint, Targum and Peshitta. The Tanakh (Hebrew: תַּנַ"ךְ, or ; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach) is a name used in Judaism for the canon of the Hebrew Bible. The Tanakh is also known as the Masoretic Text or the Miqra. The name is an acronym formed from the initial Hebrew letters of the Masoretic Text's three traditional subdivisions: The Torah ("Teaching", also known as the Five Books of Moses), Nevi'im ("Prophets") and Ketuvim ("Writings")—hence TaNaKh. The name "Miqra" (מקרא), meaning "that which is read", is an alternative Hebrew term for the Tanakh. The books of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) were relayed with an accompanying oral tradition passed on by each generation, called the Oral Torah.
According to the Talmud, much of the contents of the Tanakh were compiled by the "Men of the Great Assembly" by 450 BCE, and have since remained unchanged. Modern scholars believe that the process of canonization of the Tanakh became finalized between 200 BCE and 200 CE.
The Hebrew text was originally an abjad: consonants written with some applied vowel letters ("matres lectionis"). During the early Middle Ages scholars known as the Masoretes created a single formalized system of vocalization. This was chiefly done by Aaron ben Moses ben Asher, in the Tiberias school, based on the oral tradition for reading the Tanakh, hence the name Tiberian vocalization. It also included some of Ben Naftali and Babylonian innovations. Despite the comparatively late process of codification, some traditional sources and some Orthodox Jews believe the pronunciation and cantillation derive from the revelation at Sinai, since it is impossible to read the original text without pronunciations and cantillation pauses. The combination of a text (מקרא miqra), pronunciation (ניקוד niqqud) and cantillation (טעמים te`amim) enable the reader to understand both the simple meaning, as well as the nuances in sentence flow of the text.
The three-part division reflected in the acronym "Tanakh" is well attested to in documents from the Second Temple period and in Rabbinic literature. During that period, however, "Tanakh" was not used. Instead, the proper title was Mikra (מקרא, meaning "reading" or "that which is read") because the biblical texts were read publicly. Mikra continues to be used in Hebrew to this day, alongside Tanakh, to refer to the Hebrew scriptures. In modern spoken Hebrew both are used interchangeably.
See main article: Development of the Hebrew Bible canon.
According to the Talmud (Bava Basra 14b-15a, Rashi to Megillah 3a, 14a), much of the contents of the Tanakh was compiled by the Men of the Great Assembly (Anshei K'nesset HaGedolah), a task completed in 450 BCE, and have remained unchanged since that date. Evidence suggests that the process of canonization occurred between 200 BCE and 200 CE. A popular position is that the Torah was canonized circa 400 BCE, the Prophets circa 200 BCE, and the Writings circa 100 CE, perhaps at a hypothetical Council of Jamnia. This position, however, is increasingly criticised by modern scholars. Some scholars argue that the Jewish canon was fixed by the Hasmonean dynasty (140-37 BCE). Today, there is no scholarly consensus as to when the Jewish canon was set.
Formal closure of the canon has often been ascribed to Rabbinic Judaism after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. Heinrich Graetz proposed in 1871 that it was concluded at a Council of Jamnia (or Yavne in Hebrew), some time in the period 70–90 CE. However, Rabbinical writings seem to indicate that certain books were disputed as accepted canon (such as Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs and Esther, see also Antilegomena), but it may not necessarily be the case. The implication of the Talmud indicates that the books themselves were already accepted canon, but may have been misunderstood on philosophical or ecclesiastical grounds. The Talmud eliminates this misunderstanding.
The twenty-four books are also mentioned in the Midrash Koheleth 12:12. A slightly different accounting can be found in the book Against Apion, by the 1st-century Jewish historian Josephus, who describes 22 sacred books: the five books of Moses, thirteen histories, and four books of hymns to God and precepts for the conduct of human life. Some scholars have suggested that he considered Ruth part of Judges, and Lamentations part of Jeremiah; as the Christian translator Jerome recorded in the 4th century CE. Other scholars suggest that at the time Josephus wrote, such books as Esther and Ecclesiastes were not yet considered canonical.
According to Jewish tradition, the Tanakh consists of twenty-four books. The Tanakh counts as one book each Samuel, Kings, Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah and counts Trei Asar (תרי עשר, the Twelve Prophets; literally "twelve") as a single book.
See main article: Torah. The Torah (תּוֹרָה, literally "teaching") consists of five books, commonly referred to as the "Five Books of Moses". Printed versions of the Torah are often called Chamisha Chumshei Torah (חמישה חומשי תורה, literally the "five five-sections of the Torah"), and informally a Chumash.
In Hebrew, the five books of the Torah are identified by the first prominent word in each book. The English names are derived from the Greek names given to the books in the Septuagint, which are based on the thematic content of each of the books, as follows:
1. (בראשית / Bereshit) - Genesis
2. (שמות / Shemot) - Exodus
3. (ויקרא / Vayikra) - Leviticus
4. (במדבר / Bəmidbar) - Numbers
5. (דברים / Devarim) - Deuteronomy
See main article: Nevi'im. Nevi'im (נְבִיאִים, "Prophets") consists of eight books. This division includes the books which, as a whole, cover the chronological era from the entrance of the Israelites into the Land until the Babylonian captivity of Judah (the "period of prophecy"). However, they exclude Chronicles, which covers the same period, as well as Ruth. The Nevi'im are often divided into the Earlier Prophets (נביאים ראשונים), which are generally historical in nature, and the Later Prophets (נביאים אחרונים), which contain more exhortational prophecies.
Although most versions of the Old Testament count the number of books as totaling twenty-one, counting the books of Samuel and Kings as two books each, and the "Twelve Prophets" (or the minor prophets) as 12 books, Jewish tradition does not:
6. (יֱהוֹשַֻׁע / Yĕhôshūa‘) - Joshua
7. (שופטים / Shophtim) - Judges
8. (שְׁמוּאֵל / Shĕmū’ēl) - Samuel (I & II)
9. (מלכים / M'lakhim) - Kings (I & II)
10. (יְשַׁעְיָהוּ / Yĕsha‘ăyāhū) - Isaiah
11. (יִרְמְיָהוּ / Yirmĕyāh) - Jeremiah
12. (יְחֶזְקֵאל / Yĕhezqēl) - Ezekiel
13. The Twelve Prophets (תרי עשר)
a. (הוֹשֵׁעַ / Hôshēa‘) - Hosea
b. (יוֹאֵל / Yô’ēl) - Joel
c. (עָמוֹס / ‘Āmôs) - Amos
d. (עֹבַדְיָה / ‘Ōbhadhyāh) - Obadiah
e. (יוֹנָה / Yônāh) - Jonah
f. (מִיכָיְהוּ / Mīkhāyāh) - Micah
g. (נַחוּם / Naḥūm) - Nahum
h. (חֲבַקּוּק /Ḥăbhaqqūq) - Habakkuk
i. (צְפַנְיָה / Ṣĕphanyāh) - Zephaniah
j. (חַגַּי / Ḥaggai) - Haggai
k. (זְכַרְיָה / Zĕkharyāh) - Zechariah
l. (מַלְאָכִי / Mal’ākhī) - Malachi
See main article: Ketuvim. Ketuvim (כְּתוּבִים, "Writings") are sometimes also known by the Greek title "Hagiographa" and consists of eleven books. These encompass all the remaining books, and include the Five Megillot (Five Scrolls). They are sometimes also divided into such categories as Sifrei Emet (ספרי אמת, literally "Books of Truth") of Psalms, Proverbs and Job (the Hebrew names of these three books form the Hebrew word for "truth" as an acrostic, and all three books have unique cantillation marks), the "wisdom books" of Job, Ecclesiastes, and Proverbs, the "poetry books" of Psalms, Lamentations and Song of Songs, and the "historical books" of Ezra-Nehemiah and Chronicles.
|Section Title||Common Order||Leningrad Codex||BHS Order|
|The "Sifrei Emet," "Books of Truth"||14. (תהלים / Tehillim) - Psalms|
15. (משלי / Mishlei) - Proverbs
16. (אִיּוֹב / Iyyōbh) - Job
14. Chronicles (I & II) [דברי הימים / Divrei Hayamim](Not part of Emet)
15. Psalms [תהלים / Tehilim]
16. Job [איוב / Iyov]
17. Proverbs [משלי / Mishlei]
|14. Psalms [תהלים / Tehilim]|
15. Job [איוב / Iyov]
16. Proverbs [משלי / Mishlei]
|The "Five Megillot" or "Five Scrolls"||17. (שִׁיר הַשׁשִׁירִים/ Shīr Hashīrīm) - Song of Songs|
18. (רוּת / Rūth) - Ruth
19. (איכה / Eikhah) - Lamentations
20. (קֹהְלְת / Qōheleth) - Ecclesiastes
21. (אֶסְתֵר / Estēr) - Esther
18. Ruth [רוּת/ Rūth]
19. Song of Songs [שיר השירים / Shir Hashirim]
20. Ecclesiastes [קהלת / Kohelet]
21. Lamentations [איכה / Eikhah]
22. Esther [אסתר / Esther]
17. Ruth [רות / Rut]
18. Song of Songs [שיר השירים / Shir Hashirim]
19. Ecclesiastes [קהלת / Kohelet]
20. Lamentations [איכה / Eikhah]
21. Esther [אסתר / Esther]
|The rest of the "Writings"||22. (דָּנִיֵּאל / Dānī’ēl) - Daniel|
23. (עזרא ונחמיה / Ezra v'Nechemia) - Ezra-Nehemiah
24. (דברי הימים / Divrei Hayamim) - Chronicles (I & II)
|23. Daniel [דניאל / Dani'el]|
24. Ezra-Nehemiah [עזרא ונחמיה / Ezra ve-Nehemiah]
|22. Daniel [דניאל / Dani'el]|
23. Ezra-Nehemiah [עזרא ונחמיה / ‘Ezrā ve-Nĕḥemyāh]
24. Chronicles (I & II) [דברי הימים / Divrei Hayamim]
See main article: Chapters and verses of the Bible. The chapter divisions and verse numbers have no significance in the Jewish tradition. Nevertheless, they are noted in all modern editions of the Tanakh so that verses may be located and cited. The division of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles into parts I and II is also indicated on each page of those books in order to prevent confusion about whether a chapter number is from part I or II, since the chapter numbering for these books follows their partition in the Christian textual tradition.
The adoption of the Christian chapter divisions by Jews began in the late Middle Ages in Spain, partially in the context of forced clerical debates which took place against a background of harsh persecution and of the Spanish Inquisition (the debates required a common system for citing biblical texts). From the standpoint of the Jewish textual tradition, the chapter divisions are not only a foreign feature with no basis in the mesorah, but are also open to severe criticism of three kinds:
Nevertheless, because they proved useful for citations, they are often included in most Hebrew editions of the biblical books. For more information on the origin of these divisions, see chapters and verses of the Bible. Jews don't necessarily reference the specific verse in a chapter (older editions of the Talmud cite only chapter numbers), and some works cite the sectional divisions in the Torah.
The chapter and verse numbers were often indicated very prominently in older editions, to the extent that they overshadowed the traditional Jewish masoretic divisions. However, in many Jewish editions of the Tanakh published over the past forty years, there has been a major trend towards minimizing the impact and prominence of the chapter and verse numbers on the printed page. Most editions accomplish this by removing them from the text itself and relegating them to the margins of the page. The main text in these editions is unbroken and uninterrupted at the beginning of chapters (which are noted only in the margin). The lack of chapter breaks within the text in these editions also serves to reinforce the visual impact created by the spaces and "paragraph" breaks on the page, which indicate the traditional Jewish parashah divisions. Some versions have even introduced a new chapter system .
These modern Jewish editions present Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles (as well as Ezra) as single books in their title pages, and make no indication inside the main text of their division into two parts (though it is noted in the upper and side margins). In such editions, the second books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles follow the respective first books on the very same page, with no special break at all in the flow of the text. In the case of Kings, in which no parashah division appears at this point, the text of II Kings continues that of I Kings on the very same line of text.
Jewish (Hebrew) editions have a different pattern regarding Chronicles (I Chronicles) chapters 5 and 6. In I Chronicles (in Christian sources) chapter 5 ends at verse 41. Chronicles (Jewish editions of Chronicles) 5:27-41 is equivalent to First Chronicles 6: 1-15 in most English translations. In Jewish (Hebrew) editions 6:1 is equivalent to 6:16 and therefore the chapter ends at Chronicles 6:66 instead of the First Chronicles 6:81 (English translations) and at 7:1 both Hebrew and English versions set off from the same starting point once more. This difference offsets other more contextual differences. The Jewish Tanakh is the same as the Christian Hebrew Old Testament and is based on careful copying of Hebrew and Aramaic manuscripts over centuries. Jewish and Christian translations often differ. For example, some Christians translate the word almah (עלמה) as "virgin," while Jews tend to the translation "young maiden". Christian views are based on exegesis of the Isaiah passage and Matthew's interpretation, which also agrees with the ancient Jewish Septuagint translation, Greek, Modern (1453-): παρθενος, which according to some New Testament Scholars, can mean "a marriageable maiden" or "virgin."
The Leningrad Codex also served as the basis for two important Jewish editions of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh):
There are two major approaches towards study of, and commentary on, the Tanakh. In the Jewish community, the classical approach is religious study of the Bible, where it is assumed that the Bible has a divine origin. Another approach is to study the Bible as a human creation; in this approach, Biblical studies can be considered as a sub-field of religious studies.
Secular practitioners of Biblical Studies do not have a faith commitment to the texts they study. In fact, Biblical criticism contradicts commitment to the idea that the Bible was written by prophets inspired by God. Indeed, this practice, when applied to the Torah, is considered heresy by the entire Orthodox Jewish community. As such, much modern day Bible commentary written by non-Orthodox authors is considered forbidden by rabbis teaching in Orthodox yeshivas.
Some classical rabbinic commentators, such as Abraham Ibn Ezra, Gersonides, and Maimonides, used many elements of contemporary biblical criticism, including their then-current knowledge of history, science, and philology. Their use of historical and scientific analysis of the Bible was considered kosher by historic Judaism due to the author's faith commitment to the idea that God revealed the Torah to Moses on Mount Sinai.
The Modern Orthodox Jewish community allows for a wider array of biblical criticism to be used for biblical books outside of the Torah, and a few Orthodox commentaries now incorporate many of the techniques previously found in the academic world, e.g. the Da'at Miqra series.
Non-Orthodox Jews, including those affiliated with Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism, accept both traditional and secular approaches to Bible studies. See the article on Revelation for details of how members of these groups understand this concept.
The article on Jewish commentaries on the Bible discusses Jewish Tanakh commentaries from the Targums to classical rabbinic literature, the midrash literature, the classical medieval commentators, and modern day commentaries.