For other uses see São Paulo (disambiguation).
|Official Name:||The Municipality of São Paulo|
|Nickname:||Terra da Garoa (Land of Drizzle) and Sampa|
|Motto:||"Non ducor, duco"(Latin)|
"I am not led, I lead"
|Subdivision Name2:||São Paulo|
|Leader Name:||Gilberto Kassab (Democrats)|
|Established Date:||January 25, 1554|
|Area Magnitude:||1 E9|
|Area Total Km2:||1522.986|
|Population As Of:||2008|
|Area Metro Km2:||8051|
|Population Density Km2:||7216|
|Population Density Metro Km2:||2469|
|Utc Offset Dst:||-2|
|Blank Name:||HDI (2000)|
|Website:||City of São Paulo|
São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil, and along with Tokyo, Seoul and Mexico City is among the four largest metropolitan regions of the world. The city is the capital of the State of São Paulo, the most populous Brazilian state. It is also the richest city of Brazil. The name means Saint Paul in Portuguese. São Paulo exerts strong regional influence in commerce and finance as well as arts and entertainment.
The city has many renowned landmarks. The Immigrant's Hostel greeted millions of immigrants as they came to Brazil in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Paulista Avenue, in Downtown, is the most important financial center of the country and South America. The city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BOVESPA). São Paulo has been home to several of the tallest buildings in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale Building.
The city also lies at the center of the heavily urbanized São Paulo metropolitan area, which, with an estimated 21,616,060 people in 2008 over 7,944km2, is the largest metropolitan area in the nation. Depending on which definition is used, the São Paulo metropolitan area is ranked as either the first or second most populous in the Americas, only comparable to Mexico City.
People from the city of São Paulo are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the whole of São Paulo state, including the paulistanos. The city's Latin motto is Non ducor, duco, which translates as "I am not led, I lead". A famous nickname for the city is "Sampa". São Paulo is also known for its unreliable weather, the sheer size of its helicopter fleet, architecture and multitude of skyscrapers. The São Paulo/Guarulhos International Airport, the most important airport in South America, operates many domestic and international flights.
Jesuit missionaries Manuel da Nóbrega and José de Anchieta founded the village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga on January 25, 1554. Along with their entourage, they established a mission named Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga aimed at converting the Tupi-Guarani indigenous Brazilians to the Catholic religion. Located just beyond the Serra do Mar cliffs, overlooking the port city of Santos, and close to the Tietê River, the new settlement became the natural entrance from the South East coast to the vast and fertile plateau to the West that would eventually become the State of São Paulo.São Paulo officially became a city in 1711. In the 19th century, it experienced a flourishing economic prosperity, brought about chiefly through coffee exports, which were shipped abroad from the port of the neighbouring city of Santos. After the abolition of slavery in 1888, waves of immigrants from Italy, Portugal, Spain, Germany and many other European countries emigrated to São Paulo in order to, among other reasons, work at the enormous coffee plantations established in the State. At the beginning of the 20th century, the coffee cycle had already plummeted due to, among other factors, a sharp decline in international coffee prices.
The local entrepreneurs then started investing in the industrial development of São Paulo, attracting new contingents of overseas immigrants to the city, mainly Italians. In addition to Europeans, Japanese and Syrian and Lebanese immigrants arrived in large numbers in the first half of the 20th century. Along the 20th century, the booming economy of the city also attracted huge waves of migrants from the poorest regions in Brazil, such as the Northeast.
However, due to competition with many other Brazilian cities, which sometimes offer tax advantages for companies to locate manufacturing plants there, São Paulo's main economic activities have gradually left its industrial profile in favour of the services industry in the late 20th century. The city is home to a large number of local and international banking offices, law firms, multinational companies and consumer services.Despite its many woes, São Paulo remains the business hub of Latin America. Having prospered first with the coffee industry, and later with industrialisation, in the early 21st century it expanded into the tertiary, or services sector. Its huge market (over 20 million people in greater São Paulo) is a magnet for multinational corporations. Thanks to events such as the Feira Bienal Internacional de Arte, and its reputation for hosting cutting-edge music concerts, it has become something of a cultural centre as well. Economic growth and exportation of goods has lifted employment and wages. The murder rate has dropped by almost a quarter since its peak.
The historic centre profited with the return of the city's government and the arrival of private universities, although businesses continue to move out to new boom neighbourhoods such as Itaim and Berrini. São Paulo also claims to attract more visitors (mostly, but no longer exclusively, on business) than Rio de Janeiro, testimony of the intense rivalry between the two metropolises.
São Paulo is located on a plateau that is part of the Serra do Mar (Portuguese for "Sea Range"), itself a component of the vast region known as the Brazilian Highlands, with an average elevation of around 799 metres (2,625 ft) above sea level - though at a distance of only about from the Atlantic Ocean. This distance is covered by two highways, the Anchieta and the Imigrantes, (see "Transportation" section below) that roll down the range, leading to the port city of Santos and the beach resort of Guarujá. Rolling terrain prevails within the urbanized areas of São Paulo except in the North of the city, where the Serra da Cantareira Range boasts higher elevations and a sizable remnant of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The entire region is very stable tectonically, and no significant seismic activity has ever been recorded.
The Tietê River, and its tributary, the Pinheiros River were once important sources of fresh water and leisure for São Paulo, only to become grossly polluted by raw sewage and industrial effluents in the latter half of the 20th century. However, a substantial clean-up program for both rivers is underway, financed through a partnership between local government and international development banks such as the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. Neither river is navigable in the stretch that flows through the city, although water transportation becomes increasingly important on the river Tietê further downstream (towards South, near river Paraná), as the river is part of the River Plate basin.
There are no large natural lakes in the region, but the Billings and Guarapiranga reservoirs in the southern outskirts of the city are used for power generation, water storage, and leisure activities, such as sailing.
The original flora consisted mainly of a great variety of broadleaf evergreens. Today, non-native species are common, as the mild climate and abundant rainfall permit a multitude of tropical, subtropical and temperate plants to be cultivated, with eucalyptus being especially ubiquitous.
According the Köppen climate classification São Paulo has a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures seldom reach 30°C (86°F) during summer, while frost is rare during winter due to urban heat island. All-time record temperatures are 35.3°C (96.6°F) on November 15, 1985 and -2.1°C (28°F) on August 2, 1955 (both at the Mirante de Santana National Weather Station, in the north region). In the mountains around the city (Horto Florestal), -3.9°C (25°F) was recorded also in August 2, 1955 (unofficially).
Rainfall is abundant, amounting to an annual average of 1317mm, . It is especially common in the warmer months, and somewhat scant between June and August. Neither São Paulo nor the nearby coast has ever been hit by a tropical cyclone until 2005 when the east coast of Central America saw its first cyclone, and tornadic activity is uncommon. Snow flurries were reported officially on just one occasion, on June 25, 1918. During late winter, especially August, the city is subject to the phenomenon known as "veranico", which consists of a bout of unusually hot and dry weather, sometimes reaching temperatures as high as 28°C (82.4°F). On the other hand, relatively cool days during summer are also fairly common; on such occasions daily high temperatures may not surpass 20°C (68°F), accompanied by lows around or even below 15°C (59°F).
See also: List of mayors of São Paulo. São Paulo's most recent mayors were:
|Mayor||Entry in||Left Office in||Political Party|
|Celso Pitta||1997||2000||PPB, later PTN|
|Paulo Maluf||1993||1996||PPB (PP)|
See main article: Greater São Paulo. The nonspecific term "Grande São Paulo" ("Greater São Paulo") denotes any of São Paulo's metropolitan area definitions. The legally defined Região Metropolitana de São Paulo consists of 39 municipalities in total, and a population of more than 19 million inhabitants (as of 2005, according to IBGE).
Because São Paulo is sprawling like Los Angeles, it has another definition for its metropolitan area. Analogous to the US's CSA (Combined Statistical Area) type definition of metropolitan area, it is the second largest city in the world with 27 million inhabitants (Complexo Metropolitano Expandido), which includes 2 contiguous legally defined metropolitan regions, and 3 microregions.
The city of São Paulo is divided into 31 boroughs, called subprefectures (subprefeituras in Portuguese). Each subprefecture is divided into several districts (in most cases, two or three). The subprefectures with the largest number of districts are the boroughs of Sé, in the historical downtown, Butantã, the location of the University of São Paulo, Lapa, Penha and Mooca, all having eleven districts.Together with the administrative division, there is also a geographic radial division established in 2007 by the mayor Gilberto Kassab. The city is divided in ten regions (historical downtown, extended downtown, north, south, east, west, northeast, northwest, southeast and southwest), each one identified with a distinct color in the buses and in the street plaques. These divisions have no relationship with the subprefectures and districts, and, in some cases, the same district may be in two or more geographic regions.The district where the headquarters of the subprefecture is located receives the same name of the subprefecture, with exception of M'Boi Mirim.
São Paulo is the most ethnically diverse city in Brazil. After the end of the African slave traffic in the country (1850), São Paulo started to replace the African manpower with immigrants in the coffee plantations. The pioneer in this new project was the senator Nicolau Vergueiro, who brought German, Swiss and Portuguese people to work in his own properties.
After the abolition of slavery (1888), São Paulo received large numbers of immigrants, most of them coming from Italy. In 1897, Italians were over half of the city's population. Portuguese, Spaniards, Germans, Japanese, Jews and Christian Lebanese and Syrians also came in significant numbers. From 1908 to 1950, many Japanese immigrants arrived. In the 1960s, Chinese and Koreans started arriving. In the mid-20th century, many people from the poor Northeastern Brazil started to migrate to São Paulo. Nowadays, there is a growing Bolivian community in the city.
As in all of Brazil, people of different ethnicities mix with each other, producing a multi-ethnic society. Today, people of 100 different ethnicities make São Paulo their home. The main communities, considering all the metropolitan area, are:
Ethnically, São Paulo is made up of:
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As in all Brazil, the language spoken by the vast majority of the population is Portuguese. Due to the large influx of Italian immigrants, the Portuguese spoken in the city reflects a significant influence from the languages of the Italian peninsula, particularly from Neapolitan and Venetian.
The Italian dialects mixed with the countryside Caipira accent of São Paulo; some linguists maintain that the São Paulo dialect of Portuguese was born in Mooca, a neighborhood settled in the early 20th century mainly by people from Naples, Southern Italy. 
Other languages spoken in the city are mainly among the Asian community: Liberdade neighborhood is home to the largest Japanese population outside of Japan. Although today most Japanese Brazilians can speak only Portuguese, some of them are still fluent in Japanese. Some people of Chinese and Korean descent are still able to speak their ancestral languages. However, most of the Brazilian-born generations only speak Portuguese.
São Paulo is the 19th richest city in the world and is expected to be the 13th richest in 2020. According to data of Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, its Gross domestic product (GDP) in 2005 was R$ 263,177,148,000.00 (US$ 156,280,780,941.00), equivalent to approximately 12.26% of the Brazilian GDP and 36% of all production of goods and services of the State of São Paulo. One of the biggest financial centres in Brazil and in the world, São Paulo's economy is going through a deep transformation. Once a city with a strong industrial character, São Paulo's economy has become increasingly based on the tertiary sector, focusing on services and businesses for the country. Many analysts point to São Paulo as an important global city, even though this assignment can be criticized considering its serious problems of social exclusion and spacial segregation. Although being the most important financial centre of the country, São Paulo's economy also presents a high degree of informality. São Paulo is the business center of the Mercosul economy. Acclaimed as a city of business tourism, attracting today's biggest and most important international events, be they in the economic, cultural, scientific or sporting area. The city hosts from small meetings to large s. It holds more than 200 events per day, offering more than 250 thousand square meters of space in pavilions and areas for congresses and fairs. This is without taking into account the supply of spaces within hotels, which adds another 70 thousand square meters, suitable for holding events. Adding space in nightclubs, cultural and business areas, clubs and other alternatives to these numbers, São Paulo boasts approximately 430,000 square meters for the holding of any type of event.There is still the supply of approximately 30,000 apartments of various categories, a number which is to grow significantly in the next two years, predicted to reach 50,000 apartments in 2003, catering for those seeking the more luxurious options of the large chains, to simpler and more economical options. It is worth pointing out that from the tourist attractions the following stand out: gastronomy and culture.
With more than 12,000 restaurants of more than 40 different world cuisines, besides the 70 museums, more than 200 cinemas, around 50 theaters, art galleries and cultural centers, São Paulo has one of the liveliest night-lives in the world.
If the city of São Paulo were a country, its economy would be the 47th in the world, bigger than Egypt and Kuwait, about the same size as Hungary or New Zealand, and Israel. In 2005, the city of São Paulo collected R$ 90 billion in taxes, and the budget of the city spent R$ 15 billion; these figures show that São Paulo contributes to redistribution wealth. The city has 1,500 bank branches. There are 70 shopping malls. Of all the international companies with business in Brazil, 63% have their head offices in São Paulo. According to Mystery Shopping International, the Oscar Freire Street is the eighth most luxurious in the world. The São Paulo Stock Exchange (BM&F Bovespa) is Brazil's official stock and bonds exchange. The BM&F Bovespa is the largest stock exchange in Latin America and third largest in the world. In the Stocks Exchange, R$ 6 billion (US$ 3.5 billion) change hands every day.
There are some Web sites and magazines specialising in the cultural events in the city, including the Agenda Cultural de São Paulo (São Paulo's Cultural Calendar).
The São Paulo Art Biennial is a cultural event hosted in town every two years. Almost 1 million people visited the 26th Biennial in 2004. Its theme was chosen to enable a wide range of artistic positions to feel comfortable.
One of the most important fashion weeks in the world (along with London's, New York's, Milan's and Paris' editions), São Paulo Fashion Week established in 1996 under the name Morumbi Fashion Brasil, it is the biggest and most important fashion event in Latin America.
Brazil first entered the international fashion circuit with the increasing reputation of famous Brazilian top models such as Isabeli Fontana, Adriana Lima, Gisele Bündchen, Alessandra Ambrosio, Fernanda Tavares, Ana Beatriz Barros, Izabel Goulart and Ana Hickmann, and the "discovery" of some fresh talents such as Alexandre Herchcovitch by some international fashion magazines.
The first parade happened in 1997. São Paulo's version is quite young compared to those in New York, San Francisco and Sydney which have been occurring since the 1970s. It only took 8 years to overcome those cities' parades in attendance. The tourist event in the city, the São Paulo Gay Parade attracted about 1.5 million people to Paulista Avenue in 2006. It is usually opened by the city's mayor and a large carnival runs along the avenue, with several Trio Elétricos. The last parade was held on June 10, 2007, but no official estimate was given by the Polícia Militar. 
The Parade happens annually, in June, with the aims of bringing visibility to social-sexual categories and fomenting the creation of public policies for homosexuals, bisexuals, transvestites and transsexuals. Since its 7th year, the Parade is associated with an intense cultural programming that lasts at least a month. Most international hotel companies in São Paulo have specific hotels for the Gay Parade guests due to the huge number of people in the city looking for a room.
The March for Jesus is an Evangelical parade that takes place on Corpus Christi Thursday every year in Zona Norte. It is organized by the "Rebirth Church", a Pentecostal denomination created in the 1980s which has grown significantly in the first decade of the 21st century. In 2006, about 3 million people took part in the event, according to official estimates. Evangelicals from across Brazil flooded São Paulo Thursday for the "March for Jesus" event as live Christian bands accompanied the more than three million marchers. The annual march, organized by evangelical churches, featured a concert with 30 Christian bands carried on 17 flatbed trucks performing live as participants marched through Brazil's financial capital.
The Electronic Language International Festival is a non-profit cultural organization, whose purpose is to disseminate and to develop arts, technologies and scientific research, by means of exhibitions, debates, lectures, and courses. The festival promotes a yearly meeting in Brazil, in the city of São Paulo.
Every two years, Associação Cultural Videobrasil's International Electronic Art Festival brings groundbreaking work by cream-of-the-crop artists from all over the world to São Paulo. In keeping with the constant transformations in media and support, the curatorship has added installations, performances, VJs, CD-ROM art, and Internet art to the programme. Art shows, debates and meetings introduce new ideas and artwork, setting new guidelines for contemporary art in Brazil. Exhibitions featuring work by prominent electronic artists are also part of the Festival. Brazilian pioneers such as Rafael França and Olhar Eletrônico, and international guests such as Nam June Paik, Bill Viola and Gary Hill, have featured in the event's past editions. Each edition has a theme of its own.
The São Paulo high schools that obtained the best results on the 2007 Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio (National High School Exam) are Colégio Vértice, Colégio Bandeirantes, Colégio Dante Alighieri,Colégio Móbile, Colégio Santa Cruz, Colégio Agostiniano Mendel, Etapa, Colégio Palmares, Cefet, Colégio Albert Sabin, ETE São Paulo, Colégio Poliedro, Colégio Miguel de Cervantes, Colégio Santa Clara, Colégio Nossa Senhora das Graças, Colégio Ítaca, Colégio Arquidiocesano Marista, Colégio Porto Seguro, Escola da Vila (Morumbi neighborhood), Colégio Espírito Santo and Centro Educacional Pioneiro.
Adoniran Barbosa was a famous samba singer and composer who became successful during São Paulo's radio era. Born in 1912 in the town of Valinhos, Barbosa was known as the composer to the lower classes of São Paulo, particularly the poor Italian immigrants living in the quarters of Bexiga (Bela Vista) and Brás, as well as the poor who lived in the city's many shanties and cortiços (degraded multifamily row houses). The topics of his songs are drawn from the life of low-wage urban workers, the unemployed and the vagabonds. His first big hit was Saudosa Maloca ("Shanty of Fond Memories", 1951), wherein three homeless friends recall with nostalgia their improvised shanty, which was torn down by the landowner to make room for a building. In his Trem das Onze ("The 11 PM Train", 1964) record, which has been ranked one of the five best samba songs ever, the protagonist explains to his lover that he cannot stay any longer because he has to catch the last train to the Jaçanã suburb, for his mother will not sleep before he arrives. An old-school samba band called Demônios da Garoa still plays his songs in the traditional Bar Brahma venue in Downtown.In the late 1960s, a psychedelic rock band called Os Mutantes led the way in the national avant garde music scene. Their success is sometimes related to that of other tropicalia musicians, but they also had a musical style and ideas of their own. They were regarded as very paulistanos in their behaviour and clothing. Os Mutantes released five albums together before lead singer Rita Lee departed in 1972 to start a solo career. Although almost exclusively known in Brazil at that time, Os Mutantes became quite successful abroad after the 1990s (a legend has it that a Brazilian young woman in an exchange programme in California forgot one Mutantes' vinyl record at her host home when she returned home, and thus helped make the band popular in that U.S. state). In 2000, Technicollor, a cd recorded in English by the band was released with artwork designed by Sean Lennon.After the two oil price shocks in the 1970s, the country suffered from an economic recession during the 1980s, a phenomenon that was named the lost decade. The very repressive military government of the day did not help in any way the social situation. A late punk and garage scene became strong in the 1980s, perhaps associated with the gloomy scenario of unemployment and few actual prospectives from the viewpoint of the youth. Underground rock bars and clubs in town were full of thriving musicians and artists waiting for their moment to come. Examples of bands originating from this movement include Ira! and Titãs. In the 1990s, drum & bass became another musical movement in São Paulo, with artists such as DJ Marky, DJ Patife, XRS, Drumagick, and Fernanda Porto. Many heavy metal bands also originated in São Paulo, such as Angra, Torture Squad, Korzus and Dr. Sin. Many "alternative" cultures of São Paulo mingle at a small shopping mall dubbed Galeria do Rock (English: "Rock Gallery"), which includes shops which cater to a broad range of alternative niches. Famous alternative band Cansei de Ser Sexy, or CSS (Portuguese for "tired of being sexy") also came from São Paulo.
The classical music in São Paulo is also very prevalent. Many of the most important classical Brazilian composers who are still alive, like Amaral Vieira, Osvaldo Lacerda and Edson Zampronha, were born in and live in São Paulo. São Paulo has two important opera houses: Teatro Municipal de São Paulo and Theatro São Pedro, and some opera performances are sometimes hosted in other theaters like Credicard Hall. Local baritone Paulo Szot has won international acclaim and a Tony Award nomination for his performance in a 2008 revival of South Pacific. The São Paulo State Symphony is one of the outstanding orchestras in Latin America and in the world.
São Paulo was home to the first jesuit missionaries in Brazil, in the early 16th century. They wrote reports to the Portuguese crown about the newly found land, the native peoples and composed pieces of poetry and music for the catechism. Among them were priests such as Manuel da Nóbrega and José de Anchieta, living in or near the colony then called Piratininga. They also helped to register the Old Tupi language, lexicon and its grammar.
In 1922, the Brazilian Modernist Movement, centered on São Paulo, also began to achieve a similar cultural independence through different means. Brazil had gone through the same stages of development as the rest of Latin America, but its political and cultural independence came more gradually. The first emperor of Brazil, Pedro I, was a legitimate member of the royal Portuguese dynasty. Although he declared Brazil's independence from Portugal in 1822, the country remained under imperial rule and the dominance of the court in Rio de Janeiro until 1889.
With Brazil thus tied to Portuguese culture, Brazilian writers only little by little assumed responsibility for giving expression to their own landscape and ethnic mix of peoples. The presence of large numbers of former slaves added a distinctive African character to the culture; and subsequent infusions of immigrants of non-Portuguese origin, from different parts of Europe, helped the new nation to find its own voice and to use it. Mário de Andrade and Oswald de Andrade are the prototypical modernists. With the urban poems of Paulicéia desvairada (1922), Mário de Andrade established the movement in Brazil. His rhapsodic novel Macunaíma (1928), with its abundance of Brazilian folklore, represents the apex of modernism's nationalist prose through its creation of an offbeat national hero. Oswald de Andrade's experimental poetry, avant-garde prose — particularly the novel Serafim Ponte Grande (1933), and provocative manifestos exemplify the movement's break with tradition.
Both these authors were influential writers form the Modernism in Brazil:
The city of São Paulo has one of the best Research and Development structures in Latin America, and has been attracting a growing number of companies due to the increasing importance of innovation as a decisive differential in the global market. Among the several factors that justify such an attraction, it's worth to highlight the presence of several renowned universities that links higher education and internationally renowned laboratories and research centers that acts in several areas of knowledge. With an ample technical training educational system and several internationally renowned institutions of higher education, the city presents excellent infrastructure aimed at qualifying its workforce. The institutions of higher education in the city of São Paulo are the best of the country and many are internationally renowned.
The system of science, technology and innovation of São Paulo is also leveraged by the allocation of funds from the state government, mainly carried out by means of the Foundation to Research Support in the State of São Paulo (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo - Fapesp), one of the main agencies of promotion of the scientific and technological research of the country.
The city is known for its varied and sophisticated cuisine, ranging from Chinese to French, from fast food chains to five star restaurants. There are approximately 62 different types of cuisines in São Paulo, and more than 12,000 restaurants. Other venues such as bars, pubs, lounges and discos cater to a variety of music tastes.
São Paulo is home to the São Paulo Museum of Art (MASP), dedicated by Queen Elizabeth II in the first half of the XX century and "Pinacoteca do Estado" art museums, a symphonic orchestra (São Paulo State Symphony (OSESP - based in the Sala São Paulo theatre in the gorgeous Julio Prestes train station), and a Formula One Grand Prix racing circuit (Interlagos).
Many historians believe that the first theatre performance in Brazil was held in São Paulo. The Portuguese Jesuit José de Anchieta (1534-1597) wrote short plays that were performed and watched by the Brazilian native indians. After that, however, São Paulo became a province and cultural activities lost momentum. It was only in the beginning of the 20th century that, thanks to the coffee cycle and the wealth it brought, major European ethnic groups started making presentations in some of the state's countryside cities. Theatres such as Pedro II, in Ribeirão Preto, welcomed groups that had already performed in Manaus, Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires. The most important period for the art in São Paulo took place during the avant-grade time. It was in São Paulo that a professional company, Teatro Brasileiro de Comédia, or TBC (Brazilian Theater of Comedy) made its first presentation. During the 60s, major theater productions in São Paulo and Brazil were presented by two groups. Teatro de Arena began with a group of students from Escola de Arte Dramática (Drama Art School), founded by Alfredo Mesquita, in 1948. In 1958, the group excelled with the play "Eles não usam black tie", a masterpiece by Gianfrancesco Guarnieri that, for the first time in the history of the Brazilian drama, had labor workers as protagonists.
Further to that, after the coup of 1964, theater plays started focusing the Brazilian history (Zumbi, Tiradentes). Teatro de Arena was an embattled stage for the democratic resistance during the military dictatorship period, marked by its censorship. Teatro Oficina also played an important role. It was there that the tropical movement began. There was a number of plays that represented historic moments, among which "O Rei da Vela", "Galileu Galilei" (1968), "Na Sela das Cidades" (1969) and "Gracias Señor" (1972). Today, all kinds of plays are performed at São Paulo's dozens of theatres, going from classical music, ballet to avant-garde plays.
Museu do IpirangaThe first monument especially built to preserve the memory of the Independence of Brazil, was opened on September 7, 1895, with the name of Museu de Ciências Naturais (Natural Science Museum). In 1919, it became once again a historic museum. Its collection, with approximately 100,000 pieces, comprises works of art, furniture, clothing, and appliances that once belonged to famous people who took part in the Brazilian history, such as explorers and emperors. Its facilities are also home to a library with 100,000 books and Centro de Documentação Histórica (Historic Documentation Center), with 40,000 manuscripts.
Stretching over 78,000 square meters, Memorial da América Latina (Latin America's Memorial) was conceived to be a place for the integration of Latin American countries and their roots and cultures. Memorial is home to the headquarters of Parlamento Latino-Americano - Parlatino (Latin American Parliament). Designed by the architect Oscar Niemeyer, Memorial has an exhibition pavilion, where there is a permanent exhibition of the continent's craftwork production; a library with books, newspapers, magazines, videos, films and records about the history of Latin America; and an auditorium with capacity for 1,679 people.
Hospedaria do Imigrante (Immigrant's Hostel) was opened to gather and preserve the documentation, memory and objects of the immigrants that came to Brazil in search for hope, adventures and wealth, or just to leave behind the difficult lives they had in their countries. Located in one of the few centenarian buildings of the city of São Paulo, the museum occupies part of the former Hostel: an incredible center built in 1886-1888 in Brás with the aim of welcoming the immigrants brought by the Government and helping them find work.
From 1882 to 1978, people of more than 60 nationalities and races were guests there, all of them duly registered in the museum's books and lists. The hostel used to serve approximately 3,000 people on average, but under special circumstances, this number reached 8,000 people. Aside from bringing the immigrants' history to the public, the museum also restores wooden train cars (they are called cars and not wagons because they were used to transport people, not cargo) from the former São Paulo Railway. There are two restored cars in the museum, one of which a luggage, mail and train car, which dates from 1914, and another one a 2nd class passenger car, which dates from 1931. Memorial do Imigrante (Memorial of the Immigrant) is a fair tribute to the men and women who, thanks to their dreams, desire to grow and hard work, transformed not only São Paulo but also the country.
Occupying an area of 700 square meters, the animals shown in the museum are samples of the country's tropical fauna and were prepared (embalmed) more than 50 years ago. In the entrance hall, there is information about the main activities carried out by USP's staff and by the museum's researchers. The animals are grouped together according to their classification: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, and some invertebrates such as reefs, crustaceans and mollusks. The library, specialized in zoology, has modern facilities and equipment and serve both the scientific community and the public in general. It has 73,850 works, of which 8,473 are books and 2,364 are newspapers, in addition to theses and maps.
The museum was founded by the journalist Assis Chateaubriand and by Pietro Maria Bardi. Its current headquarters, opened in 1968, were designed by the architect Lina Bo Bardi. Two enormous colonnades support the 9,2 thousand ton building, forming a 74-meter free space. MASP has one of Latin America's most important collections of European art, including works of art by distinguished artists such as Degas, Renoir, Modigliani and Bonnard, among others.
The headquarters of the State Government has an important collection of works of art by Brazilian artists, such as Portinari, Aldo Bonadei, Djanira, Almeida Júnior, Victor Brecheret, Ernesto de Fiori and Aleijadinho. Additionally, it also gathers colonial furniture, leather and silver artefacts, and European tapestry. In eclectic style, its walls are covered with panels describing the history of São Paulo.
Opened in May, 1990, the main aim of Museu da Imagem e do Som (Image and Sound Museum) is to keep and preserve manifestations in the music, cinema, photography, and graphical arts areas, as well as any other manifestation related to the Brazilian contemporary life. MIS has a collection of more than 200,000 images, distributed in thematic collections of diverse content. It has more than 1,600 fiction videotapes, documentaries and music, and 12,750 titles recorded in Super 8 and 16 mm. Additionally, MIS organizes concerts, cinema and video festivals, and photography and graphical arts exhibitions.
As in the rest of Brazil, football is by far the most popular sport in the city. The major teams in São Paulo are Corinthians, Palmeiras and São Paulo. There are three other small clubs in the city, Portuguesa, Juventus and Nacional. Another popular club in São Paulo is Santos FC from the nearby coastal city of Santos.
|São Paulo FC||Série A (1st National League Division)||Morumbi Stadium80,000 (138,032 record)||1930|
|Corinthians||Série A (1st National League Division)||Alfredo Schürig Stadium18.000||1910|
|Palmeiras||Série A (1st National League Division)||Palestra Itália Stadium29,173 (40,283 record)||1914|
|Portuguesa||Série B (2nd National League Division)||Canindé Stadium19,717 (25,000 record)||1920|
|Juventus||2nd Regional State League division||Rua Javari Stadium2,730 (9,000 record)||1924|
|Nacional||3rd Regional State League division||Comendador Souza Stadium9,650 (22,000 record)||1919|
See main article: Saint Silvester Road Race.
The São Silvestre Race takes place every New Year's Eve. It was first held in 1925, when the competitors ran about 8,000 metres across the streets. Since then, the distance raced varied, but is now set at 15 km (9 mi).
The Formula One Brazilian Grand Prix (Portuguese: Grande Prêmio do Brasil) is held at the Autódromo José Carlos Pace in Interlagos continuously since 1990. Since 1973, the first year Formula One Grand Prix had been held here, 4 Brazilians have won the Grand Prix in São Paulo: Emerson Fittipaldi (1973 and 1974), José Carlos Pace (1975), Ayrton Senna (1991 and 1993) and Felipe Massa (2006 and 2008).
Volleyball, basketball and tennis are other major sports. There are several traditional sports clubs in São Paulo that are home for teams in many championships. The most important are Esporte Clube Pinheiros (waterpolo, volleyball, swimming, basketball and handball), Clube Atlhetico Paulistano (basketball), Esporte Clube Banespa (volleyball, handball and futsal), Associação Atlética Hebraica (basketball), São Paulo Athletic Club (rugby union), Clube de Regatas Tietê and Clube Atlético Ypiranga.
The following international sports events have been held in São Paulo:
See main article: Transport in São Paulo.
The city is crossed by 10 major Brazilian motorways and automobiles are still the main means to get into the city.They are:
See main article: Rodoanel Mário Covas. São Paulo grew quickly from the 1940s to the 1980s and many roads and buildings were built without major planning. As a result, heavy traffic is common on the city's main avenues, and traffic jams are relatively common on its largest highways. The main means of commuting into the city is by car and by bus. An effective way of avoiding heavy vehicles traffic in the city, such as buses and trucks that crossed the city for other destinations, was planned by ex-governor Mário Covas as a road ring that circles the city, called Rodoanel Mario Covas, and is being built by DERSA.
Although poorly maintained by heavy rail services, there is an infrastructure project to build a high-speed railway service linking Brazil's two largest cities, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The trains would go as fast as 280 km (174 mi) per hour (the trip would last about 1 hour and 30 minutes). This specific project is still waiting an official announcement by the Brazilian government, who is trying to obtain international financing through a public-private partnership.
Another important project is the "Expresso Bandeirantes", which is a medium-speed rail service (about 160 km/h) from São Paulo to Campinas, which would reduce the journey time from the current one hour and a half by car to about 50 minutes by train, linking the towns of São Paulo, Jundiaí, Campinas Airport, and Campinas city center. This service is also going to be connected to the railway service between São Paulo city center and Guarulhos Airport.
Major works on an express railway service between São Paulo city center and Guarulhos International Airport were announced by the São Paulo state government in 2007, which will be a milestone in the revitalisation and improvement of the Brazilian passenger railway services.
São Paulo has three airports. There are two major airports in the São Paulo metropolitan area: São Paulo/Guarulhos International Airport for domestic and international flights and Congonhas/São Paulo Airport for domestic flights. There's also a small airport known as Campo de Marte north of the Old Center for small, private aircraft and helicopters. Campo de Marte also hosts the Ventura Goodyear Blimp.
Congonhas Airport operates domestic and regional flights, mainly to Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte and Brasília. Campo de Marte airport handles some private and small-sized airplanes. Guarulhos International Airport, also known to São Paulo dwellers as "Cumbica", is located 25 km (15 mi) North East of the city centre, in the neighbouring city of Guarulhos. Guarulhos airport operates both domestic and international flights.
On 2007-07-17 the worst airline accident in Brazil's history occurred at Congonhas airport, blamed on rain and a shortended runway. 199 people from the plane and on the ground died.
São Paulo has one of the highest per capita helicopter ownership in the world. The owners are an elite wealthy class who take advantage of around one hundred helipads and heliports to conveniently avoid heavy traffic.
The city has 61,3 km (38 mi) of underground railway systems (34.6 km (21.4) fully underground) (the São Paulo Metro, locally known as the Metrô), with 4 lines in operation and 55 stations, complemented by another 261,7 km (162.6 mi) of Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos (CPTM, or "Paulista Company of Metropolitan Trains") railways. Both CPTM and the underground railway lines carry some 5 million people on an average weekday, and a few new underground lines to be constructed are expected to add another million people to the system within the next five years. The projects expected to expand São Paulo's urban railway system from the current 323 km (200 mi) to more than 500 km (310 mi) on the next 10 years. São Paulo has three rapid transport systems:
São Paulo has no tram lines, although trams used to be common in the first half of the 20th century. São Paulo's underground train system is modern, safe, clean and efficient, considered one of the best subway systems in the world, as certified by the NBR ISO 9001. It has four lines (a fifth, the Yellow line, is under construction) and links to the metropolitan train network, the CPTM.
The underground rail lines are:
The following lines are composed by surface trains and managed by CPTM, named after precious stones:
The bulk of the public transport (government and private companies) is composed of approximately 17,000 buses (including about 210 trolley buses), coloured uniformly according to the non-central region served (ex.: light green for the buses that go South West, dark blue for the Northern area).
Until the past few years, there was a strong presence of informal transport vans (dab vans), but the vast majority of such vans are already fully registered with the city council, legalized and operating under the same color scheme of the main system.
In a transportation world that has dreamed up such systems as maglev bullet trains and "smart roads" capable of guiding vehicles, bus-based mass transit may appear quite low-tech. But in São Paulo the buses themselves are only the most visible part of a vast operation that relies on a number of advanced technologies: computer simulations help plan the bus network, GPS monitoring keeps track of the fleet, and electronic payment streamlines fare collection. And in an experiment to reduce pollutant emissions, later this year São Paulo will test a small number of hydrogen fuel cell buses on one of the city's busiest busways. None of this technology would be of much use without experienced bus engineers, of whom São Paulo has plenty. Over the years this cadre of bus pros has been disseminating its expertise throughout Brazil and beyond.
After the terminal in New York City, Bus Terminal Tietê in São Paulo is considered to be one of the largest of the world. It serves directly 565 localities in all the States of Brazil, with the exception of Amazonas, Roraima and Amapá, as well as five countries (Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile and Bolivia). It offers a special line to the airports of Congonhas and Guarulhos, and a ride sharing automobile service São Paulo to Santos.
Due to the intense traffic jams on the roads combined with a fears of kidnappings among its richer citizens, São Paulo has become the city with the highest number of helicopters in the world, more than cities like New York and Tokyo. With more than 400 helicopters and around 70,000 flights per year within central São Paulo, according to the British newspaper The Guardian, is turning into a "real life South-American episode" of The Jetsons.
Helicopters enable businessmen and other executives to sharply reduce their commuting time, at least to the most important meetings and conferences. They are also used to bring executives in from their homes in distant parts of the greater metropolitan area and back to them at the end of the work week. Some companies own their helicopters, others lease them, and still others use helicopter taxi services. One suburban helicopter shuttle service, located about 15 miles from the center of the city in a suburb called Tamboré, is unique in the sense that it is run and operated totally by women, including its pilots.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, São Paulo has been a major economic center in Latin America. With the arrival of the two World Wars and the Great Depression, coffee exports to the United States and Europe were critically affected, leading wealthy coffee farmers to invest in industrial activities which eventually turned São Paulo into Brazil's largest industrial hub. The new job positions thereof contributed to attracting a significant number of immigrants from Europe and Asia and migrants from within the country, especially the northeastern states. From a population of merely 32,000 inhabitants in 1880, São Paulo increased its population to approximately 250,000 in 1900, 1,800,000 in 1940, 4,750,000 in 1960 and 8,500,000 in 1980. The effects of this population boom have been:
The city of São Paulo had in 2007 a survey about the quality of life of its inhabitants, for helping the government in the social politics of the city. The indicator used was the HDI - the same used by the United Nations for qualifying the development of the countries in the world.
It was noted in this survey that the neighbourhoods around in the centre of the city tend to be more developed than the neighborhoods located around the border areas of the city. There are neighborhoods that had very high human development indexes in 2000 (equal to or greater than the indexes of some Scandinavian countries), but also those in the lower range (in line with, for example, the Magreb) region. Most of the districts have high human development (higher than 0.800) and none of them have low human development (lower than 0.500).
Top 5 districts
Districts in last 5 places:
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