September 11 attacks explained

September 11, 2001 Attacks
Location:New York City
Arlington County, Virginia; and near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, all in the United States.
Date:Tuesday, September 11, 2001
Timezone:UTC-4
Type:Aircraft hijacking, Mass murder, Murder-suicide, Suicide attack
Fatalities:2,998 (excluding the 19 hijackers, including 24 presumed dead)
Injuries:6,291+
Perps:al-Qaeda led by Osama bin Laden, see also Responsibility and Organizers.

The (often referred to as nine-eleven, written 9/11) were a series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon the United States on September 11, 2001. On that morning, 19 Islamist terrorists affiliated with al-Qaeda hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners.[1] [2] The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing everyone on board and many others working in the buildings. Both buildings collapsed within two hours, destroying at least two nearby buildings and damaging others. The hijackers crashed a third airliner into the Pentagon. The fourth plane crashed into a field near Shanksville in rural Somerset County, Pennsylvania, after some of its passengers and flight crew attempted to retake control of the plane, which the hijackers had redirected toward Washington, D.C. There are no survivors from any of the flights.

Excluding the 19 hijackers, 2,974 people died in the attacks.[3] [4] The overwhelming majority of casualties were civilians, including nationals of over 90 different countries. In addition, the death of at least one person from lung disease was ruled by a medical examiner to be a result of exposure to dust from the World Trade Center's collapse.[5]

The United States responded to the attacks by launching a "War on Terrorism", invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, who had harbored al-Qaeda terrorists, and enacting the USA PATRIOT Act. Many other states also strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded law enforcement powers. Some American stock exchanges stayed closed for the rest of the week, and posted enormous losses upon reopening, especially in the airline and insurance industries. The destruction of billions of dollars worth of office space caused the economy of Lower Manhattan to grind to a halt.

The damage to the Pentagon was cleared and repaired within a year, and the Pentagon Memorial was built on the site. The rebuilding process has started on the World Trade Center site. In 2006 a new office tower was completed on the site of 7 World Trade Center. The Freedom Tower is currently under construction at the site and at 1,776 ft (541 m) upon completion in 2011, will become the one of the tallest buildings in North America. Three more towers are expected to be built between 2007 and 2012 on the site.

Attacks

See main article: Timeline for the day of the September 11 attacks. Early in the morning on September 11, 2001, nineteen hijackers took control of four commercial airliners en route to San Francisco and Los Angeles from Boston, Newark, and Washington, D.C. (Washington Dulles International Airport).[1] At 8:46 a.m., American Airlines Flight 11 was crashed into the World Trade Center's North Tower, followed by United Airlines Flight 175 which hit the South Tower at 9:03 a.m.[6] [7] Another group of hijackers flew American Airlines Flight 77 into the Pentagon at 9:37 a.m.[8] A fourth flight, United Airlines Flight 93, whose ultimate target was thought to be either the United States Capitol or White House, crashed near Shanksville, Pennsylvania at 10:03 a.m.[9] [10]

During the hijacking of the airplanes, the hijackers used box-cutter knives to kill flight attendants, passengers, and crew members, including the captain of Flight 11, John Ogonowski.[11] [12] Some passengers were able to make phone calls using the cabin airphone service and mobile phones,[13] [14] and provide details, including that several hijackers were aboard each plane, that mace or other form of noxious chemical spray, such as tear gas or pepper spray was used, and that some people aboard had been stabbed.[15] [16] [17] [18] The 9/11 Commission established that two of the hijackers had recently purchased Leatherman multi-function hand tools.[19] A flight attendant on Flight 11, a passenger on Flight 175, and passengers on Flight 93 mentioned that the hijackers had bombs, but one of the passengers also mentioned he thought the bombs were fake. No traces of explosives were found at the crash sites, and the 9/11 Commission believed the bombs were probably fake.[11]

On United Airlines Flight 93, black box recordings revealed that crew and passengers attempted to seize control of the plane from the hijackers after learning through phone calls that similarly hijacked planes had been crashed into buildings that morning.[20] According to the transcript of Flight 93's recorder, one of the hijackers gave the order to roll the plane once it became evident that they would lose control of the plane to the passengers.[21] Soon afterward, the aircraft crashed into a field near Shanksville in Stonycreek Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania, at 10:03:11 a.m. local time (14:03:11 UTC). Al-Qaeda leader Khalid Sheikh Mohammed mentioned in a 2002 interview with Yosri Fouda, an al Jazeera journalist, that Flight 93's target was the United States Capitol, which was given the code name "the Faculty of Law".[22]

Three buildings in the World Trade Center Complex collapsed due to structural failure on the day of the attack.[23] The south tower (2 WTC) fell at approximately 9:59 a.m., after burning for 56 minutes in a fire caused by the impact of United Airlines Flight 175.[23] The north tower (1 WTC) collapsed at 10:28 a.m., after burning for approximately 102 minutes.[23] When the north tower collapsed, debris heavily damaged the nearby 7 World Trade Center (7 WTC) building. Its structural integrity was further compromised by fires, and the building collapsed later in the day at 5:20 p.m.[24]

The attacks created widespread confusion among news organizations and air traffic controllers across the United States. All international civilian air traffic was banned from landing on US soil for three days.[25] Aircraft already in flight were either turned back or redirected to airports in Canada or Mexico. News sources aired unconfirmed and often contradictory reports throughout the day. One of the most prevalent of these reported that a car bomb had been detonated at the U.S. State Department's headquarters in Washington, D.C.[26] Soon after reporting for the first time on the Pentagon crash, CNN and other media also briefly reported that a fire had broken out on the Washington Mall.[27] Another report went out on the AP wire, claiming that a Delta Air Lines airliner—Flight 1989—had been hijacked. This report, too, turned out to be in error; the plane was briefly thought to represent a hijack risk, but it responded to controllers and landed safely in Cleveland, Ohio.[28]

Casualties

See main article: Casualties of the September 11 attacks.

Fatalities (excluding hijackers)
New York CityWorld Trade Center2,604 died and another 24 remain listed as missing[29]
American 1187[30]
United 17559[31]
ArlingtonPentagon125[32]
American 7759[33]
ShanksvilleUnited 9340[34]
Total2,974 died and another 24 remain listed as missing.
There were 2,974 fatalities, excluding the 19 hijackers: 246 on the four planes (from which there were no survivors), 2,603 in New York City in the towers and on the ground, and 125 at the Pentagon.[35] [36] An additional 24 people remain listed as missing.[37] All of the fatalities in the attacks were civilians except for 55 military personnel killed at the Pentagon.[38] More than 90 countries lost citizens in the attacks on the World Trade Center.[39] In 2007, the New York City medical examiner's office added Felicia Dunn-Jones to the official death toll from the September 11 attacks. Dunn-Jones died five months after 9/11 from a lung condition which was linked to exposure to dust during the collapse of the World Trade Center.[40]

NIST estimated that approximately 17,400 civilians were in the World Trade Center complex at the time of the attacks, while turnstile counts from the Port Authority suggest that 14,154 people were typically in the Twin Towers by 8:45 a.m.[41] [42] The vast majority of people below the impact zone safely evacuated the buildings, along with 18 individuals who were in the impact zone in the south tower.[43] 1,366 people died who were at or above the floors of impact in the North Tower.[44] According to the Commission Report, hundreds were killed instantly by the impact, while the rest were trapped and died after the tower collapsed.[45] As many as 600 people were killed instantly or were trapped at or above the floors of impact in the South Tower.[44]

At least 200 people jumped to their deaths from the burning towers (as depicted in the photograph "The Falling Man"), landing on the streets and rooftops of adjacent buildings hundreds of feet below.[46] Some of the occupants of each tower above its point of impact made their way upward toward the roof in hope of helicopter rescue, but the roof access doors were locked. No plan existed for helicopter rescues, and on September 11, the thick smoke and intense heat would have prevented helicopters from conducting rescues.[47]

A total of 411 emergency workers who responded to the scene died as they attempted to implement rescue and fire suppression efforts. The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) lost 341 firefighters and 2 FDNY paramedics.[48] The New York City Police Department lost 23 officers.[49] The Port Authority Police Department lost 37 officers,[50] and 8 additional EMTs and paramedics from private EMS units were killed.[51] [52]

Cantor Fitzgerald L.P., an investment bank on the 101st–105th floors of One World Trade Center, lost 658 employees, considerably more than any other employer.[53] Marsh Inc., located immediately below Cantor Fitzgerald on floors 93–101 (the location of Flight 11's impact), lost 295 employees, and 175 employees of Aon Corporation were killed.[54] After New York, New Jersey was the hardest hit state, with the city of Hoboken sustaining the most fatalities.[55]

Weeks after the attack, the estimated death toll was over 6,000.[56] The city was only able to identify remains for approximately 1,600 of the victims at the World Trade Center. The medical examiner's office also collected "about 10,000 unidentified bone and tissue fragments that cannot be matched to the list of the dead."[57] Bone fragments were still being found in 2006 as workers were preparing to demolish the damaged Deutsche Bank Building.

Damage

In addition to the 110-floor Twin Towers of the World Trade Center itself, numerous other buildings at the World Trade Center site were destroyed or badly damaged, including 7 World Trade Center, 6 World Trade Center, 5 World Trade Center, 4 World Trade Center, the Marriott World Trade Center (3 WTC), and the World Financial Center complex and St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church.[58] The Deutsche Bank Building across Liberty Street from the World Trade Center complex was later condemned due to the uninhabitable, toxic conditions inside the office tower, and is undergoing deconstruction.[59] [60] The Borough of Manhattan Community College's Fiterman Hall at 30 West Broadway was also condemned due to extensive damage in the attacks, and is slated for deconstruction.[61] Other neighboring buildings including 90 West Street and the Verizon Building suffered major damage, but have since been restored.[62] World Financial Center buildings, One Liberty Plaza, the Millenium Hilton, and 90 Church Street had moderate damage.[63] Communications equipment atop the North Tower, including broadcast radio, television and two-way radio antenna towers were also destroyed, but media stations were quickly able to reroute signals and resume broadcasts.[58] [64] In Arlington County, a portion of the Pentagon was severely damaged by fire and one section of the building collapsed.[65]

Rescue and recovery

See main article: Rescue and recovery effort after the September 11 attacks. The Fire Department of New York City (FDNY) quickly deployed 200 units (half of the department) to the site, whose efforts were supplemented by numerous off-duty firefighters and EMTs.[66] [67] [68] The New York Police Department (NYPD) sent Emergency Service Units (ESU) and other police personnel, along with deploying its aviation unit.[69] Once on the scene, the FDNY, NYPD, and Port Authority police did not coordinate efforts,[66] and ended up doing redundant searches for civilians.[70] As conditions deteriorated, the NYPD aviation unit relayed information to police commanders, who issued orders for its personnel to evacuate the towers; most NYPD officers were able to safely evacuate before the buildings collapsed.[69] [70] With separate command posts set up and incompatible radio communications between the agencies, warnings were not passed along to FDNY commanders. After the first tower collapsed, FDNY commanders did issue evacuation warnings, however, due to technical difficulties with malfunctioning radio repeater systems, many firefighters never heard the evacuation orders. 9-1-1 dispatchers also received information from callers that was not passed along to commanders on the scene.[67] Within hours of the attack, a substantial search and rescue operation was launched. After months of around-the-clock operations, the World Trade Center site was cleared by the end of May 2002.[71]

Attackers and their motivation

See also: Responsibility for the September 11 attacks, Hijackers in the September 11 attacks, Trials related to the September 11 attacks and 20th hijacker.

Within hours of the attacks, the FBI was able to determine the names and in many cases the personal details of the suspected pilots and hijackers.[72] [73] Mohamed Atta's luggage, which did not make the connection from his Portland flight onto Flight 11, contained papers that revealed the identity of all 19 hijackers, and other important clues about their plans, motives, and backgrounds.[74] On the day of the attacks, the National Security Agency intercepted communications that pointed to Osama bin Laden, as did German intelligence agencies.[75] [76] On September 27, 2001, the FBI released photos of the 19 hijackers, along with information about the possible nationalities and aliases of many.[77] Fifteen of the hijackers were from Saudi Arabia, two from the United Arab Emirates, one from Egypt, and one from Lebanon.[78] Mohamed Atta was the ringleader of the 19 hijackers.[79] The hijackers were well-educated, mature adults, whose belief systems were fully formed.[80]

The FBI investigation into the attacks, code named operation PENTTBOM, was the largest and most complex investigation in the history of the FBI, involving over 7,000 special agents.[81] Through interrogations of USS Cole bombing suspects in Yemen, the FBI was able to link the hijackers to al-Qaeda.[82] The United States government determined that al-Qaeda, headed by Osama bin Laden, bore responsibility for the attacks, with the FBI stating "evidence linking al-Qaeda and bin Laden to the attacks of September 11 is clear and irrefutable".[83] The Government of the United Kingdom reached the same conclusion regarding al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden's culpability for the September 11 attacks.[84]

Al-Qaeda

See main article: Al-Qaeda. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced back to 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. Soon after the invasion, Osama bin Laden traveled to Afghanistan where, with American government assistance,[85] he helped organize Arab mujahideen and established the Maktab al-Khidamat (MAK) organization to resist the Soviets. In 1989, as the Soviets withdrew, MAK was transformed into a "rapid reaction force" in jihad against governments across the Muslim world. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, Osama bin Laden became more radical.[86] In 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā, which called for American soldiers to leave Saudi Arabia.[87]

In a second fatwā issued in 1998, bin Laden outlined his objections to American foreign policy towards Israel, as well as the continued presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War.[88] Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort violent action against American military and citizenry until the stated grievances are reversed, noting "ulema have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries."[88]

Planning of the attacks

See main article: Planning of the September 11 attacks. The idea for the September 11 plot came from Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who first presented the idea to Osama bin Laden in 1996.[89] At that point, Bin Laden and al-Qaeda were in a period of transition, having just relocated back to Afghanistan from Sudan.[90] The 1998 African Embassy bombings and Bin Laden's 1998 fatwā marked a turning point, with bin Laden intent on attacking the United States.[90] In late 1998 or early 1999, bin Laden gave approval for Mohammed to go forward with organizing the plot. A series of meetings occurred in spring of 1999, involving Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Osama bin Laden, and his deputy Mohammed Atef.[90] Mohammed provided operational support for the plot, including target selections and helping arrange travel for the hijackers.[90] Bin Laden overruled Mohammed, rejecting some potential targets such as the U.S. Bank Tower in Los Angeles[91] because "there was not enough time to prepare for such an operation".[92]

Bin Laden provided leadership for the plot, along with financial support, and was involved in selecting participants for the plot.[93] Bin Laden initially selected Nawaf al-Hazmi and Khalid al-Mihdhar, both experienced jihadists who fought in Bosnia. Hazmi and Mihdhar arrived in the United States in mid-January 2000, after traveling to Malaysia to attend the Kuala Lumpur al-Qaeda Summit. In spring 2000, Hazmi and Mihdhar took flying lessons in San Diego, California, but both spoke little English, did not do well with flying lessons, and eventually served as "muscle" hijackers.[94] [95] In late 1999, a group of men from Hamburg, Germany arrived in Afghanistan, including Mohamed Atta, Marwan al-Shehhi, Ziad Jarrah, and Ramzi Binalshibh.[96] Bin Laden selected these men for the plot, as they were educated, could speak English, and had experience living in the west.[97] New recruits were routinely screened for special skills, which allowed Al Qaeda leaders to also identify Hani Hanjour, who already had a commercial pilot's license, for the plot.[98]

Hanjour arrived in San Diego on December 8, 2000, joining Hazmi. They soon left for Arizona, where Hanjour took refresher training. Marwan al-Shehhi arrived at the end of May 2000, while Atta arrived on June 3, 2000, and Jarrah arrived on June 27, 2000. Binalshibh applied several times for a visa to the United States, but as a Yemeni, he was rejected out of concerns he would overstay his visa and remain as an illegal immigrant. Binalshibh remained in Hamburg, providing coordination between Atta and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. The three Hamburg cell members all took pilot training in south Florida. In spring 2001, the muscle hijackers began arriving in the United States.[99] In July 2001, Atta met with Binalshibh in Spain, where they coordinated details of the plot, including final target selection. Binalshibh also passed along Bin Laden's wish for the attacks to be carried out as soon as possible.[100]

Osama bin Laden

See main article: Videos of Osama bin Laden. Osama bin Laden's declaration of a holy war against the United States, and a fatwā signed by bin Laden and others calling for the killing of American civilians in 1998, are seen by investigators as evidence of his motivation to commit such acts.[101]

Bin Laden initially denied, but later admitted, involvement in the incidents.[2] [102] On September 16, 2001, bin Laden denied any involvement with the attacks by reading a statement which was broadcast by Qatar's Al Jazeera satellite channel: "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation."[103] This denial was broadcast on U.S. news networks and worldwide.

In November 2001, U.S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Jalalabad, Afghanistan, in which Osama bin Laden is talking to Khaled al-Harbi. In the tape, bin Laden admits foreknowledge of the attacks.[104] The tape was broadcast on various news networks from December 13, 2001. His distorted appearance on the tape has been attributed to tape transfer artifact.[105]

On December 27, 2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he states, "Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, which kills our people," but he stopped short of admitting responsibility for the attacks.[106]

Shortly before the U.S. presidential election in 2004, in a taped statement, bin Laden publicly acknowledged al-Qaeda's involvement in the attacks on the U.S. and admitted his direct link to the attacks. He said that the attacks were carried out because "we are free...and want to regain freedom for our nation. As you undermine our security we undermine yours."[107] Osama bin Laden says he had personally directed the 19 hijackers.[108] In the video, he says, "We had agreed with the Commander-General Muhammad Atta, Allah have mercy on him, that all the operations should be carried out within 20 minutes, before Bush and his administration notice."[102] Another video obtained by Al Jazeera in September 2006 shows Osama bin Laden with Ramzi Binalshibh, as well as two hijackers, Hamza al-Ghamdi and Wail al-Shehri, as they make preparations for the attacks.[109]

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed

In a 2002 interview with Al Jazeera journalist Yosri Fouda, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed admitted his involvement, along with Ramzi Binalshibh, in the "Holy Tuesday operation."[110] The 9/11 Commission Report determined that the animosity towards the United States felt by Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the "principal architect" of the 9/11 attacks, stemmed "not from his experiences there as a student, but rather from his violent disagreement with U.S. foreign policy favoring Israel."[111] Mohamed Atta shared this same motivation. Ralph Bodenstein, a former classmate of Atta described him as "most imbued actually about... U.S. protection of these Israeli politics in the region."[112] Abdulaziz al-Omari, a hijacker aboard Flight 11 with Mohamed Atta, said in his video will, "My work is a message those who heard me and to all those who saw me at the same time it is a message to the infidels that you should leave the Arabian peninsula defeated and stop giving a hand of help to the coward Jews in Palestine."[113]

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was arrested on March 1, 2003 in Rawalpindi, Pakistan by Pakistani security officials working with the CIA, and is currently being held at Guantanamo Bay.[114] During US hearings in March 2007, which have been "widely criticized by lawyers and human rights groups as sham tribunals", Sheikh Mohammed again confessed his responsibility for the attacks, saying "I was responsible for the 9/11 operation, from A to Z."[115] [116]

Other al-Qaeda members

In "Substitution for Testimony of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed" from the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui, five people are identified as having been completely aware of the operation's details. They are Osama bin Laden, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Ramzi Binalshibh, Abu Turab al-Urduni and Mohammed Atef.[117] To date, only peripheral figures have been tried or convicted in connection with the attacks. Bin Laden has not yet been formally indicted for the attacks.[118]

On September 26, 2005, the Spanish high court directed by judge Baltasar Garzón sentenced Abu Dahdah to 27 years of imprisonment for conspiracy on the 9/11 attacks and being a member of the terrorist organization al-Qaeda. At the same time, another 17 al-Qaeda members were sentenced to penalties of between six and eleven years.[119] [120] On February 16, 2006, the Spanish Supreme Court reduced the Abu Dahdah penalty to 12 years because it considered that his participation in the conspiracy was not proven.[121]

Motive

The attacks were consistent with the overall mission statement of al-Qaeda, as set out in a 1998 fatwā issued by Osama bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri, Ahmed Refai Taha, Mir Hamzah, and Fazlur Rahman.[122] [123] [124] This statement begins by quoting the Koran as saying, "slay the pagans wherever ye find them" and extrapolates this to conclude that it is the "duty of every Muslim" to "kill Americans anywhere."[124] Bin Laden elaborated on this theme in his "Letter to America" of October 2002: "you are the worst civilization witnessed by the history of mankind: You are the nation who, rather than ruling by the Shariah of Allah in its Constitution and Laws, choose to invent your own laws as you will and desire. You separate religion from your policies, contradicting the pure nature which affirms Absolute Authority to the Lord and your Creator."[125] Many of the eventual findings of the 9/11 Commission with respect to motives have been supported by other experts. Counter-terrorism expert Richard A. Clarke explains in his 2004 book, Against All Enemies, that U.S. foreign policy decisions including "confronting Moscow in Afghanistan, inserting the U.S. military in the Persian Gulf," and "strengthening Israel as a base for a southern flank against the Soviets" contributed to al-Qaeda's motives.[126] Others, such as Jason Burke, foreign correspondent for The Observer, focus on a more political aspect to the motive, stating that "bin Laden is an activist with a very clear sense of what he wants and how he hopes to achieve it. Those means may be far outside the norms of political activity [...] but his agenda is a basically political one."[127]

A variety of scholarship has also focused on bin Laden's overall strategy as a motive for the attacks. For instance, correspondent Peter Bergen argues that the attacks were part of a plan to cause the United States to increase its military and cultural presence in the Middle East, thereby forcing Muslims to confront the "evils" of a non-Muslim government and establish conservative Islamic governments in the region.[128] Michael Scott Doran, correspondent for Foreign Affairs, further emphasizes the "mythic" use of the term "spectacular" in bin Laden's response to the attacks, explaining that he was attempting to provoke a visceral reaction in the Middle East and ensure that Muslim citizens would react as violently as possible to an increase in U.S. involvement in their region.[129]

Aftermath

Immediate national response

See also: Airport security repercussions due to the September 11 attacks, Closings and cancellations following the September 11 attacks, Aftermath of the September 11 attacks, Reactions to the September 11 attacks and U.S. military response during the September 11 attacks. The 9/11 attacks had immediate and overwhelming effects upon the American people.[130] Many police officers and rescue workers elsewhere in the country took leaves of absence to travel to New York City to assist in the process of recovering bodies from the twisted remnants of the Twin Towers.[131] Blood donations across the U.S. also saw a surge in the weeks after 9/11.[132] For the first time in history, SCATANA was invoked forcing all non-emergency civilian aircraft in the United States and several other countries including Canada to be immediately grounded, stranding tens of thousands of passengers across the world.[133] Any international flights were closed to American airspace by the Federal Aviation Administration, causing flights to be redirected to other countries. Canada was one of the main recipients of diverted flights and launched Operation Yellow Ribbon to deal with the large numbers of grounded planes and stranded passengers.[134]

War on Terrorism

See main article: War on Terrorism. The NATO council declared that the attacks on the United States were considered an attack on all NATO nations and, as such, satisfied Article 5 of the NATO charter.[135] Upon returning to Australia having been on an official visit to the US at the time of the attacks, Australian Prime Minister John Howard invoked Article IV of the ANZUS treaty. In the immediate aftermath of the attacks, the Bush administration announced a war on terrorism, with the stated goals of bringing Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda to justice and preventing the emergence of other terrorist networks. These goals would be accomplished by means including economic and military sanctions against states perceived as harboring terrorists and increasing global surveillance and intelligence sharing. The second-biggest operation of the U.S. Global War on Terrorism outside of the United States, and the largest directly connected to terrorism, was the overthrow of the Taliban rule of Afghanistan by a U.S.-led coalition. The United States was not the only nation to increase its military readiness, with other notable examples being the Philippines and Indonesia, countries that have their own internal conflicts with Islamic terrorism.[136] U.S. officials speculated on possible involvement of Saddam Hussein immediately afterwards.[137] Although these suspicions were unfounded, the association contributed to public acceptance for the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[137]

Domestic response

Following the attacks, President Bush's job approval rating soared to 86%.[138] On September 20, 2001, the U.S. president spoke before the nation and a joint session of the United States Congress, regarding the events of that day, the intervening nine days of rescue and recovery efforts, and his intent in response to those events. In addition, the highly visible role played by New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani won him high praise nationally and in New York.[139] Many relief funds were immediately set up to assist victims of the attacks, with the task of providing financial assistance to the survivors of the attacks and to the families of victims, such as the Coalition of 9/11 Families. By the deadline for victim's compensation, September 11, 2003, 2,833 applications had been received from the families of those who were killed.[140]

Contingency plans for the continuity of government and the evacuation of leaders were also implemented almost immediately after the attacks.[133] Congress, however, was not told that the United States was under a continuity of government status until February 2002.[141] Within the United States, Congress passed and President Bush signed the Homeland Security Act of 2002, creating the Department of Homeland Security, representing the largest restructuring of the U.S. government in contemporary history. Congress also passed the USA PATRIOT Act, stating that it would help detect and prosecute terrorism and other crimes.[142] Civil liberties groups have criticized the PATRIOT Act, saying that it allows law enforcement to invade the privacy of citizens and eliminates judicial oversight of law-enforcement and domestic intelligence gathering.[143] [144] [145] The Bush Administration also invoked 9/11 as the reason to initiate a secret National Security Agency operation, "to eavesdrop on telephone and e-mail communications between the United States and people overseas without a warrant."[146]

Hate crimes

Numerous incidents of harassment and hate crimes were reported against Middle Easterners and other "Middle Eastern-looking" people in the days following the 9/11 attacks.[147] [148] Sikhs were also targeted because Sikh males usually wear turbans, which are stereotypically associated with Muslims in the United States. There were reports of verbal abuse, attacks on mosques and other religious buildings (including the firebombing of a Hindu temple) and assaults on people, including one murder: Balbir Singh Sodhi was fatally shot on September 15, 2001. He, like others, was a Sikh who was mistaken for a Muslim.[147]

According to a study by Ball State University, people perceived to be Middle Eastern were as likely to be victims of hate crimes as followers of Islam during this time. The study also found a similar increase in hate crimes against people who may have been perceived as members of Islam, Arabs and others thought to be of Middle Eastern origin.[149]

Muslim American reaction

Top Muslim organizations in the United States were swift to condemn the attacks on 9/11 and called "upon Muslim Americans to come forward with their skills and resources to help alleviate the sufferings of the affected people and their families".[150] Top organizations include: Islamic Society of North America, American Muslim Alliance, American Muslim Council, Council on American-Islamic Relations, Islamic Circle of North America, and the Shari'a Scholars Association of North America. In addition to massive monetary donations, many Islamic organizations launched blood drives and provided medical assistance, food, and residence for victims.

International response

The attacks were denounced by mainstream media and governments worldwide. Across the globe, nations offered pro-American support and solidarity.[151] Leaders in most Middle Eastern countries, including Afghanistan, condemned the attacks. Iraq was a notable exception, with an immediate official statement that "the American cowboys are reaping the fruit of their crimes against humanity."[152] Another publicized exception was the celebration of some Palestinians.[153]

Tens of thousands of people attempted to flee Afghanistan following the attacks, fearing a response by the United States. Pakistan, already home to many Afghan refugees from previous Afghan conflict, closed its border with Afghanistan on September 17. Approximately one month after the attacks, the United States led a broad coalition of international forces in the removal of the Taliban regime for harboring the al-Qaeda organization.[154] The Pakistani authorities moved decisively to align themselves with the United States in a war against the Taliban and al-Qaeda. Pakistan provided the United States a number of military airports and bases for its attack on the Taliban regime and arrested over 600 supposed al-Qaeda members, whom it handed over to the United States.[155]

Numerous countries, including the United Kingdom, India, Australia, France, Germany, Indonesia, China, Canada, Russia, Pakistan, Jordan, Mauritius, Uganda and Zimbabwe introduced "anti-terrorism" legislation and froze the bank accounts of businesses and individuals they suspected of having al-Qaeda ties.[156] [157] Law enforcement and intelligence agencies in a number of countries, including Italy, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines arrested people they labeled terrorist suspects for the stated purpose of breaking up militant cells around the world.[158] [159] In the U.S., this aroused some controversy, as critics such as the Bill of Rights Defense Committee argued that traditional restrictions on federal surveillance (e.g. COINTELPRO's monitoring of public meetings) were "dismantled" by the USA PATRIOT Act.[160] Organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union and Liberty argued that certain civil rights protections were also being circumvented.[161] [162]

The United States set up a detention center at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, to hold what they termed "illegal enemy combatants". The legitimacy of these detentions has been questioned by, among others, the European Parliament, the Organization of American States, and Amnesty International.[163] [164] [165]

The international events and reactions immediately after the attacks had an effect on the impact of the World Conference against Racism 2001, which had ended in discord and international recriminations just three days before.[166]

Conspiracy theories

See main article: 9/11 conspiracy theories. Proponents of conspiracy theories have suggested that individuals inside the United States possessed detailed information about the attacks and deliberately chose not to prevent them, or that individuals outside of al-Qaeda planned, carried out, or assisted in the attacks. Some conspiracy theorists claim the World Trade Center did not collapse because of the crashing planes but was demolished through the use of explosives.[167] This controlled demolition hypothesis is rejected by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and by the community of civil engineers, who, after their research, both concluded that the impacts of jets at high speeds in combination with subsequent fires caused the collapse of both Twin Towers.[168] [169]

Long-term effects

Economic aftermath

See main article: Economic effects arising from the September 11 attacks. The attacks had a significant economic impact on the United States and world markets.[170] The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), the American Stock Exchange (AMEX), and NASDAQ did not open on September 11 and remained closed until September 17. When the stock markets reopened, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) stock market index fell 684 points, or 7.1%, to 8921, a record-setting one-day point decline.[171] By the end of the week, the DJIA had fallen 1,369.7 points (14.3%), its largest one-week point drop in history.[172] U.S. stocks lost $1.4 trillion in value for the week.[172] This is equivalent to $ in present day terms. In New York City, about 430,000 job-months and $2.8 billion in wages were lost in the three months following the 9/11 attacks. The economic effects were mainly focused on the city's export economy sectors.[173] The city's GDP was estimated to have declined by $27.3 billion for the last three months of 2001 and all of 2002. The Federal government provided $11.2 billion in immediate assistance to the Government of New York City in September 2001, and $10.5 billion in early 2002 for economic development and infrastructure needs.[174]

The 9/11 attacks also hurt small businesses in Lower Manhattan near the World Trade Center, destroying or displacing about 18,000 of them. Assistance was provided by Small Business Administration loans and federal government Community Development Block Grants and Economic Injury Disaster Loans.[174] Some 31.9 million square feet of Lower Manhattan office space was damaged or destroyed.[175] Many wondered whether these jobs would return, and the damaged tax base recover.[176] Studies of the economic effects of 9/11 show that the Manhattan office real-estate market and office employment were less affected than initially expected because of the financial services industry's need for face-to-face interaction.[177] [178]

North American air space was closed for several days after the attacks and air travel decreased upon its reopening, leading to nearly a 20% cutback in air travel capacity, and exacerbating financial problems in the struggling U.S. airline industry.[179]

Health effects

See main article: Health effects arising from the September 11 attacks. The thousands of tons of toxic debris resulting from the collapse of the Twin Towers consisted of more than 2,500 contaminants, including known carcinogens.[180] [181] This has led to debilitating illnesses among rescue and recovery workers, which many claim to be directly linked to debris exposure.[182] [183] For example, NYPD Officer Frank Macri died of lung cancer that spread throughout his body on September 3, 2007; his family contends the cancer is the result of long hours on the site and they have filed for line-of-duty death benefits, which the city has yet to rule on.[184] Health effects have also extended to some residents, students, and office workers of Lower Manhattan and nearby Chinatown.[185] Several deaths have been linked to the toxic dust caused by the World Trade Center's collapse and the victims' names will be included in the World Trade Center memorial.[186] There is also scientific speculation that exposure to various toxic products in the air may have negative effects on fetal development. Due to this potential hazard, a notable children's environmental health center is currently analyzing the children whose mothers were pregnant during the WTC collapse, and were living or working near the World Trade Center towers.[187]

Legal disputes over the attendant costs of illnesses related to the attacks are still in the court system. On October 17, 2006, federal judge Alvin Hellerstein rejected New York City's refusal to pay for health costs for rescue workers, allowing for the possibility of numerous suits against the city.[188] Government officials have been faulted for urging the public to return to lower Manhattan in the weeks shortly following the attacks. Christine Todd Whitman, administrator of the EPA in the aftermath of the attacks, was heavily criticized for incorrectly saying that the area was environmentally safe.[189] President Bush was criticized for interfering with EPA interpretations and pronouncements regarding air quality in the aftermath of the attacks.[190] In addition, Mayor Giuliani was criticized for urging financial industry personnel to return quickly to the greater Wall Street area.[191]

Investigations

9/11 Commission

See main article: 9/11 Commission. The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (9/11 Commission), chaired by former New Jersey Governor Thomas Kean,[192] was formed in late 2002 to prepare a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the attacks, including preparedness for, and the immediate response to, the attacks. On July 22, 2004, the 9/11 Commission issued the 9/11 Commission Report. The commission and its report have been subject to various forms of criticism.[193] [194]

Collapse of the World Trade Center

See main article: Collapse of the World Trade Center. A federal technical building and fire safety investigation of the collapses of the Twin Towers and 7 WTC has been conducted by the United States Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The goals of this investigation were to determine why the buildings collapsed, the extent of injuries and fatalities, and the procedures involved in designing and managing the World Trade Center.[195] The investigation into the collapse of 1 WTC and 2 WTC was concluded in October 2005, and the investigation into the collapse of 7 WTC concluded in August 2008.[196] [197] The report concluded that the fireproofing on the Twin Towers' steel infrastructures was blown off by the initial impact of the planes and that, if this had not occurred, the towers would likely have remained standing.[198] This was confirmed by an independent study by Purdue University.[199]

W. Gene Corley, the director of the original investigation, commented that "the towers really did amazingly well. The terrorist aircraft didn’t bring the buildings down; it was the fire which followed. It was proven that you could take out two thirds of the columns in a tower and the building would still stand."[200] The fires weakened the trusses supporting the floors, making the floors sag. The sagging floors pulled on the exterior steel columns to the point where exterior columns bowed inward. With the damage to the core columns, the buckling exterior columns could no longer support the buildings, causing them to collapse. In addition, the report asserts that the towers' stairwells were not adequately reinforced to provide emergency escape for people above the impact zones.[201] NIST concluded that uncontrolled fires in 7 WTC caused floor beams and girders to heat and subsequently "caused a critical support column to fail, initiating a fire-induced progressive collapse that brought the building down."[197]

Internal review of the CIA

The Inspector General of the CIA conducted an internal review of the CIA's pre-9/11 performance, and was harshly critical of senior CIA officials for not doing everything possible to confront terrorism, including failing to stop two of the 9/11 hijackers, Nawaf al-Hazmi and Khalid al-Mihdhar, as they entered the United States and failing to share information on the two men with the FBI.[202]

In May 2007, senators from both the Democratic Party and the Republican Party drafted legislation that would openly present an internal CIA investigative report. One of the backers, Senator Ron Wyden stated "The American people have a right to know what the Central Intelligence Agency was doing in those critical months before 9/11.... I am going to bulldog this until the public gets it." The report investigates the responsibilities of individual CIA personnel before and after the 9/11 attacks. The report was completed in 2005, but its details have never been released to the public.[203]

Rebuilding

On the day of the attacks, New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani proclaimed, "We will rebuild. We're going to come out of this stronger than before, politically stronger, economically stronger. The skyline will be made whole again."[204] The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, tasked with coordinating rebuilding efforts at the World Trade Center site, was criticized for doing little with the enormous funding directed to the rebuilding efforts.[205] [206] On the sites of the totally destroyed buildings, one, 7 World Trade Center, has a new office tower which was completed in 2006. The Freedom Tower is currently under construction at the site and at 1,776 ft (541 m) upon completion in 2011, will become the one of the tallest buildings in North America, behind the Chicago Spire and the CN Tower in Toronto.[207] Three more towers are expected to be built between 2007 and 2012 on the site, and will be located one block east of where the original towers stood. The damaged section of the Pentagon was rebuilt and occupied within a year of the attacks.[208]

Memorials

In the days immediately following the attacks, many memorials and vigils were held around the world.[209] [210] [211] In addition, pictures were placed all over Ground Zero. A witness described being unable to "get away from faces of innocent victims who were killed. Their pictures are everywhere, on phone booths, street lights, walls of subway stations. Everything reminded me of a huge funeral, people quiet and sad, but also very nice. Before, New York gave me a cold feeling; now people were reaching out to help each other.”[212]

One of the first memorials was the Tribute in Light, an installation of 88 searchlights at the footprints of the World Trade Center towers which projected two vertical columns of light into the sky.[213] In New York, the World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition was held to design an appropriate memorial on the site.[214] The winning design, Reflecting Absence, was selected in August 2006, and consists of a pair of reflecting pools in the footprints of the towers, surrounded by a list of the victims' names in an underground memorial space.[215] Plans for a museum on the site have been put on hold, following the abandonment of the International Freedom Center in reaction to complaints from the families of many victims.[216]

The Pentagon Memorial was completed and opened to the public on the seventh anniversary of the attacks, September 11, 2008.[217] [218] It consists of a landscaped park with 184 benches facing the Pentagon.[219] When the Pentagon was repaired in 2001–2002, a private chapel and indoor memorial were included, located at the spot where Flight 77 crashed into the building.[220]

At Shanksville, a permanent Flight 93 National Memorial is planned to include a sculpted grove of trees forming a circle around the crash site, bisected by the plane's path, while wind chimes will bear the names of the victims.[221] A temporary memorial is located 500yd from the crash site.[222] New York City firefighters donated a memorial to the Shanksville Volunteer Fire Department. It is a cross made of steel from the World Trade Center and mounted atop a platform shaped like the Pentagon.[223] It was installed outside the firehouse on August 25, 2008.[224]

Many other permanent memorials are being constructed elsewhere, and scholarships and charities have been established by the victims' families, along with many other organizations and private figures.[225]

External links

Multimedia

Memorials

Notes and References

  1. Web site: Security Council Condemns, 'In Strongest Terms' Terrorist Attacks on the United States. United Nations. September 12, 2001. 2006-09-11. The Security Council today, following what it called yesterday’s "horrifying terrorist attacks" in New York, Washington, D.C., and Pennsylvania, unequivocally condemned those acts, and expressed its deepest sympathy and condolences to the victims and their families and to the people and Government of the United States..
  2. News: Bin Laden claims responsibility for 9/11. CBC News. 2004-10-29. 2009-01-11. Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden appeared in a new message aired on an Arabic TV station Friday night, for the first time claiming direct responsibility for the 2001 attacks against the United States..
  3. News: War Casualties Pass 9/11 Death Toll. CBS News. September 22, 2006. 2008-09-24.
  4. Web site: Death, destruction, charity, salvation, war, money, real estate, spouses, babies, and other September 11 statistics. 2008-09-24. New York.
  5. Web site: New York: 9/11 toxins caused death. CNN.com. 2007-05-24. 2007-07-10.
  6. Web site: Flight Path Study - American Airlines Flight 11. National Transportation Safety Board. 2002-02-19. pdf.
  7. Web site: Flight Path Study - United Airlines Flight 175. National Transportation Safety Board. 2002-02-19. pdf.
  8. Web site: Flight Path Study - American Airlines Flight 77. National Transportation Safety Board. 2002-02-19. pdf.
  9. Book: The Attack Looms. 9/11 Commission Report. 2004. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. 2008-07-02.
  10. Web site: Flight Path Study - United Airlines Flight 93. National Transportation Safety Board. 2002-02-19. pdf.
  11. Web site: 9/11 Commission Report. Chapter 1. 2004. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. 2008-05-20. PDF.
  12. News: Encore Presentation: Barbara Olson Remembered. Larry King Live. CNN. 2002-01-06. 2008-11-12.
  13. News: The phone line from Flight 93 was still open when a GTE operator heard Todd Beamer say: 'Are you guys ready? Let's roll'. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. McKinnon, Jim. 2008-05-18.
  14. News: Relatives wait for news as rescuers dig. CNN. 2001-09-13. 2008-05-20.
  15. News: On Doomed Flight, Passengers Vowed To Perish Fighting. Wilgoren, Jodi and Edward Wong. 2001-09-13. The New York Times. 2008-11-11.
  16. News: Moussaoui Jury Hears the Panic From 9/11. Serrano, Richard A.. Los Angeles Times. 2006-04-11. 2008-10-24.
  17. News: Hijackers used Mace, knives to take over airplanes. San Francisco Chronicle. 2004-01-28. Goo, Sara Kehaulani, Dan Eggen. 2008-11-12.
  18. Web site: Ahlers. Mike M.. 9/11 panel: Hijackers may have had utility knives. CBS News. January 27, 2004. 2006-09-07.
  19. Web site: National Commission Upon Terrorist Attacks in the United States. National Commission Upon Terrorist Attacks in the United States. 2008-01-24. 2004-01-27.
  20. News: David. Snyder. Families Hear Flight 93's Final Moments. The Washington Post. 2002-04-19. 2008-04-23.
  21. Web site: Text of Flight 93 Recording. Fox News. 2006-04-12. 2008-04-22.
  22. Book: Fouda, Yosri and Nick Fielding. Masterminds of Terror. Arcade Publishing. 2004. 158–159.
  23. News: Bill. Miller. Report Assesses Trade Center's Collapse. The Washington Post. 2002-05-01. 2008-04-23.
  24. Web site: 2004. Interim Report on WTC 7. pdf. Appendix L. National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2007-08-20.
  25. Web site: Profiles of 9/11 - About 9/11. The Biography Channel. A&E Television Networks. 2007-12-12.
  26. Web site: Miller. Mark. Broadcasting and Cable. 2002-08-26. Broadcasting & Cable. Reed Business Information. 2008-02-15.
  27. Web site: CNN.com — Transcripts. 2008-05-02. 2001-09-11. CNN.
  28. Web site: O'Mara. Michael. 9/11: 'Fifth Plane' terror alert at Cleveland Hopkins Airport. WKYC News. 2006-09-11. 2007-02-13.
  29. News: 2008 9/11 Death Toll. July 2008. Associated Press. 2006-09-11.
  30. Web site: American Airlines Flight 11. CNN. 2006-09-07.
  31. Web site: United Airlines Flight 175. CNN. 2006-09-07.
  32. Web site: American Airlines Flight 77. CNN. 2006-09-07.
  33. Web site: American Airlines Flight 77. CNN. 2006-09-07.
  34. News: Flight 93: Forty lives, one destiny. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. October 2001. Roddy, Dennis B.. 2006-09-07.
  35. Web site: September 11: Chronology of terror. CNN. 2006-09-07.
  36. News: First video of Pentagon 9/11 attack released. May 16, 2006. CNN. 2006-09-10.
  37. News: 24 Remain Missing. 2006, August 12. September 11 Victims. http://web.archive.org/web/20071218170906/http://www.september11victims.com/september11victims/STATISTIC.asp. 2007-12-18. 2006-09-07.
  38. News: Stone, Andrea. Military's aid and comfort ease 9/11 survivors' burden. USA Today. 2002-08-20. 2008-05-20.
  39. Web site: Walker. Carolee. Five-Year 9/11 Remembrance Honors Victims from 90 Countries. United States Department of State. 2006-09-11. 2008-05-18.
  40. News: For the First Time, New York Links a Death to 9/11 Dust. DePalma, Anthony. The New York Times. 2007-05-24.
  41. Book: Averill, Jason D., et al.. Final Reports of the Federal Building and Fire Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster. Occupant Behavior, Egress, and Emergency Communications. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). 2005. 2008-05-20. PDF.
  42. Book: Dwyer, Jim and Kevin Flynn. 102 Minutes. Times Books. 2005. 266.
  43. News: Last Words at the Trade Center; Fighting to Live as the Towers Die. Dwyer, Jim, et al.. The New York Times. 2002-05-26. 2008-05-19.
  44. News: Lipton. Eric. Study Maps the Location of Deaths in the Twin Towers. 2004-07-22. The New York Times. 2008-04-22.
  45. Web site: Heroism and Honor. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. U.S. Congress. 2004-08-21. 2008-05-20.
  46. News: Desperation forced a horrific decision. USATODAY. September 2, 2002. Cauchon, Dennis and Martha Moore. 2006-09-09.
  47. News: Poor Info Hindered 9/11 Rescue. CBS News. May 18, 2004. 2006-09-11.
  48. News: Denise Grady. Andrew C. Revkin. THREATS AND RESPONSES: RESCUER'S HEALTH; Lung Ailments May Force 500 Firefighters Off Job. 2002-09-10. The New York Times. 2008-05-23.
  49. Web site: Post-9/11 report recommends police, fire response changes. 2002-08-19. Associated Press. USA Today. 2008-05-23.
  50. Web site: Police back on day-to-day beat after 9/11 nightmare. 2002-07-21. CNN. 2008-05-23.
  51. Web site: Joshi, Pradnya. Port Authority workers to be honored. Newsday. 2005-09-08. 2008-05-20.
  52. Web site: "National EMS Memorial",2001 Notices of Line of Duty Death. National EMS Memorial Service. 2007-09-11.
  53. News: Cantor rebuilds after 9/11 losses. BBC. 2006-09-04. 2008-05-20.
  54. News: Industry honors fallen on 9/11 anniversary. InvestmentNews. Siegel, Aaron. 2007-09-11. 2008-05-20.
  55. Web site: 9/11/01-02: A Demographic Portrait Of The Victims In 10048. Gotham Gazette. Beveridge, Andrew. 2008-05-20.
  56. News: Source: Hijacking suspects linked to Afghanistan. CNN. 2001-09-30. 2008-06-08.
  57. Web site: Ground Zero Forensic Work Ends. CBS News. 2005-02-23. 2008-05-20.
  58. Web site: World Trade Center Building Performance Study. May. 2002. FEMA. 2007-07-12.
  59. Web site: World Trade Center Building Performance Study - Bankers Trust Building. May. 2002. FEMA. 2007-07-12. PDF.
  60. Web site: The Deutsche Bank Building at 130 Liberty Street. Lower Manhattan Construction Command Center. 2007-07-12.
  61. Web site: Lower Manhattan - Fiterman Hall. LowerManhattan.info. 2007-7. 2007-07-10.
  62. Web site: Verizon Building Restoration. New York Construction (McGraw Hill). 2007-06-28.
  63. Web site: World Trade Center Building Performance Study - Peripheral Buildings. May. 2002. FEMA. 2007-07-12. PDF.
  64. Web site: Bloomfield. Larry. New York broadcasters rebuild. Broadcast Engineering. 2001-10-01. 2008-05-18.
  65. Web site: The Pentagon Building Performance Report. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). January. 2003. 2008-05-20. PDF.
  66. Web site: McKinsey Report - Emergency Medical Service response. FDNY / McKinsey & Company. August 9, 2002. 2007-07-12. PDF.
  67. Web site: FDNY McKinsey Report - Executive Summary. August. 2002. FDNY / McKinsey & Company. 2007-07-10. PDF.
  68. Web site: Fire Apparatus Deployment on September 11. FDNY / McKinsey & Company. August. 2002. 2007-07-10. PDF.
  69. Web site: McKinsey Report - NYPD. August 19, 2002. 2007-07-10.
  70. Unity Of Purpose/Unity Of Effort: Private-Sector Preparedness In Times Of Terror. Disaster Prevention & Management. Alavosius, Mark P., et al.. 2005. 14(5). pp. 666–680. 10.1108/09653560510634098.
  71. News: Ceremony closes 'Ground Zero' cleanup. 2002-05-30. CNN. 2008-09-11.
  72. Book: Clarke, Richard A.. Against All Enemies: Inside America's War on Terrorism. 2004. Simon & Schuster. New York. 0-743-26823-7. 13–14.
  73. Web site: FBI Announces List of 19 Hijackers. Federal Bureau of Investigation. September 14, 2001. 2006-09-07.
  74. News: Dorman, Michael. Unraveling 9-11 was in the bags. Newsday. 2006-04-17. 2008-05-20.
  75. News: Piece by Piece, The Jigsaw of Terror Revealed. The Independent. 2001-09-30. 2008-05-20.
  76. News: John. Tagliabue. Raymond Bonner. A NATION CHALLENGED: GERMAN INTELLIGENCE; German Data Led U.S. to Search For More Suicide Hijacker Teams. The New York Times. 2001-09-29. 2008-05-21.
  77. Web site: The FBI releases 19 photographs of individuals believed to be the hijackers of the four airliners that crashed on September 11, 01. Federal Bureau of Investigation. United States Department of Justice. 2001-09-27. 2008-05-20.
  78. News: Johnston. David. TWO YEARS LATER: 9/11 TACTICS; Official Says Qaeda Recruited Saudi Hijackers to Strain Ties. 2003-09-09. The New York Times. 2008-05-19.
  79. News: The Hamburg connection. BBC News. 2005-08-19. 2008-10-03.
  80. Web site: Clayton. Mark. Reading into the mind of a terrorist. The Christian Science Monitor. 2003-10-30. 2007-07-06.
  81. Web site: Rolince, Michael E.. The Inspector General's Report and the September 11th Response. Federal Bureau of Investigation. United States Department of Justice. 2003-06-24. 2008-05-20.
  82. Book: Wright, Lawrence. The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. 2006. Alfred P. Knopf. 362–367. Abu Jandal conceded that he knew Shehhi and gave his Qaeda name, Abdullah al-Sharqi. He did the same with Mohammed Atta, Khaled al-Mihdhar, and four others.
  83. Web site: Watson, Dale L.. The Terrorist Threat Confronting the United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation. United States Department of Justice. 2002-02-06. 2008-05-20.
  84. Web site: Responsibility for the Terrorist Atrocities in the United States, 11 September 2001. http://web.archive.org/web/20040907150037/http://www.number10.gov.uk/output/page3682.asp. 2004-09-07. 10 Downing Street. 2001-11-14. 2008-05-20.
  85. Web site: Frankenstein the CIA created. January 17, 1999. Guardian.
  86. Book: Gunaratna, Ronan. Inside Al Qaeda. 2002. Berkley Books. 23–33.
  87. Web site: Bin Laden's Fatwa (1996). PBS. 2008-05-20.
  88. Web site: Al Qaeda's 1998 Fatwa. The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. Public Broadcasting Service. 2008-05-19.
  89. News: Suspect 'reveals 9/11 planning'. BBC News. 2003-09-22. 2008-05-20.
  90. Book: National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. 9/11 Commission Report. Chapter 5. Government Printing Office. 2004. 2008-05-20.
  91. Book: The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. Wright, Lawrence. 2006. Knopf. 308.
  92. News: Bin Laden Chose 9/11 Targets, Al Qaeda Leader Says. The New York Times. Litchblau, Eric. 2003-03-20. 2008-06-25.
  93. Book: Bergen, Peter. The Osama bin Laden I Know. Free Press. 2006. 283.
  94. Book: Wright, Lawrence. The Looming Tower. 2006. Alfred P. Knopf. 309–315.
  95. Book: McDermott, Terry. Perfect Soldiers: The 9/11 Hijackers. 2005. HarperCollins. 191–192.
  96. News: Richard. Bernstein. On Path to the U.S. Skies, Plot Leader Met bin Laden. The New York Times. September 10, 2002. 2008-09-16.
  97. Book: Wright, Lawrence. The Looming Tower. 2006. Alfred P. Knopf. 304–307.
  98. Book: Wright, Lawrence. The Looming Tower. 2006. Alfred P. Knopf. 302.
  99. Web site: Staff Monograph on 9/11 and Terrorist Travel. PDF. 9/11 Commission. 2004.
  100. News: Atta recibió en Tarragona joyas para que los miembros del 'comando' del 11-S se hiciesen pasar por ricos saudíes. El Pais. 2004-03-21. Irujo, Jose Maria. 2008-09-15. Spanish.
  101. Book: Gunarathna, Rohan. Inside Al Qaeda, Global Network of Terror. 2002. Berkley Books. 61–62.
  102. News: http://web.archive.org/web/20070613014620/http://english.aljazeera.net/English/archive/archive?ArchiveId=7403. 2007-04-10. Full transcript of bin Ladin's speech. Al Jazeera. 2004-11-02. 2008-05-20.
  103. Web site: Pakistan to Demand Taliban Give Up Bin Laden as Iran Seals Afghan Border. Fox News Channel. 2001-09-16. 2008-05-20.
  104. News: Bin Laden on tape: Attacks 'benefited Islam greatly'. CNN. December 14, 2001. 2007-11-09. Reveling in the details of the fatal attacks, bin Laden brags in Arabic that he knew about them beforehand and says the destruction went beyond his hopes. He says the attacks "benefited Islam greatly.".
  105. Haas, Ed. Taking the fat out of the fat bin Laden confession video. March 7, 2007. Muckraker Report. 2008-05-01.
  106. News: Transcript: Bin Laden video excerpts. BBC News. December 27, 2001. 2006-09-07.
  107. Web site: Michael. Maggie. Bin Laden, in statement to U.S. people, says he ordered Sept. 11 attacks. The Associated Press. SignOnSanDiego.com. 2004-10-29. 2008-05-02.
  108. News: Al-Jazeera: Bin Laden tape obtained in Pakistan. MSNBC. October 30, 2004. 2006-09-07.
  109. News: Bin Laden 9/11 planning video aired. CBC News. 2006-09-07. http://web.archive.org/web/20071013183902/http://www.cbc.ca/story/world/national/2006/09/07/al-qaeda-tape.html. 2007-10-13. 2008-05-20.
  110. News: 'We left out nuclear targets, for now'. The Guardian. 2003-03-04. 2008-05-20.
  111. Book: 9/11 Commission Report. Chapter 5. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. 2004.
  112. Making of the Death Pilots. MSNBC-TV. March 2002.
  113. Web site: Al-Qaida tape finally claims responsibility for attacks. The Guardian. 2002-09-10. 2007-05-07.
  114. News: Khalid Sheikh Mohammed Names Names. TIME. 2003-03-24. 2008-05-20.
  115. News: Key 9/11 suspect 'admits guilt'. BBC News. 2007-03-15. 2008-05-20.
  116. News: September 11 suspect 'confesses'. Al Jazeera. 2007-03-15. 2008-05-20.
  117. Web site: Substitution for Testimony of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. p. 24. 2006. United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. United States Department of Justice. 2008-05-20. PDF.
  118. Web site: Clewley. Robin. How Osama Cracked FBI's Top 10. Wired. 2001-09-27. 2007-07-06.
  119. Web site: Spain jails 18 al-Qaeda operatives. The Age. 2005-09-27. 2008-05-19.
  120. Web site: 18 jailed in Spanish Al-Qaeda trial. Forbes. 2005-09-26. 2008-05-19.
  121. Web site: Country Reports on Terrorism 2006. Embassy of the United States in Spain. United States Department of State. 2007-10-02. 2008-05-19.
  122. Web site: Saga of Dr. Zawahri Sheds Light On the Roots of al Qaeda Terror. The Wall Street Journal. 2002-07-02. 2008-05-20.
  123. Web site: Tenth Public Hearing, Testimony of Louis Freeh. 9/11 Commission. 2004-04-13. 2008-05-20.
  124. Web site: Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders: World Islamic Front Statement. February 23, 1998. 2006-09-08.
  125. Web site: Full text: bin Laden's 'letter to America'. 2002-11-24. The Guardian. 2008-07-21.
  126. Book: Clarke, Richard. Against All Enemies. Free Press. 2004. New York. 0-7432-6024-4. 35.
  127. Book: Burke, Jason. Al-Qaeda - The True Story of Radical Islam. I.B. Tauris. 2004. London, New York. 23, 162–163. 1-85043-666-5.
  128. Book: Bergen, Peter. The Osama bin Laden I Know: An Oral History of al Qaeda's Leader. Free Press. 2006. New York. 0-7432-7891-7. 229.
  129. Book: Doran, Michael Scott. Understanding the War on Terror. Norton. 2005. New York. 72–75. 0-87609-347-0.
  130. Stein. Howard F.. 2003. Days of Awe: September 11, 2001 and its Cultural Psychodynamics. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society. 8. 2. 187 - 199. Ohio State University Press. Columbus, OH. 1088-0763. 10.1353/psy.2003.0047.
  131. News: Asthma Rates Up Among Ground Zero Workers. Associated Press. CBS News. 2007-08-27. 2008-05-03.
  132. Web site: Red Cross Woes. 2001-12-19. 2008-05-01. PBS.
  133. Web site: Wartime. National Commission on Terrorists Attacks upon the United States. U.S. Congress. 2006-09-08.
  134. News: Chronology - Transport Canada responds to September 11 attacks. 2006-10-10. Transport Canada. 2007-12-15.
  135. Web site: Statement by the North Atlantic Council. NATO. September 15, 2001. 2006-09-08. "Article 5: The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defence recognised by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area. / Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a result thereof shall immediately be reported to the Security Council. Such measures shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain international peace and security.".
  136. C. S. Kuppuswamy. Terrorism in Indonesia : Role of the Religious Organisation. South Asia Analysis Group. 2005-11-02. HTML. 2007-07-06.
  137. News: Plans For Iraq Attack Began On 9/11. CBS News. 2002-09-04. 2007-01-08.
  138. News: Poll finds a united nation. September 16, 2001. USA Today. Benedetto, Richard and Patrick O'Driscoll. 2006-09-08.
  139. Web site: Pooley. Eric. Mayor of the World. Time 2001 Person of the Year. Time. 2006-09-08.
  140. Web site: Barrett. Devlin. 9/11 Fund Deadline Passes. CBS News. December 23, 2003. 2006-09-08.
  141. Web site: 'Shadow Government' News To Congress. CBS News. March 2, 2002. 2006-09-08.
  142. Web site: The USA PATRIOT Act: Preserving Life and Liberty. 2008-09-12. United States Department of Justice.
  143. Uncle Sam Asks: "What The Hell Is Going On Here?"in New ACLU Print and Radio Advertisements. American Civil Liberties Union. 2003-09-03. 2008-05-20.
  144. News: Eggen. Dan. Key Part of Patriot Act Ruled Unconstitutional. The Washington Post. 2004-09-30. 2008-05-18.
  145. Web site: Federal judge rules 2 Patriot Act provisions unconstitutional. 2008-05-19. 2007-09-26. CNN.
  146. Web site: VandeHei. Jim. Dan Eggen. Cheney Cites Justifications For Domestic Eavesdropping. Washington Post. January 5, 2006. 2006-09-08.
  147. Web site: Hate crime reports up in wake of terrorist attacks. CNN. September 17, 2001. 2006-09-08.
  148. Web site: U.S. Officials Should Have Been Better Prepared For Hate Crime Wave. 2008-09-11. November 14, 2002. Human Rights Watch.
  149. Web site: Many minority groups were victims of hate crimes after 9-11. 2008-09-11. October 9, 2003. Ball State University.
  150. Web site: American Muslim Leaders. Muslim Americans Condemn Attack. ISNA. 2006-12-19.
  151. Web site: Hertzberg. Hendrik. Lost love. The New Yorker. 2006-09-11. 2008-05-19.
  152. Web site: Attacks draw mixed response in Mideast. CNN.com. 2001-09-12. 2007-03-30.
  153. Web site: Saleh, Heba. Mixed response from Arab World. BBC News. 2001-09-11. 2008-05-04.
  154. Web site: U.S. President Bush's speech to United Nations. CNN. November 10, 2001. 2008-04-14.
  155. Web site: Khan. Aamer Ahmed. Pakistan and the 'key al-Qaeda' man. BBC. May 4, 2005. 2006-09-08.
  156. Web site: Hamilton. Stuart. September 11, the Internet, and the effects on information provision in Libraries. 68th IFLA Council and Conference. 2002-08-24. pdf. 2006-09-08.
  157. Web site: G8 counter-terrorism cooperation since September 11 backgrounder. 2006-09-14. Site Internet du Sommet du G8 d'Evian.
  158. Web site: Walsh. Courtney C. Italian police explore Al Qaeda links in cyanide plot. Christian Science Monitor. March 7, 2002. 2006-09-08.
  159. Web site: SE Asia unites to smash militant cells. CNN. May 8, 2002. 2006-09-08.
  160. Web site: Talanian. Nancy. A Guide to Provisions of the USA Patriot Act and Federal Executive Orders that threaten civil liberties. Bill of Rights Defense Committee. 2002. pdf. 2006-09-08.
  161. Web site: Reform the Patriot Act -- Do not Expand It!. American Civil Liberties Union. 2006-09-14.
  162. Web site: Liberty - Protecting Civil Liberties Promoting Human Rights : Terrorism. Liberty. 2006-09-14.
  163. Web site: Euro MPs urge Guantanamo closure. BBC News. 2006-06-13. 2008-05-20.
  164. Web site: Mendez. Juan E.. Juan E. Méndez. 2002-03-13. Detainees in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; Request for Precautionary Measures, Inter-Am. C.H.R.. University of Minnesota. 2008-04-14.
  165. Web site: USA: Release or fair trials for all remaining Guantánamo detainees. Amnesty International. 2008-05-02. 2008-05-04.
  166. Book: 177–182. United Nations Global Conferences. Michael G. Schechter. 2005. Routledge. 0415343801.
  167. News: Stillwell. Cinnamon. The Truth About 9/11 Conspiracy Theories. San Francisco Chronicle. 2006-04-19. 2008-05-19.
  168. Web site: Final Report on the Collapse of World Trade Center Building 7. August. 2008. National Institute of Standards and Technology. p. 22-4. 2008-09-30. PDF.
  169. Bazant. Zdenek P.. Mathieu Verdure. March. 2007. Mechanics of Progressive Collapse: Learning from World Trade Center and Building Demolitions. Journal of Engineering Mechanics. American Society of Civil Engineers. 133. 3. pp. 308–319. 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(2007)133:3(308). 2008-05-20. PDF.
  170. Web site: Makinen, Gail. The Economic Effects of 9/11: A Retrospective Assessment. p. 17. 2002-09-27. Congressional Research Service. Library of Congress. 2008-05-21. PDF.
  171. Web site: Markets reopen, plunge. Barnhart. Bill. Chicago Tribune. 2001-09-17. 2008-05-03.
  172. News: Fernandez. Bob. U.S. Markets Decline Again. KRTBN Knight Ridder Tribune Business News. The Philadelphia Inquirer. 2001-09-22. 2008-05-02.
  173. Dolfman, Michael L., Solidelle F. Wasser. Monthly Labor Review. 127. 2004. 9/11 and the New York City Economy.
  174. Web site: Makinen, Gail. The Economic Effects of 9/11: A Retrospective Assessment. p. 5. 2002-09-27. Congressional Research Service. Library of Congress. 2008-05-21. PDF.
  175. Web site: Hensell. Lesley. Tough Times Loom For Manhattan Commercial Market. Realty Times. 2001-12-14. 2008-05-03.
  176. Web site: Parrott. James. The Employment Impact of the September 11 World Trade Center Attacks: Updated Estimates based on the Benchmarked Employment Data. The Fiscal Policy Institute. March 8, 2002. pdf. 2006-09-08.
  177. Web site: Fuerst. Franz. Exogenous Shocks and Real Estate Rental Markets: An Event Study of the 9/11 Attacks and their Impact on the New York Office Market. Russell Sage Foundation. September 7, 2005. 2007-05-10.
  178. Web site: Russell. James S.. Do skyscrapers still make sense? Revived downtowns and new business models spur tall-building innovation.. Architectural Record. November 7, 2004. 2007-05-10.
  179. Web site: Bhadra. Dipasis. Pamela Texter. Airline Networks: An Econometric Framework to Analyze Domestic U.S. Air Travel. United States Department of Transportation. 2004. 2008-05-21.
  180. News: Anita. Gates. Buildings Rise from Rubble while Health Crumbles. The New York Times. 2006-09-11. 2008-05-18.
  181. News: What was Found in the Dust. The New York Times. September 5, 2006. 2006-09-08.
  182. Web site: New York: 9/11 toxins caused death. CNN.com. 2007-05-24. 2007-07-10.
  183. News: Tracing Lung Ailments That Rose With 9/11 Dust. DePalma. Anthony. 2006-05-13. The New York Times. 2008-05-03.
  184. News: Shapiro. Rich. Cancer ends his fitness life after toil at the Pit. New York Daily News. 2007-09-10. 2008-05-03.
  185. Web site: Updated Ground Zero Report Examines Failure of Government to Protect Citizens. Sierra Club. 2006. 2008-05-21.
  186. Web site: Smith. Stephen. 9/11 "Wall Of Heroes" To Include Sick Cops. CBS News. 2008-04-28. 2008-05-03.
  187. Web site: CCCEH Study of the Effects of 9/11 on Pregnant Women and Newborns. World Trade Center Pregnancy Study. Columbia University. 2006. 2008-04-14. PDF.
  188. News: Anthony. DePalma. Many Ground Zero Workers Gain Chance at Lawsuits. The New York Times. 2006-10-18. 2008-05-18.
  189. Web site: Larry. Neumeister. Judge Slams Ex-EPA Chief Over Sept. 11. Associated Press. San Francisco Chronicle. 2006-02-02. 2008-05-03.
  190. News: Heilprin. John. White House edited EPA's 9/11 reports. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 2003-06-23. 2008-04-12.
  191. News: Smith. Ben. RUDY'S BLACK CLOUD. WTC health risks may hurt Prez bid. Daily News. 2006-09-18. 2008-05-21.
  192. Web site: National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. govinfo.library.unt.edu. 2008-06-17.
  193. News: Richard A.. Posner. The 9/11 Report: A Dissent. The New York Times. August 29, 2004. 2008-04-14.
  194. Web site: Republicans amplify criticism of 9/11 commission. 2008-04-14. Ed Henry. April 26, 2004. CNN.com.
  195. Web site: NIST’s World Trade Center Investigation. National Institute of Standards and Technology. U.S. Department of Commerce. 2007-12-14. 2008-05-03.
  196. Web site: Final Reports of the Federal Building and Fire Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster. 2006-06-08. 2008-04-30. National Institute of Standards and Technology. United States Department of Commerce.
  197. Web site: NIST WTC 7 Investigation Finds Building Fires Caused Collapse. 2008-08-21. 2008-08-22. National Institute of Standards and Technology. United States Department of Commerce.
  198. Book: National Construction Safety Team. Final Report on the Collapse of the World Trade Center Towers. National Institute of Standards and Technology. United States Department of Commerce. Executive Summary. September. 2005. 2008-05-21. PDF.
  199. News: Purdue creates scientifically based animation of 9/11 attack. Tally. Steve. Purdue News Service. 2007-06-12. 2008-08-29.
  200. Web site: Building a Terror-Proof Skyscraper: Experts Debate Feasibility, Options. Pete. Sigmund. 2008-01-24. 2002-09-25.
  201. Web site: Translating WTC Recommendations Into Model Building Codes. National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2008-01-24. 2007-10-25.
  202. Web site: Deep Background. American Conservative. 2005-04-01. 2007-03-29.
  203. News: Katherine. Shrader. Senators Want CIA to Release 9/11 Report. San Francisco Chronicle. Associated Press. May 17, 2007. 2008-04-14.
  204. News: Taylor. Tess. Rebuilding in New York. 2001-09-26. Architecture Week. 68. 2008-05-21.
  205. Web site: Lubell. Sam. Charles Linn. Power Struggle Heats Up While Development Moves Slowly at Ground Zero. Architectural Record. December 5, 2005. 2006-09-08.
  206. Web site: Buettner. Russ. Fat cats milked Ground Zero. Daily News. 2006-09-08.
  207. News: David W.. Dunlap. Glenn Collins. Revised Design for Freedom Tower Unveiled. The New York Times. 2006-06-28. 2008-12-29.
  208. News: Oglesby. Christy. Phoenix rises: Pentagon honors 'hard-hat patriots'. CNN. 2002-09-11. 2008-06-13.
  209. News: Honoring the fallen, From New York to Texas, Americans pay respect to the victims of terrorism. The Dallas Morning News. 2001-09-15.
  210. News: Ahrens. Frank. Sorrow's Legions; Washingtonians Gather With Candles, Prayers And a Shared Grief. The Washington Post. 2001-09-15.
  211. Web site: Bush Thanks Canadians for Helping After 9/11. Fox News. 2004-12-01. 2007-07-21.
  212. Web site: Construction Equipment Guide. Pete. Sigmund. 2001-09-26. 2008-01-24. Crews Assist Rescuers in Massive WTC Search.
  213. Web site: Tribute in light to New York victims. BBC News. 2002-03-06. 2007-07-21.
  214. Web site: About the World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition. 2008-09-12. World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition.
  215. Web site: Associated Press. WTC Memorial Construction Begins. CBS News. 2006-03-06. 2007-07-22.
  216. News: Dunlap. David. Governor Bars Freedom Center at Ground Zero. The New York Times. 2005-09-25. 2008-05-21.
  217. News: Nick. Miroff. Creating a Place Like No Other. The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company. 2008-09-11. 2008-09-12.
  218. News: Nick. Miroff. A Long-Awaited Opening, Bringing Closure to Many. The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company. 2008-09-11. 2008-09-11.
  219. News: Dwyer. Timothy. Pentagon Memorial Progress Is Step Forward for Families. 2007-05-26. The Washington Post. 2008-05-21.
  220. Web site: DefenseLINK News Photos - Pentagon's America's Heroes Memorial. Department of Defense. 2007-07-24.
  221. Web site: Associated Press. Sept. 11 Flight 93 Memorial Design Chosen. Fox News. 2005-09-08. 2007-07-22.
  222. Web site: Flight 93 Memorial Project. Flight 93 Memorial Project / National Park Service. 2008-04-14.
  223. News: Ganassi. Michelle. NY firefighter donating steel to Shanksville. 2008-08-25. Daily American. 2008-08-22.
  224. News: Gaskell. Stephanie. Pa. site of 9/11 crash gets WTC beam. 2008-08-25. New York Daily news. 2008-08-25.
  225. News: Fessenden. Ford. 9/11; After the World Gave: Where $2 Billion in Kindness Ended Up. The New York Times. 2002-11-18. 2008-05-21.