|Official Name:||City of Springfield|
|Nickname:||City of Homes; Cradle of Basketball|
|Subdivision Name:||United States|
|Government Type:||Mayor-council city|
|Leader Name:||Domenic J Sarno (D)|
|Area Total Km2:||86.0|
|Area Total Sq Mi:||33.2|
|Area Land Km2:||83.1|
|Area Land Sq Mi:||32.1|
|Area Water Km2:||2.8|
|Area Water Sq Mi:||1.1|
|Population As Of:||2007|
|Population Density Km2:||1829.2|
|Population Density Sq Mi:||4737.7|
|Utc Offset Dst:||-4|
|Postal Code Type:||ZIP code|
|Postal Code:||01101 01103 01104 01105 01107 01108 01109 01119 01128 01129 01151|
|Blank Name:||FIPS code|
|Blank1 Name:||GNIS feature ID|
In the 2000 census, the city population was 154,082. It is the third largest city in Massachusetts and fourth largest in New England (behind Boston, Worcester, and Providence). Springfield holds two nicknames - The City of Homes and The City of Firsts.
Springfield is notable as birthplace of Theodor Seuss Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, as well as the city in which James Naismith invented basketball. It is home to the Basketball Hall of Fame and the Springfield Falcons AHL hockey team. It also holds the western world's largest collection of Chinese cloisonné at the G.W. Vincent Smith Art Museum.
The Springfield Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of three counties - Hampden, Hampshire, and Franklin. As of the 2000 census, the Springfield MSA had a population of 680,014 (though a July 1, 2007 estimate placed the population at 682,657). It is also part of a larger metropolitan area known as the Northeast megalopolis.
In an economic and cultural partnership with Hartford, Connecticut, the Springfield-Hartford region constitutes New England's Knowledge Corridor - the second-largest concentration of institutions of higher learning in New England, after Greater Boston.
|Town||Date of separation |
|Southwick||1775 (from Westfield)|
|Montgomery||1780 (from Westfield)|
|Russell||1792 (from Westfield)|
|Holyoke (southern part)||1850 (from W. Springfield)|
|Agawam||1855 (from W. Springfield)|
|East Longmeadow||1894 (from Longmeadow)|
Contact with European explorers, conquerors, and colonists from the 1500s onward brought diseases (possibly smallpox and measles) which decimated the native population of North America. By 1635, the still-active epidemics had left an estimated 5,000 Indians in all of New England.
In 1635, William Pynchon, then the assistant treasurer of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, led an expedition with John Cable and John Woodcock, either up the Connecticut River or west across land from the Boston settlement, to the site of the Native American village of Agawam (which was associated with either the Pocomtuc or Nipmuck tribe) on the western bank. The lands nearest the river were both clear of trees due to occasional burns by the Indians, and covered in nutrient-rich river silt from occasional floods. They constructed a pre-fabricated house south of the Westfield River in what is now Agawam, Massachusetts. Cable and Woodcock were supplied with food and goods to trade over the winter.
In 1636, Pynchon led a settlement expedition with at least seven other men, among them Deacon Samuel Chapin. The English settlers and their livestock travelled over land from the existing settlements in eastern Massachusetts, while some supplies were transported by boat. Pynchon's party purchased (by barter) land on both sides of river from the 18 inhabitants of the village, representing the inner tracts of what is now Agawam, West Springfield, Longmeadow, Springfield, and Chicopee. The Indians retained foraging and hunting rights, the rights to their existing farmlands, and were granted the right to compensation if the English cattle ruined their corn crops.
After warnings about the west side being prone to flooding, and to "avoid trespassing" on the reserved Indian lands, the settlement moved to the less favorable farmland on the east side of the river, and the initial land grants to English families were made there. Long, narrow plots of farmland were created, extending out from the river, in addition to more distant forested "wood lots". A warehouse was also constructed at Warehouse Point in Connecticut, to facilitate the main profit-generating industry for the settlement - trade with the Indians for beaver skins.
Purchases of large swaths of land from the Indians continued throughout the 1600s, enlarging Springfield's territory and forming other colonial towns elsewhere in the Pioneer Valley. Westfield was the westernmost settlement of Massachusetts Bay Colony until 1725, making Springfield a "frontier town" for a number of decades. Over decades and centuries, portions of Springfield were sectioned off to form neighboring towns (see table for dates and links to individual town histories).
Due to imprecision in surveying the colonial borders, Springfield was soon embroiled in a boundary dispute between the Massachusetts Bay Colony and the Connecticut Colony which was not resolved until 1803-4. (See the article on the History of Massachusetts.) As a result, some lands originally administered by Springfield are now in Connecticut.
Springfield remained a small working town when its security was threatened in 1675, during King Philip's War. The leader of the Wampanoag Indian tribe, Wamsutta, died shortly after being questioned at gunpoint by Plymouth colonists. Soon thereafter, the war began. Wamsutta's brother and successor, Metacomet, known as Philip to the colonists, started war with the colony to avenge his brother's death; the Pocomtuc tribe attacked Springfield and destroyed more than half the town on October 5, 1675.
During the 1770s, George Washington selected Springfield as the site of the National Armory. By the 1780s the Arsenal was a major ammunition and weapons depot. In 1787 poor farmers from western Massachusetts, led by Daniel Shays, tried to seize the arms at Springfield. This came to be known as Shays's Rebellion, and was a key event leading to the Federal Constitutional Convention. Those involved in the rebellion planned to use the weapons to force the closure of the Commonwealth and county courts, which were seizing their lands for debt.
Springfield is known as the City of Homes, a nickname given to it in the late 19th century due to its many Victorian mansions, as well as multitudes of single-family houses inhabited by workers.
Wason Manufacturing Company, one of the earliest makers of railway passenger coach equipment in the United States, was established in Springfield in 1845.
On May 2, 1849 the Springfield Railroad was chartered to build from Springfield to the Connecticut state line. By the 1870s it had become the Springfield and New London Railroad.
Charles Gilbert and John Barker formed the Gilbert and Barker Manufacturing Company in 1865. The company produced gasoline pumps in Springfield until moving to West Springfield, Massachusetts in 1912. The company became Gilbarco and moved to Greensboro, North Carolina in 1965. http://www.gilbarco.com/page/History
Two Springfielders, Charles and Frank Duryea, built a gasoline powered automobile in nearby City of Chicopee in 1893. The Duryea Motor Wagon was put on the streets in Chicopee, home of Stevens Arms) on September 20, 1893 and soon became to be the first ever offered for sale. The Duryeas were joined in the automobile industry in 1900 by Skene (which disappeared the next year) and Knox (which survived until 1914).
Indian Motorcycles were manufactured in Springfield from 1901 to 1953. Chief and Scout models were the best sellers from the 1920s to the 1950s. The Hendee Manufacturing Company, Indian's parent company, also manufactured other products such as aircraft engines, bicycles, boat motors, and air conditioners.
From 1921 to 1931 a Rolls-Royce factory in Springfield assembled nearly 3000 Silver Ghosts and Phantoms before production was halted by the Great Depression.http://www.rolls-royce.com/northamerica/history/default.htm
Granville Brothers Aircraft manufactured aircraft at Springfield Airport from 1929 until their bankruptcy in 1934. They are best known for the trophy and speed record holding Senior Sportster series of racing aircraft.
In 1936, Springfield suffered its most devastating natural disaster. The Connecticut River flooded, reaching record heights, inundating the South End and the North End (before the flood, some of Springfield's finest houses stood where Interstate 91 now runs). Damages were estimated at $200,000,000 in 1936. This flood occurred at the height of the Great Depression; Western Massachusetts and Springfield had already suffered greatly. The water damage was repaired after WPA money was made available to Springfield. However, large riverfront portions of the North and South Ends no longer exist.
The city of Springfield is most commonly known as the birthplace of basketball. In 1891, James Naismith, a physical education teacher in Springfield, invented the sport at the Springfield YMCA, now Springfield College, to fill the gap between the football and baseball seasons. The sport quickly became popular worldwide. On February 17, 1968, The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame was opened on the Springfield College campus, which was replaced by a larger facility on the east bank of the Connecticut river in 1985. In 2002, a newer facility for the Hall of Fame opened next to the existing site. Shaped like a basketball and illuminated at night, it has become an interesting landmark to the cityscape. The first building to serve as an indoor basketball court resides at Wilbraham and Monson Academy and has since been converted into a dormitory (Smith Hall).
After an ongoing fiscal crisis, the Massachusetts General Court granted control of the city (especially finance, personnel, and real estate matters) to the Springfield Finance Control Board on June 30, 2004. The Board is composed of three appointees of the State Secretary of Administration and Finance, the Mayor, and the President of the City Council, and is expected to be in charge of the city until June 30, 2009. 
The fiscal problems had already resulted in wage freezes, cuts in city services, fee increases, and layoffs.
The FCB operates under the overall direction of Massachusetts Secretary of Finance and Administration Leslie Kirwan. The FCB legislation included a state loan of $52 million to be paid back with future city tax receipts. A $20 million grant was originally included, but then-House Speaker Thomas Finneran killed that section, fearing it would invite fiscal irresponsibility among other municipalities. Initial estimates placed the city's operating deficit at over $40 million annually.
The original FCB bill filed by Governor Romney included a suspension of Chapter 150E, the state law that defines the collective bargaining process for public employees (state employees are not covered by federal labor laws). Opposition from the unions killed that section.
City and state officials disagree over the causes. The State blamed overspending relative to income by the city. Municipal officials blame dwindling local aid during the statewide financial crisis in 2003. Other observers noted a weak economy and years of mismanagement and corruption in city government.
As of 2006, the Control Board has balanced the City's budget. The City, prior to the FCB, had frozen all wage increases for employees for several years, resulting in substantial litigation with employee unions. Their suits claim that the wage freeze violated their contracts and the collective bargaining law itself and was done without proper legal authority. The City claimed that Chapter 656 of the Acts of 1989 authorized and directed the City to do so. As of June 30, 2007 all 27 union contracts have been resolved. Teachers scored a victory in court when Judge Constance Sweeney ruled the wage freeze implemented by former Mayor Michael Albano to be illegal. (The control board's freezes were ruled to be not at issue, but the judge suggested they have less legal footing). A sum of $2.1 million was awarded to them. The city appealed, however the contract was resolved and the rulings and issue made moot.
Until the FY2007 budget, city residents had not experienced any direct impacts by the control board's actions. In the '07 budget, the FCB approved a $90 trash fee. Controversy and outrage erupted city-wide over the fee, however it is projected to bring in $4.5 million and balance the city's budget. Despite protests from residents, and other city and state elected officials, the FCB directed that it be implemented in October 2006. That year city residents filed a law suit, claiming the fee was illegal. A temporary injunction was placed against the city. The city was barred from collecting the fee until the issue was resolved. In the end, the fee was allowed to go into effect as long as the city made clear municipal garbage pickup was voluntary as long as other services were secured. Recycling collection remains free.
In early 2007, Gov. Deval Patrick announced the board will be extended for at least another year instead of expiring in June as planned, and later that spring announced that he would be replacing the appointed members. At the June 28, 2007 meeting Governor Patrick's new appointees, Chris Gabrieli, Robert Nunes, and Springfield resident James O'S. Morton held their first meeting along with Mayor Charles Ryan and City Council President Kateri Walsh. Chris Gabrelli was appointed chairman at this meeting and the Board voted to extend its term until June 30, 2009.
With the recent 2007 mayor election, mayor Democrat Domenic Sarno joins the Control Board joined by newly-named City Council President Bud Williams.
As of 2008, the FCB has a staff of four: Executive Director Stephen Lisauskas, Deputy Executive Director Patricia Vinchesi, Executive Assistant Ann-Marie Mahnken and Receptionist Candace McKenna.
Springfield is located at (42.112411, -72.547455).Web site: States Census Bureau] US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990]. 2011-04-23. 2011-02-12. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 33.2 square miles (86.0 km²), of which, 32.1 square miles (83.1 km²) of it is land and 1.1 square miles (2.8 km²) of it (3.31%) is water.
Springfield sits on the bank of the Connecticut River, just a few miles north of the border between Massachusetts and Connecticut. Along the river, the city is fairly low and flat. Moving outward from the river, the terrain becomes more hilly, most prominently along State Street and Belmont Avenue.
Springfield is typically divided up into eighteen distinct neighborhoods. They are, as defined by the city Election commission: Bay, Boston Road, Brightwood, East Forest Park, East Springfield, Forest Park, Indian Orchard, Liberty Heights, McKnight, Memorial Square, Metro Center, North End, Old Hill, Pine Point, Six Corners, Sixteen Acres, South End, and Upper Hill. Their exact boundaries are disputed by Census data, civic wards, precinct borders, zip codes, and the opinions of the city's citizens. Many of the neighborhoods are subdivided again according to landmarks or voting precincts. Some names are unofficial, but are used by area residents nonetheless. For example, the Hollywood section in the South End actually refers to a housing complex, and Mason Square is the central intersection in the McKnight neighborhood.
Forest Park lies in the southwestern part of the city, along the border with affluent Longmeadow. The park is one of the largest municipal parks in the United States. The city shares borders with the towns of Longmeadow, East Longmeadow, Wilbraham, and Ludlow and the city of Chicopee. The cities of Agawam and West Springfield are across the Connecticut River. The city also owns Cobble Mountain Reservoir, its water supply, located in the towns of Blandford, Granville, and Russell, at the western edge of Hampden County. It also owns Franconia Golf Course, located mostly in East Longmeadow.
Springfield's climate is, as with the rest of New England, classified as humid continental (hot summer subtype). Winters are cold; in January the average high is 36°F, while the low is 18°F. Summers are very warm; in July the average high is 85°F, and the average low is 63°F.
Precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year, with an average annual precipitation of 43.90 in (1,115 mm). 
As of the 2000 census, there were 152,082 people, 57,130 households, and 36,391 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,737.7 people per square mile (1,829.3/km²). There are nearly 2 million residents in the greater Springfield-Hartford metro region. In Springfield proper, there were 61,172 housing units at an average density of 1,905.6/sq mi (735.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 56.11% White, 1.92% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 21.01% African American, 0.37% Native American, 16.45% from other races, and 4.04% from two or more races. 27.18% of the population were Hispanic of any race. Ancestries include: Irish (12.6%), Italian (9.3%), French (8.2%), Polish (6.0%), and English (4.8%).http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/QTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=16000US2567000&-qr_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U_QTP13&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U
There were 57,130 households out of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.7% were married couples living together, 23.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.3% were non-families. 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.19.
In the city the population was spread out with 28.9% under the age of 18, 11.4% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 18.8% from 45 to 64, and 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.7 years. For every 100 females there were 89 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $30,417, and the median income for a family was $36,285. Males had a median income of $32,396 versus $26,536 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,232. 19.3% of families and 23.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.3% of those under age 18 and 11.7% of those age 65 or over. The 2007 Springfield, MA, population is 151,176. 51.80% of people are white, 22.36% are black, 2.37% are Asian, 0.46% are native American, and 22.97% claim 'Other'.
30.90% of the people in Springfield, MA, claim Hispanic ethnicity (meaning 69.10% are non-Hispanic).
As of 2007 The median age is 32.7. The US median is 37.6. 44.06% of people in Springfield, MA, are married. 10.10% are divorced.
The average household size is 2.63 people. 15.04% of people are married, with children. 18.53% have children, but are single.
See also: List of Springfield Mayors. Springfield became a city on May 25, 1852, by decree of the Massachusetts Legislature. Springfield, like all municipalities in Massachusetts, enjoys limited home rule. Prior to the Control Board, Springfield's government had the power to establish commissions, pass city ordinances, set tax rates, write a budget, and other miscellaneous operations specifically relating to the city. The current city charter, in effect since 1959, uses a "strong mayor" government with most power concentrated in the mayor, as in Boston and elsewhere. The mayor representing the city's executive branch presents the budget, appoints commissioners and department heads, and in general runs the city. The Mayor is former City Councilor Domenic Sarno, elected November 6, 2007 by a margin of 52.54% to 47.18% against incumbent Charles Ryan. He took office in January, 2008.
The City Council, consisting of nine members, is the city's legislative branch. Each of the members are elected at-large, along with the mayor, every odd numbered year. It passes the budget, authorizes bond sales, holds hearings, creates departments and commissions, and amends zoning laws. The city council appoints a president who becomes acting mayor should a vacancy occur in the office.
The mayor's office and city council chambers are in city hall - part of the Municipal Group in downtown Springfield. The Finance Control Board meets there as well.
In the past, efforts have been made to provide each of the city's eight wards a seat in the city council, instead of the current at-large format. There would still be about three at-large seats under this format. The primary argument for this has been that City Councilors currently live in only four of the city's wards. Thus far, the initiative has failed to pass the City Council twice. If ever passed, it would still need the approval of the Massachusetts legislature and the Governor. More recently Mayor Charles V. Ryan and City Councilor Jose Tosedo proposed a home-rule amendment that would expand the council to thirteen members adding four seats to the existing nine member at large system, but allocated between eight ward and five at large seats. This home-rule petition was adopted by the City Council 8-1, and has since been passed by the State Senate and House and signed by the Governor. On election day, November 6, 2007, city residents voted overwhelmingly in favor of changing the City Council and School Committee. The changes will take effect with the next regular election. Many proponents of ward representation argue that the slim Caucasian majority in Springfield keeps the city council out of touch with the needs of Springfield's large black and Hispanic populations, and that the cost of running a city-wide campaign is prohibitively high for local black or Hispanic politicians who could represent their home wards more effectively than they are currently being represented. Others argue that some blacks and Hispanics have run for office, and that the current minority representation on the Council would not increase under ward representation as proposed. Some citizens believe that the problem might be corrected by greater voter turnout among blacks and Hispanics. The plaintiffs hoped to postpone the 2005 municipal election pending the judge's ruling, but the motion was denied. The case itself is ongoing; however, further action by the Court has been stayed pending the local ballot measure.
In 2007, a ballot initiative to establish a new council with five at-large seats and eight ward seats passed 3-1. The first election reflecting the change will be in 2009, which will seat councilors in 2010.
The city has no judicial branch itself, but rather uses the Springfield based state courts, which include Springfield district court and Hampden County Superior Court. The Federal District Court also hears cases regularly in Springfield.
Springfield also has the third largest school district in Massachusetts operating 38 elementary schools, six high schools, six middle schools (6-8) and seven specialized schools. The city School Committee recently passed a new neighborhood school program to improve schools and reduce the growing busing costs associated with the current plan. The plan faces stiff opposition from parents and minority groups who claim that the schools are still unequal. The city is required under a 1970s court order to balance school racially which had necessitated busing. However, since then, the city and the school's population has shifted and many of the neighborhoods are more integrated, calling into question the need for busing at all. Though the plan is likely to be challenged in court, the state Board of Education decided it did not have authority to review it, sidestepping the volatile issue while effectively blessing it.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Springfield operates five Catholic elementary schools in the city, all of which will be consolidated into a single entity, St. Michael's Academy, in the autumn of 2009. The diocese also runs Cathedral High School, which is the largest Catholic high school in the area.
A non-denominational Christian school, the Pioneer Valley Christian School, is located in the Sixteen Acres neighborhood of the city.
Two nonsectarian schools are also located in Springfield: The MacDuffie School, which was founded in 1890 and teaches grades six though twelve, and Academy Hill , which teaches kindergarten through grade eight.
The City of Springfield is home to three four-year colleges: Springfield College, Western New England College and American International College. On the grounds of the former Springfield Armory is Springfield Technical Community College. The greater Springfield area is home to nine additional colleges and universities: Elms College, Westfield State College, Amherst College, Mount Holyoke College, Smith College, Bay Path College, Hampshire College, the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, and Holyoke Community College.
For nearly six decades, Springfield has been slumping economically, due largely to a decline in manufacturing. Many major companies that maintained factories in the city closed their facilities, moving to the suburbs or out of New England all together. In 1968, the Springfield Armory was closed by the Pentagon. Another large manufacturer, American Bosch, shuttered its doors in 1986. In 2005, this exodus continued, with the closure of the Danaher Tool forge, maker of Craftsman tools. Many Springfield residents moved to the suburbs to escape inner-city crime and urban decay. Because manufacturing had been a large part of Springfield's economy, it proved difficult to fill the void with a service-based economy, more so than in similar cities with more diversified economies.
Local department stores, Forbes & Wallace and Steigers, shuttered in 1974 and 1994, respectively. Johnsons Bookstore closed a few years later, though this was due less to a decline in retail downtown than competition from chain bookstores, such as Barnes and Noble. Many banks headquartered in Springfield closed or merged with larger banks, (in fact, all but Hampden Bank, which remains the only Springfield-based bank.) A downtown revitalization project known as Baystate West, was completed in 1973, but over the years it too became empty. The construction contributed to Springfield's somewhat modern 1970s-era skyline. The Eastfield Mall, built on Springfield's outskirts in 1969, proved more successful. However, it suffered a decline after the Holyoke Mall was opened in the 1980s. Over the past five years, the mall has rebounded; consequently, Springfield's largest retail area is now on Boston Road, on the northeastern edge of the city, rather than downtown.
Due to its distance from Boston, many residents of Springfield feel that the city and region have been ignored by the powers that be in the eastern parts of the state. Said powers are periodically accused of lumping Springfield and its formerly industrial neighbors together with the rest of the agricultural areas west of Worcester.
Some have observed, sarcastically, that Springfield maintains a better relationship with Hartford than with Boston. Springfield is physically closer to Hartford, shares a major interstate highway, and Bradley International Airport. Sometimes they are considered twin cities.
Springfield retains strong ethnic characteristics seen in the variety of restaurants available in all parts of the city. Remnants of the city's industrial glory are best represented in its museums at The Quadrangle and its library system. Though both have suffered funding cuts in recent years, they remain well-respected and sizable considering the relatively small population. Springfield also has its own well-respected orchestra.
Besides Springfield's historic connection with basketball, the city has a rich sporting history. Volleyball was invented in the adjacent city of Holyoke, and the first exhibition match was held in 1896 at the International YMCA Training School.
Ice hockey has been played professionally in Springfield since the 1920s, and the Springfield Indians of the American Hockey League (now located in Peoria, Illinois) was the oldest minor league hockey franchise in existence. In 1994 the team relocated to Worcester and was replaced by the current Springfield Falcons, who play at the MassMutual Center downtown. Springfield is still home to the league office of the American Hockey League. For parts of two seasons (1978-80) the NHL Hartford Whalers played in Springfield while their arena was undergoing repairs after a roof collapse. On the amateur level, the Junior A Springfield Olympics played for many years at the Olympia, while American International College's Yellow Jackets compete in NCAA Division I hockey.
Basketball remains a major factor in the city. The Hall of Fame Tip-Off Classic has been the semi-official start to the college basketball season for many years, and the NCAA Division II championships are usually held in Springfield. The New England Blizzard of the ABL played its first game in Springfield, and several minor pro men's and women's teams have called the city home, including the Springfield Fame of the United States Basketball League (the league's inaugural champion in 1985) and the Springfield Hall of Famers of the Eastern Professional Basketball League.
Springfield is rumored to be home to an NBA Development League expansion team beginning with the 2009-10 season.
The city has had professional baseball. The Springfield Giants of the Single- and Double-A Eastern League played between 1957 and 1965. The team was quite successful, winning consecutive championships in 1959, 1960 and 1961, by startling coincidence the same seasons in which the Springfield Indians won three straight Calder Cup championships in hockey. The Giants played at Pyncheon Park by the waterfront, and were forced to move when Pyncheon Park was torn down to build I-91. Before that time, the Springfield Cubs played in the minor league New England League from 1946 until 1949, after which the league folded; they then played in the International League until 1953. For many years before the Giants, Springfield was also a member of the Eastern League, between 1893 and 1943. Generally the team was named the Ponies, but it also carried the nicknames of "Maroons" (1895), "Green Sox" (1917), "Hampdens" (1920-21), "Rifles (1932, 1942-43) and "Nationals" (1939-41).
Springfield's largest local newspaper is The Republican. It was formerly the Springfield Union-News & Sunday Republican. Smaller papers such as The Reminder and the Valley Advocate also serve Greater Springfield.Other newspapers include Predvestnik (a Russian language newspaper) and El Pueblo Latino, which serves the Hispanic community, and Unity First which serves the African-American community.
|40||WGGB||ABC, FOX, MyNetworkTV|
Full power Springfield TV stations include:
•WWLP, UHF 22 (Digital 11). WWLP is the ((NBC)) affiliate for the area. While WWLP is licensed to Springfield, to escape the crime and bad publicity of Springfield, they moved their studios to nearby Chicopee. WWLP is oldest TV station to air regularly scheduled programming in the market, launching it's schedule on March 17, 1953, on Channel 61. WWLP also operated WRLP, a UHF station licensed to Greenfield, whos transmitter was in Winchester, New Hampshire as well as W69AQ, a low power station that transmitted from the WWLP tower on Provin Mountain. WWLP remains the only full power station in the market with an analog television signal on the air.
•WGGB, UHF 40 (Digital 40). WGGB is the ((ABC)) and primary ((FOX)), secondary ((MyNetworkTV)) affiliate for the area. WGGB's studios are located on Liberty Street near the Chicopee line. WGGB signed on, on April 1, 1953 on Channel 55. In 1958 WGGB switched to UHF 40. In 2008, WGGB launched a secondary service called "Fox 6", named after it's channel position on the local Comcast cable lineup. FOX6 also appears on WGGB's DTV sub-channel 40.2. WGGB is the only locally owned station, owned by buisnessman John G. Gormally. WGGB's analog television signal signed off permanently in late November 2008, due to a transmitter failure.
•WGBY, UHF 57 (Digital 58 until 04/18/09, Digital 22 thereafter). WGBY is the ((PBS)) affiliate for the area. WGBY's studios are located in downtown Springfield, near Interstate 91 and the Conrail train lines. WGBY signed on in 1963. WGBY is owned by Boston based WGBH. WGBY signed off their analog signal permanently in November 2008, to allow for the replacement of transmission antennas.
Low power Springfield TV stations include:
•WFXQ-LP, UHF 28 (to be Digital 28). WFXQ is owned and operated by LIN Television, who owns WWLP-TV. WFXQ currently simulcasts WWLP's programming most of the time, occasionally breaking away for segemented programs on the weekend. WFXQ is the old W11BJ Hartford.
•WESA-LP, UHF 34. WESA-LP is owned and operated by R&S Broadcasting. The programming is to be determined. WESA-LP is the old W12CS Granby, Connecticut.
•WSHM-LP, UHF 67 (to be Digital 41/WSHM-LD), WSHM-LP is owned and operated by Meridith Broadcasting. WSHM is Springfield's ((CBS)) affiliate. WSHM-LP has studios located in the Monarch Tower in Downtown Springfield. WSHM-LP does a local newscast, including a 10pm "webcast". WSHM-LP launched the market's 3rd local newscast (against WWLP and WGGB). WSHM-LP is the former W67DF, a Low power station run by Trinity Broadcasting. WSHM-LP is referred to as "CBS 3", denoting it's cable channel assignment within the market.
Springfield does not have it's own CW affiliate. Instead CW is carried on the two local cable operators via a closed circuit satellite feed.
Springfield proper is serviced exclusively by Comcast cable. Springfield had a unique "dual plant" cable system from 1980 until 2001. All homes wired for cable would have two cable drops run into their house.
|Callsign||Frequency||City/town||Network affiliation / owner||Format|
|WFCR||88.5 FM||Amherst||University of Massachusetts, Amherst||Public Radio|
|WSKB||89.5 FM||Westfield||Westfield State College||Public Radio|
|WSCB||89.9 FM||Springfield||Springfield College||Public Radio|
|WTCC||90.7 FM||Springfield||Springfield Technical Community College||Public Radio|
|WAIC||91.9 FM||Springfield||American International College||Public Radio|
|WHYN-FM||93.1 FM||Springfield||Clear Channel Communications||Hot Adult Contemporary (Top 40 on HD2)|
|WMAS-FM||94.7 FM||Springfield||Citadel Broadcasting Corporation||Adult contemporary (Country on HD2)|
|WPKX||97.9 FM||Springfield||Clear Channel Communications||Country (Americana on HD2)|
|WLZX||99.3 FM||Northampton/Springfield||Saga Communications of New England||"Everything That Rocks"|
|WLCQ-LP||99.7 FM||Feeding Hills||Lighthouse Christian Center||Christian Rock/Pop Music, "The Q"|
|WRNX||100.9 FM||Amherst/Springfield||Clear Channel Communications||AAA|
|WAQY||102.1 FM||Springfield||Saga Communications of New England||Classic rock|
|WCCH||103.5 FM||Holyoke||Holyoke Community College||Public Radio|
|WNEK-FM||105.1 FM||Springfield||Western New England College||Public Radio|
|WVEI-FM||105.5 FM||Easthampton/Springfield||Entercom Communications||Sports Talk(simulcast of WEEI-AM in Boston)|
|WEIB||106.3 FM||Northampton/Springfield||Cutting Edge Broadcasting||Smooth Jazz|
|WHYN||560 AM||Springfield||Clear Channel Communications||News/Talk|
|WNNZ||640 AM||Westfield||Clear Channel Communications||Public Radio (programmed by WFCR)|
|WARE||1250 AM||Ware||Success Signal Broadcasting||Oldies|
|WPNI||1430 AM||Amherst||Pamal Broadcastring||Public Radio (temporary simulcast of WUMB-FM in Boston)|
|WMAS||1450 AM||Springfield||Citadel Broadcasting Corporation||Oldies|
The Pioneer Valley is often referred to as the "Crossroads of New England" because of the crossing of major east-west and north-south railroads. While the same railways exist and operate today, the city is also served by a number of Interstate Highways including I-90 (Mass Pike) and I-91, which connect New Haven, Hartford, Holyoke, Northampton, and Vermont to Springfield. One of the few spurs of I-91 in Massachusetts, I-291, runs through the city and provides a secondary connection between I-90 and I-91. (There is an unnumbered connector in West Springfield.)
Springfield also has an Amtrak station served by trains destined for New York City, Washington, D.C., Boston, Vermont, and Chicago. Amtrak operates out of its own station facility built into one of the old platforms of the city's long condemned train station on Frank B. Murray St. with an entrance on Lyman street, which lies on the side of the railroad embankment opposite the station.
Plans exist for redevelopment of the city's Union Station into an Intermodal Transportation facility for both Amtrak and bus lines. While significant federal, state, and civic investment has been appropriated for this project, disputes between the owners of the right-of-way and the planners in charge of the project, originally scheduled for completion in 1998, the PVTA, have slowed progress. In 2005, it was revealed that the project and the PVTA had been embroiled in the city's ever-widening corruption probe, throwing its future into question.
Plans also exist for a New Haven-Hartford-Springfield Commuter Rail Line. As of August 2006, the Connecticut General Assembly has committed $146 million to the project, which is considered only a first step. In order to complete the project, the state of Connecticut must provide further funding, as must the state of Massachusetts if the line is to cross the state line. The line could become operational as soon as 2011.
Buses running into the city use a facility owned and operated by Peter Pan Bus Lines, located on the corner of Main and Liberty streets. The Pioneer Valley Transit Authority is the regional public transit provider, operating a fleet of buses from the Peter Pan terminal.
Westover Metropolitan is nearby to Springfield and is 5 miles (8 km) from downtown. It is 3 miles (5 km) from the Massachusetts Turnpike.
Springfield and Hartford are located 25 miles (40 km) apart with Bradley International between them.