Rotterdam Explained

Official Name:Rotterdam
Nickname:Rotjeknar, Rotjeknor, Waterstad, Maasstad, Manhattan aan de Maas, Roffa
Motto:Sterker door strijd (Stronger through struggle)
Flag Size:120px
Mapsize:250px
Subdivision Type:Country
Subdivision Name:Netherlands
Subdivision Type1:Province
Subdivision Name1:Zuid-Holland
Leader Title:Mayor
Leader Name:Ahmed Aboutaleb
Leader Title1:Aldermen
Leader Name1:Jeannette Baljeu
Lucas Bolsius
Leonard Geluk
Rik Grashoff
Mark Harbers
Hamit Karakus
Jantine Kriens
Dominic Schrijer
Unit Pref:Metric
Area Footnotes:[1]
Area Total Km2:319
Area Land Km2:206
Area Water Km2:113
Population As Of:1 January 2007
Population Footnotes:[2]
Population Total:584046
Population Density Km2:2850
Population Metro:1.2 million approx.
Population Blank1 Title:Randstad
Population Blank1:6659300
Timezone:CET
Utc Offset:+1
Timezone Dst:CEST
Utc Offset Dst:+2
Latd:51
Latm:55
Lats:51
Latns:N
Longd:4
Longm:28
Longs:45
Longew:E
Website:www.rotterdam.nl

For other uses see Rotterdam (disambiguation).

Rotterdam (pronounced); city and municipality in the Dutch province of South Holland, situated in the west of the Netherlands. The municipality is the 2nd-largest in the country, with a population of 584,046 on 1 January 2007 and comprises the southern part of the Randstad, the 6th-largest metropolitan area in Europe, with a population of 6.7 million inhabitants.

The port of Rotterdam is the largest in Europe. From 1962 to 2004, it was the world's busiest port; then it was superseded by Shanghai. Rotterdam is situated on the banks of the river Nieuwe Maas ('New Meuse'), one of the channels in the delta formed by the Rhine and Meuse rivers. The name Rotterdam derives from a dam in the Rotte river.

Municipality

On 1 January 2007 (source: Statistics Netherlands), the municipality covered an area of 319 km² (206.44 km² of which is land) with a population of 584,046. It is part of a larger metropolitan area called Rijnmond ('Mouth of the Rhine') with a total population of about 1.2 million. In 1965, the municipal population of Rotterdam reached its peak of 731,000, but by 1984 it had decreased to 555,000 as a result of suburbanization.

Rotterdam consists of 11 submunicipalities: Charlois (including Heijplaat), Delfshaven, Feijenoord, Hillegersberg-Schiebroek, Hoek van Holland, Hoogvliet, IJsselmonde, Kralingen-Crooswijk, Noord, Overschie, and Prins Alexander (the most populous submunicipality with around 85,000 inhabitants). Two other areas, Centrum ('Center') and Pernis, do not have official submunicipality status.

As partly mentioned above already, Rotterdam is situated in the Zuidvleugel ('South Wing') of the Randstad ('Rim City') conurbation, with 6.7 million inhabitants, the sixth largest metropolitan area in Europe (after Moscow, London, the Ruhr Area, Istanbul, and Paris). The Zuidvleugel includes Leiden, The Hague, Zoetermeer, Delft, Vlaardingen, Schiedam, Capelle aan den IJssel, Spijkenisse and Dordrecht, and has a population of around 3 million.

Municipal additions

The current size of the municipality of Rotterdam is the result of the amalgamation of the following former municipalities,[3] some of which now are a submunicipality:

History

For the destruction of the city center in 1940, see Bombing of Rotterdam

Settlement at the lower end of the fen stream Rotte (or Rotta, as it was then known, from rot, 'muddy' and a, 'water', thus 'muddy water') dates from at least 900. Around 1150, large floods in the area ended development, leading to the construction of protective dikes and dams, including Schielands Hoge Zeedijk ('Schieland’s High Sea Dike') along the northern banks of the present-day Nieuwe Maas. A dam on the Rotte or 'Rotterdam' was built in the 1260s and was located at the present-day Hoogstraat ('High Street').

On 7 June 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland granted city rights to Rotterdam, which then had approximately 2000 inhabitants. Around 1350 a shipping canal, the Rotterdamse Schie was completed, which provided Rotterdam access to the larger towns in the north, allowing it to become a local transshipment center between Holland, England and Germany, and to slowly urbanize.

The port of Rotterdam slowly but steadily grew into a port of importance, becoming the seat of one of the six 'chambers' of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC), or the Dutch East India Company.

The greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population, followed the completion of the Nieuwe Waterweg in 1872. The city and harbor started to expand on the south bank of the river. The Witte Huis or White House skyscraper,[4] inspired by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the French Chateau-style, is evidence of Rotterdam's rapid growth and success. When completed, it was the tallest office building in Europe, with a height of 45 m.

The German army invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940. Germany had planned to conquer the country in one day, but after meeting unexpectedly fierce resistance, it finally forced the Dutch army to capitulate on 14 May 1940 by bombing Rotterdam and threatening to bomb other cities. The heart of the city was almost completely destroyed by the German Luftwaffe, and 800 people were killed, while about 80,000 others were made homeless. Ossip Zadkine later captured the event strikingly with his statue Stad zonder hart ('City without a heart'). The City Hall survived the bombing. The Germans carefully avoided it during the bombing, as it was assigned to be their headquarters of the region during the war. The statue is now located near the Leuvehaven, not far from the Erasmusbrug in the centre of the city, on the north shore of the river Nieuwe Maas.

From the 1950s through the 1970s, the city was rebuilt. It remained quite windy and open until the city councils from the 1980s on began developing an active architectural policy. Daring and new styles of apartments, office buildings and recreation facilities resulted in a more 'livable' city center with a new skyline. In the 1990s, the Kop van Zuid was built on the south bank of the river as a new business center.

Demographics

With 55% of the inhabitants earning a low income, Rotterdam has its fair share of typical urban problems, such as dilapidated inner city areas.

Ethnic make-up of the city

Figures are from 2006:

317,943

45,415

36,831

In the Netherlands, Rotterdam has the highest percentage of foreigners from non-industrialised nations. Nearly 50% of the population are not native to the Netherlands or have at least one parent born outside the country. Recent figures show that Muslims comprise close to 25% of the city's population.[5] The city is home to one of the largest Cape Verdean communities in the world, as well as the largest Dutch Antillean community.

Historical population

Geography

Rotterdam is divided into a northern and a southern part by the river Nieuwe Maas, connected by (from west to east): the Beneluxtunnel; the Maastunnel; the Erasmusbrug ('Erasmus Bridge'); a subway tunnel; the Willemsspoortunnel ('Willems railway tunnel'); the Willemsbrug ('Willems Bridge'); the Koninginnebrug ('Queen's Bridge'); and the Van Brienenoordbrug ('Van Brienenoord Bridge'). The former railway lift bridge De Hef ('the Lift') is preserved as a monument in lifted position between the Noordereiland ('North Island') and the south of Rotterdam.

The city centre is located on the northern bank of the Nieuwe Maas, although recent urban development has extended the center to parts of southern Rotterdam known as De Kop van Zuid ('the Head of South', i.e. the northern part of southern Rotterdam). From its inland core, Rotterdam reaches the North Sea by a swathe of predominantly harbor area.

Built mostly behind dikes, large parts of the Rotterdam are below sea level. For instance, the Prins Alexander Polder in the northeast of Rotterdam extends 6 meters below sea level, or rather below Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP) or 'Amsterdam Ordnance Datum'. The lowest point in the Netherlands (below NAP) is situated just to the east of Rotterdam, in the municipality of Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel.

The Rotte river no longer joins the Nieuwe Maas directly. Since the early 1980s, when the construction of Rotterdam’s second subway line interfered with the Rotte’s course, its waters have been pumped through a pipe into the Nieuwe Maas via the Boerengat.

Commerce and industry

Rotterdam is home to the Dutch half of consumer goods giant Unilever, and Mittal Steel Company N.V., subsidiary of Luxembourg-based Arcelor Mittal, the world's largest steel company.

The Erasmus University has a strong focus on research and education in management and economics. The University is located on the east side of the city and is surrounded by numerous multinational firms. On Brainpark I, Brainpark II, Brainpark III and Het Rivium are located offices of major multinationals. In the center of the city are the above-mentioned Unilever offices, but also Robeco, Fortis (including Mees Pierson and Stad Rotterdam Verzekeringen), ABN AMRO, ING (Nationale Nederlanden), and the Rotterdam WTC.

Ports

See main article: Port of Rotterdam.

Rotterdam has the largest port in Europe, with the rivers Meuse and Rhine providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching to Basel, Switzerland and into France. In 2003 Singapore took over, and in 2005 Shanghai, as the world's busiest port. In 2006, Rotterdam was the world's seventh largest container port in terms of Twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) handled.[6]

The port's main activities are petrochemical industries and general cargo handling and transshipment. The harbour functions as an important transit point for bulk materials and between the European continent and overseas. From Rotterdam goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. In 2007, the Betuweroute, a new fast freight railway from Rotterdam to Germany, has been completed.

In 1872, the Nieuwe Waterweg ('New Waterway') opened, a ship canal constructed to keep the city and port of Rotterdam accessible to seafaring vessels as the natural Meuse-Rhine channels silted up. The canal proper measures approximately from the western tips of its protruding dams to the Maeslantkering ('Maeslant Barrier'). Many maps, however, include the Scheur as part of the Nieuwe Waterweg, leading to a length of approximately .

In the first half of the twentieth century, the port's center of gravity shifted westward towards the North Sea. Covering 105km2 (41 square miles), the port of Rotterdam now stretches over a distance of . It consists of the city center's historic harbor area, including Delfshaven; the Maashaven/Rijnhaven/Feijenoord complex; the harbors around Nieuw-Mathenesse; Waalhaven; Vondelingenplaat; Eemhaven; Botlek; Europoort, situated along the Calandkanaal, Nieuwe Waterweg and Scheur (the latter two being continuations of the Nieuwe Maas); and the reclaimed Maasvlakte area, which projects into the North Sea.

The construction of a second Maasvlakte received initial political approval in 2004, but was stopped by the Raad van State (the Dutch Council of State, which advises the government and parliament on legislation and governance) in 2005, because the plans did not take enough account of environmental issues. On 10 October 2006, however, approval was acquired to start construction in 2008, aiming for the first ship to anchor in 2013.

Education

Rotterdam has one major university, the Erasmus University Rotterdam, named after one of the city's famous former inhabitants, Desiderius Erasmus. The Woudestein campus houses (among others) the Rotterdam School of Management. In Financial Times' 2005 rankings it placed 29th globally and 7th in Europe. In the 2006 rankings of European Masters of Management, the school reached a second place with the CEMS Master in Management and a thirteenth place with its RSM Master in Management. The university is also home to Europe's largest student association, STAR Study Association RSM Erasmus University.

The Hoboken campus of EUR houses the Dijkzigt (general) hospital, the Sophia Hospital (for children) and the Medical Department of the University. These are known collectively as the Erasmus Medical Center, which is ranked third worldwide for medical research, behind the Harvard University and Johns Hopkins University. As a combined medical treatment and research center it is particularly noted for its patient cohort studies in which large numbers of patients are followed for long periods of time.

There are also three Hogescholen (lower level universities) in Rotterdam. These schools award their students a Bachelor's degree and postgraduate or Master's degree. The three Hogescholen are Hogeschool Rotterdam, Hogeschool INHOLLAND and Hogeschool voor Muziek en Dans (uni for music and dance) which is also know as CodArts.

Culture

Alongside Porto, Rotterdam was European Capital of Culture in 2001. The city has its own orchestra, the Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra with its world famous musical director Valery Gergiev, a large congress and concert building called De Doelen, plus many theatres (including the new Luxor theatre) and movie theatres. The Ahoy complex in the south of the city is used for pop concerts, exhibitions, tennis tournaments and other activities. A major zoo called Diergaarde Blijdorp is situated at the northwest side of Rotterdam, complete with a walkthrough sea aquarium called the Oceanium.

The city is home to the Rotterdam Academy of Fine Arts ('Willem de Kooning Akademie').

Rotterdam is currently going through somewhat of a renaissance, with some urban renewal projects featuring ambitious architecture, an increasingly sparkling nightlife, and a host of summer festivals celebrating the city's multicultural population and identity, such as the Caribbean-inspired 'Summer Carnival', the Dance Parade, Rotterdam 666, the Metropolis pop festival and the World Harbor days. There are also the International Film Festival in January, the Poetry International Festival in June, the North Sea Jazz Festival in July, the Valery Gergiev Festival in September, September in Rotterdam and the World of the Witte de With. In June 1970, The Holland Pop Festival (which featured Jefferson Airplane, The Byrds, Canned Heat, It's a Beautiful Day, and Santana) was held and filmed at the Stamping Grounds in Rotterdam.

The self-image of the city is that of a no-nonsense workers' city. In that sense, there is a healthy competition with Amsterdam, which is often viewed as the cultural capital of the Netherlands. There is a saying: "Amsterdam to party, Den Haag (The Hague) to live, Rotterdam to work". Another one, more popular by Rotterdammers, is "Money is earned in Rotterdam, divided in The Hague and spent in Amsterdam".

Rotterdam has had a rich hiphop scene since the early 1980s. It is also the home of Gabber, a type of music popular in the mid-1990s, with hard beats and samples. Bands like Neophyte and Rotterdam Terror Corps (RTC) started in Rotterdam.

The main cultural organisations in Amsterdam, such as the Concertgebouw and Holland Festival, have joint forces with similar organisations in Rotterdam, via A'R'dam. In 2007 these organisations published with plans for co-operation.[7] One of the goals is to strengthen the international position of culture and art in the Netherlands in the international context.

Museums

Rotterdam has many museums.Well known museums are the Boijmans-van Beuningen Museum, the NAi (Netherlands Architecture Institute), the Historisch Museum (Historical museum), the Volkenkundig Museum (foreign peoples and cultures), the Kunsthal (design by Rem Koolhaas),the center for contemporary art Witte de With,[8] the Maritiem Museum[9] and the Brandweermuseum (Fire brigade museum).Other museums include the tax museum, the nature historical museum, historical museum the Dubbelde Palmboom and the Schielandhuis. At the historical shipyard and museum Scheepswerf 'De Delft the reconstruction of Ship of the Line 'De Delft' can be visited.[10]

Architecture and skyline

In 1898, the 45 meter high-rise office building, the White House, was completed, at that time the tallest office building in Europe.In the first decades of the 20th century, some influential architecture in the modern style was built in Rotterdam. Notable are the Van Nelle fabriek (1929) a monument of modern factory design by Brinkman en Van der Vlugt, the Jugendstil clubhouse of the Royal Maas Yacht Club designed by Hooijkaas jr. en Brinkman (1909), and Feyenoord's football stadium de Kuip (1936) also by Brinkman en Van der Vlugt. The architect J. J. P. Oud was a famous Rotterdammer in those days.During the early stages of World War II the center of Rotterdam was bombed by the Germans, destroying many of the older buildings in the center of the city. After initial crisis re-construction the center of Rotterdam has become the site of ambitious new architecture.

Rotterdam is also famous for its Kubuswoningen or cube houses built by architect Piet Blom in 1984. In addition to that there are many international well known architects based in Rotterdam like O.M.A (Rem Koolhaas), MVRDV, Neutelings & Riedijk and Erick van Egeraat to name a few.

Rotterdam houses several of the tallest structures in the Netherlands.

Rotterdam has a reputation in being a platform for architectural development and education through the Berlage Institute, a postgraduate laboratory of architecture, and the NAi (Netherlands Architecture Institute), which is open to the public and has a variety of good exhibitions on architecture and urban planning issues.

Rotterdam is standing in the best European SkylineTop together with Frankfurt, London, Paris, Moscow, Brussels and Warsaw.Over 30 new highrise projects are being developed at the moment, including the high 'Maas Tower', the 'New Orleans Tower', which will be about and the Zalmhaven Urban Tower .[13]

Sports

Rotterdam is the home of two Eredivisie ('Honorary Division', or Dutch Premier League) football clubs, Feyenoord and Sparta, and one Eerste Divisie club, Excelsior. Rotterdam also has two Hoofdklasse (main class) club, PVV DOTO and TOGR.

Feyenoord, founded in 1908 and the dominant of the three, has won fourteen national titles since the introduction of professional football in the Netherlands. It won the European Cup as the first Dutch club in 1970, and won the World Cup for club teams in the same year. In 1974, they were the first Dutch club to win the UEFA Cup and in 2002, Feyenoord won the UEFA Cup again. In 2008, the year of their 100-year-anniversary, Feyenoord won the KNVB-cup.Seating 51,480, its stadium, called Stadion Feijenoord but popularly known as De Kuip ('the Tub'), is the second largest in the country. De Kuip, located in the southeast of the city, has hosted many international football games, including the final of Euro 2000 and has been awarded a FIFA 5 star ranking. Feyenoord also has the second biggest supporter group in the Netherlands.

Sparta, founded in 1888 and situated in the northwest of Rotterdam, won the national title in 1959; Excelsior (founded 1902), in the northeast, has never won any.

Rotterdam has its own annual international marathon, which offers one of the fastest courses in the world. From 1985 until 1998, the world record was set in Rotterdam, first by Carlos Lopes and later in 1988 by Belayneh Dinsamo. The marathon starts and ends on the Coolsingel in the heart of Rotterdam.

Since 1972, Rotterdam hosts the ABN AMRO World Tennis Tournament, part of the ATP Tour.

Members of the student rowing club Skadi were part of the 'Holland Acht', winning a gold medal at the Olympics in 1996.

In field hockey, Rotterdam has the largest hockey club in the Netherlands, HC Rotterdam, with its own stadium in the north of the city and nearly 2,400 members. The first men's and women's teams both play on the highest level in the Dutch Hoofdklasse.

Rotterdam is home to the most successful European baseball team, Neptunus Rotterdam, winning the most European Cups.

Since 1986, the city has selected its best sportsman, woman and team at the Rotterdam Sports Awards Election, held in December.

Motor cycle speedway was staged in the Feyenoord Stadium after the second world war. The team which raced in a Dutch league was known as the Feyenoord Tigers. The team included Dutch riders and some English and Australian riders.

Tour De France

In November 2008 it was announced that Rotterdam will host the Grand Depart of the 2010 Tour De France.

"Rotterdam is a great metropolis and (as the start venue) is sure to be a big popular success – it does all it can to enable people to get around by bike," said Tour de France Director Christian Prudhomme according to the AFP.

Rotterdam won the selection over the Dutch city of Utrecht. Germany's Dusseldorf had previously also expressed interest in hosting.

The Amaury Sport Organization (ASO), organizers of the Tour de France, said in a statement on its web site that it chose Rotterdam because in addition to it being another big city, like London, to showcase the use of bikes for urban transportation, it provided a location well positioned considering the rest of the route envisioned for the 2010 edition.

The start in Rotterdam will mark the fifth time The Netherlands kicks off the Tour de France. More details about the Grand Départ will be announced on December 11 in a press conference at the Nieuwe Luxor Theater in Rotterdam

Shopping

Well-known streets in Rotterdam are the shopping center the Lijnbaan (the first set of pedestrian streets of the country, opened in 1953), the Hoogstraat, the Coolsingel with the city hall, and the Weena, which runs from the Central Station to the Hofplein (square). A modern shopping venue is the Beurstraverse ('Stock Exchange Traverse), better known by the informal name 'Koopgoot' ('Buying/Shopping Gutter', after its low-lying position, crossing Rotterdam's main street Coolsingel below street level).The main shopping venue in the south of Rotterdam is Zuidplein, which lies close to Ahoy' Rotterdam, an accommodation center for shows, exhibitions, sporting events, concerts and congresses. Another prominent shopping center, called Alexandrium (sometimes still called by its former name Oosterhof), lies in the east of Rotterdam. It includes a large kitchen and furniture center.

Yearly events

Transportation

Rotterdam is well connected in international, national, regional and local public transport systems, as well as by the Dutch motorway system.

Motorways

There are several motorways which run to/from Rotterdam. The following four are part of its 'Ring' (beltway):

The following two other motorways also serve Rotterdam:

Airport

Although much smaller than the international hub Schiphol airport, Rotterdam Airport (formerly known as Zestienhoven) is the third largest airport in the country, just behind Eindhoven Airport. Located north of the city, it has shown a very strong growth over the past five years, mostly caused by the growth of the low-cost carrier market. For business travelers Zestienhoven Airport offers advantages due to rapid handling of passengers and baggage. Environmental regulations make further growth uncertain.

Train

Rotterdam is well connected to the Dutch railroad system, and has several international connections. The train system hosts:

Four trainlines

The four operating trainlines serve seven railway stations within the city boundaries (Rotterdam Centraal, Rotterdam Blaak, Rotterdam Alexander, Rotterdam Noord, Rotterdam Zuid, Rotterdam Lombardijen, Rotterdam Stadion (next to De Kuip, only open for events).

Main connections

Light Rail

To bridge the gap between national train services and local public transportation the Dutch Randstad has developed a regional lightrail system called Randstad Rail. First trains ran in September 2006.

Metro

See main article: Rotterdam Metro.

See also: List of Rotterdam metro stations.

In 1968 Rotterdam was the first Dutch city to open a metro system. Currently the system consists of two main lines, each of which has some variants.

The eastern parts of the Caland Line have some level crossings (with priority), and could therefore be called light rail instead of metro; however, they are integrated in the system; these parts have overhead wires, while the rest has a third rail, the vehicles can handle both.

Tram

Rotterdam offers 10 tramlines with a total length of 93.4 kilometers.

Bus

Rotterdam offers 38 buslines with a total length of 432.7 kilometers.

Fast ferry

Every half hour a fast ferry goes from Rotterdam to Dordrecht and vice versa. The trip takes an hour, inclusive stops along the way. The ferry can carry about 130 passengers and there is space for 60 bicycles. The stops are:

Miscellaneous

Beaches

Since the summer of 2003 an artificial beach is created at the Boompjeskade along the Nieuwe Maas, between the Erasmus Bridge and the Willems Bridge. Swimming was not possible, digging pits was limited to the height of the layer of sand, ca. 50 cm. Alternatively people go the beach of Hoek van Holland (which is still a Rotterdam district) or one of the beaches in Zeeland or the Zuid Hollandse Eilanden: Ouddorp, Oostvoorne, Renesse.

Notable Rotterdammers

See main article: List of people from Rotterdam.

International Relations

Rotterdam has the following city and port connections throughout the world:

Twin towns - Sister cities

Rotterdam is twinned with:

Partner Cities

Sister Ports

External links

Notes and References

  1. Web site: Kerncijfers Rotterdam 2006. www.rotterdam.nl. City of Rotterdam. May. 2006. 2007-04-04. PDF.
  2. Web site: Randstadmonitor 2006. www.regio-randstad.nl. Regio Randstad. January. 2007. 2007-04-04. PDF.
  3. Ad van der Meer and Onno Boonstra, "Repertorium van Nederlandse gemeenten", KNAW, 2006. http://www.knaw.nl/cfdata/publicaties/detail.cfm?boeken__ordernr=20061061
  4. Web site: The Witte Huis or White House,. 2008-05-15.
  5. http://www.ajc.com/news/content/news/stories/1204/17muslims.html Europe works to assimilate Muslims
  6. http://www.portofrotterdam.com/en/home/ Port of Rotterdam - Home
  7. Web site: Concertgebouw and Holland Festival manifesto. 2008-05-15.
  8. Web site: Witte de With museum. 2008-05-15.
  9. Web site: Maritiem Museum official site. 2008-05-15.
  10. Web site: Scheepswerf 'De Delft' official site. 2008-05-15.
  11. Web site: ING building brief. 2008-05-15.
  12. Web site: Sky Scraper City ING site. 2008-05-15.
  13. Web site: Sky scraper city project view. 2008-05-15.
  14. Web site: International Film Festival official website. 2008-05-15.
  15. Web site: Rotterdam Marathon official website. 2008-05-15.
  16. Web site: Pleinbioscoop official website. 2008-05-15.
  17. Web site: Zomer Carnival official website. 2008-05-15.
  18. Web site: FFWD Heineken] Dance Parade official website]. 2008-05-15.
  19. Web site: World Port Day (Rotterdam) official website (in Dutch). 2008-05-15.
  20. Web site: Dutch Railway website. 2008-05-15.
  21. Web site: Lile Facts & Figures. Mairie-Lille.fr. 2007-12-17.
  22. http://www.comune.torino.it/relint/inglese/index.shtml Turin City Hall - International Affairs
  23. Web site: Gdańsk Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie'. © 2009 Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku. Polish & English. 2009-02-19.
  24. http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2008/marzo/mar11/rotterdam.html Granma - En La Habana vicealcalde de la ciudad de Rotterdam
  25. Web site: Saint Petersburg in figures - International and Interregional Ties. Saint Petersburg City Government. 2008-03-23.
  26. Web site: Baltimore City Mayor's Office of International and Immigrant Affairs - Sister Cities Program. 2008-10-16.
  27. Web site: Dresden - Partner Cities. © 2008 Landeshauptstadt Dresden. 2008-12-29.
  28. Web site: Sister Cities of Istanbul. 2007-09-08.
  29. News: İstanbul'a 49 kardeş. Radikal. Turkish. 2003-11-03. 49 sister cities in 2003. Erdem. Selim Efe.
  30. Web site: Christmas around the world. Hull in print. 2007-09-30. 2003. Kingston upon Hull City Council.
  31. http://www.oslo.kommune.no/the_city_of_oslo/international_cooperation/ Partners - Oslo kommune
  32. Web site: Bratislava City - Twin Towns. © 2003-2008 Bratislava-City.sk. 2008-10-26.
  33. Web site: Durban Official Website: Sister Cities Home Page. © 2009 eThekwini Municipal Communications Department. English. 2009-02-19.
  34. Web site: www.praha-mesto.cz. Partner cities. 2008-10-09.
  35. http://www.city.kobe.jp/cityoffice/17/020/en/international/worldmap.htm City of Kobe
  36. http://www.busanport.com/service?id=en_sister_01 Port of Busan