Robotech Explained

Robotech is an 85-episode science fiction anime adaptation produced by Harmony Gold USA in association with Tatsunoko Production Co., Ltd. and first released in the United States in 1985. It was adapted from three original Japanese television series.[1]

In the series, Robotechnology refers to the scientific advances discovered in an alien starship that crashed on a South Pacific island.[2] With this technology, Earth developed robotic technologies, such as transformable mecha, to fight three successive extraterrestrial invasions.[3]

Name origin

Prior to the release of the TV series, the name Robotech was used by model kit manufacturer Revell on their Robotech Defenders line in the mid-1980s. The line consisted of mecha model kits imported from Japan and featured in anime titles such as The Super Dimension Fortress Macross, Super Dimension Century Orguss and Fang of the Sun Dougram. The kits were originally intended to be a marketing tie-in to a similarly named comic book series by DC Comics, which was cancelled after only two issues.[4]

At the same time, Harmony Gold licensed the Macross TV series for direct-to-video distribution in 1984, but their merchandising plans were compromised by Revell's prior distribution of the Macross kits. In the end, both parties signed into a co-licensing agreement and the Robotech name was adopted into the TV syndication of Macross combined with Super Dimension Cavalry Southern Cross and Genesis Climber MOSPEADA.[4]

Chronology

For a more detailed timeline, see Robotech Wars

The Robotech chronology, according to Harmony Gold, is illustrated below:

YearGeneration / Saga (release date)
1999 (2009) – 2014(1)Robotech: The Macross Saga (1985)
2022Robotech II: The Sentinels * (1987)
2027Robotech: The Movie * (1986)
2029–2030(2)Robotech: The Masters (1985)
2031 (2042) – 2044(3)Robotech: The New Generation (1985)
2044–Robotech: The Shadow Chronicles (2006)

Note: Asterisked works are now considered "secondary continuity" - that is, that their events exist in the continuity of Robotech, but "don't count" when conflicts arise with the "main continuity" that are the three-part Robotech TV series (four, with the addition of 2006's ).

In 2002, with the publication of the Wildstorm (DC) comics, Harmony Gold officially decided to retcon the Robotech Universe. The following Robotech material is now relegated to the status of secondary continuity:

While these materials are not precisely "retired" or "removed" from the continuity, their events are subject to critical review, and are strictly subordinate to the "official" events of the 85-episode animated series. Although certain events in the new feature film (i.e., the final showdown at Reflex Point) proceed in a slightly different fashion from the original Robotech series, such disparities were intentionally introduced by the Harmony Gold producers, but are still considered canonical.

Sections

The original television series (1985)

Robotech
Genre:Mecha, Space Opera
Type:tv series
Robotech: The Macross Saga
Director:Robert V. Barron, Ippei Kuri
Studio:Harmony Gold USA, Tatsunoko
Network:Syndicated
Episodes:36
Episode List:List of Robotech episodes#The Macross Saga (Macross - 36 episodes)
Type:tv series
Robotech: The Masters
Director:Robert V. Barron, Ippei Kuri
Studio:Harmony Gold USA, Tatsunoko
Network:Syndicated
Episodes:24
Episode List:List of Robotech episodes#The Masters (Southern Cross - 24 episodes)
Type:tv series
Robotech: The New Generation
Director:Robert V. Barron, Ippei Kuri
Studio:Harmony Gold USA, Tatsunoko
Network:Syndicated
Episodes:25
Episode List:List of Robotech episodes#The New Generation (Mospeada - 25 episodes)
Type:film
Director:Robert V. Barron, Ippei Kuri
Producer:Ahmed Agrama, Kenji Yoshida
Music:Ulpio Minucci
Studio:Harmony Gold USA, Tatsunoko
Runtime:73 minutes
Type:film
Robotech I: The Untold Story
Director:Carl Macek, Noboru Ishiguro
Producer:Ahmed Agrama, Toru Miura
Music:Three Dog Night
Studio:Harmony Gold USA, Tatsunoko
Released: (Limited Release)
Runtime:82 minutes
Type:ova
Director:Carl Macek
Producer:Ahmed Agrama, Frank Agrama
Studio:Harmony Gold USA, Tatsunoko
Runtime:75 minutes
Type:ova
Robotech 3000
Director:Carl Macek
Studio:Harmony Gold USA, Netter Digital
Released:Canceled
Runtime:3 minutes
Type:film
Director:Dong-Wook Lee, Tommy Yune
Producer:Frank Agrama, Alan Letz, Jason Netter
Music:Scott Glasgow
Studio:Harmony Gold USA, Dr. Movie, Tatsunoko
Released: (festival)
(wide)
Runtime:88 minutes

See main article: Robotech (TV series).

Robotech is a story adapted with edited content and revised dialogue from the animation of three different mecha anime series:

  1. The Super Dimension Fortress Macross
  2. Super Dimension Cavalry Southern Cross
  3. Genesis Climber MOSPEADA.

Harmony Gold's cited reasoning for combining these unrelated series was its decision to market Macross for American weekday syndication television, which required a minimum of 65 episodes at the time (thirteen weeks at five episodes per week). Macross and the two other series each had fewer episodes than required, since they originally aired in Japan as weekly series. On some television stations, the syndicated run was preceded by the broadcast premiere of , a feature-length pilot.

This combination resulted in a storyline that spans three generations, as mankind must fight three destructive Robotech Wars in succession with various invading forces, each of which is motivated in one way or another by a desire for a powerful energy source called "protoculture." While each of the three animated series used for its footage informs its content, the Robotech storyline is distinct and separate from each of them.

See Robotech Wars to find out how the gap between the series is filled.

Animated sequels and spinoffs

Harmony Gold attempted to produce several follow ups to the original series with limited success.

Robotech: The Movie (1986, canceled in U.S.)

See main article: Robotech: The Movie. Also called Robotech: The Untold Story, this theatrical film was the first new Robotech adventure created after the premiere of the original series. It used footage from the Megazone 23 Part 1 OVA (Original Video Animation, or made-for-video animated feature) combined with scenes from Southern Cross and additional original animation produced for the film. The American release of the film was canceled after a poor test run in Texas, but saw limited success in Argentina and Belgium. Harmony Gold relinquished their license to Megazone 23 after director Carl Macek washed his hands of the project.

In 2011, A&E Home video released, as a part of their Robotech: The Complete Series collection, a 29-minute version of Robotech The Movie containing only footage used from The Southern Cross.

Robotech Wars (1986)

A promotional VHS video created by Matchbox included with the "Robotech Wars" playset. This video includes two episodes entirely from various re-used clips of The Macross Saga. Titled "To the End of the Universe" and "Battle Royale," these episodes contain no new footage, and are not meant to follow any continuity established in the TV series.

Robotech II: The Sentinels (1987, canceled)

See main article: Robotech II: The Sentinels. This aborted American-produced series would have followed the continuing adventures of Rick and Lisa Hunter and the Robotech Expedition during the events of The Masters and The New Generation. The feature-length pilot is composed of the first three (and only) episodes that were produced. Being a sequel/spinoff to the combined series, The Sentinels featured characters from all three Robotech sagas and introduced the SDF-3 along with an overview of their new mission. The series was planned to have total of 65 episodes.[5]

In Robotech Art 3: The Sentinels, Macek blamed the cancellation of the series on the crash of the Yen/Dollar exchange rate,[6] which caused toy partner Matchbox to withdraw from the project due to the increased cost. Since Harmony Gold lacked the funds to produce the series on its own, production ceased after only three episodes.

Efforts to petition the completion of this series failed, but much of the completed footage—re-edited and rewritten as a feature-length production—was released on VHS by Palladium Books and on DVD by ADV Films. The completed episodes have never been released in their original form.

In 2011, a "remastered" version was released on the A&E DVD set, ROBOTECH: THE COMPLETE ORIGINAL SERIES DVD. This version has opening titles resembling those found on the "Robotech Remastered" DVD's, as well as a new ending with text explaining the fate of the SDF-3. Also, all of the flashback footage used from "The Macross Saga" has been removed, along with re-used footage from the episode "Wedding Bells."

Robotech III: The Odyssey (proposed)

Macek revealed ideas for another proposed series, Robotech III: The Odyssey, which would have picked up where The New Generation and end of Robotech II: The Sentinels left off, and eventually created a circular storyline that would end where the original Robotech began in a giant 260-episode cycle to fill up all the weekdays in a year. According to Macek, The Odyssey would involved the SDF-3 travelling back into the past to the days before the birth of Zor (as well as Scott Bernard's search for the SDF-3). The SDF-3's crew would become citizens of the Robotech Masters' homeworld and change time by becoming a part of its history. Ultimately, it would be revealed that Lynn Minmei was the mother of Zor, making Minmei the focal point of Robotech. The final episode of the Odyssey would be of Zor dying and his Super Dimension Fortress (the SDF-1) being launched into space, and eventually crash landing on Earth in 1999. The next episode after that would be "Boobytrap", episode 1 of the original series which in turn will create an endless loop within the Robotech universe.[7] [8] After the failure of Sentinels, Odyssey never went into development, although some of its ideas were worked into the final Jack McKinney novel The End of the Circle, which wrapped up all of the outstanding plot threads left by the original series and the previous Robotech novels.

Robotech IV and V (planned)

Fan publication Macross Life interviewed Harmony Gold executive Richard Firth in 1986, where he revealed that Macek had "plans through ROBOTECH 5, which would give us an episode for each day of the year for a year and a half." He also said that these two installments would have brought the series to 285 episodes. Regarding the plot, Firth mentioned a "retired Commodore Hunter, whom ever that may be, could very well be speaking at the graduation of the later day cadets or whatever, and they ask him to tell them the story all over again: it comes back [to the first episode of the series]."

It should be noted that Macek himself has never mentioned Robotech IV or V in any interviews or writings. Taking the three different "generations" of the original series as separate parts, and the canceled as the "fourth" part, Firth could have been referring to the proposed Robotech III: The Odyssey as Robotech 5, since it would be a fifth part of the overall saga.

Robotech 3000 (2000, canceled)

See main article: Robotech 3000. Macek attempted another sequel with the development of Robotech 3000. This all-CGI series would have been set a millennium in the future of the Robotech universe and feature none of the old series' characters. In the three-minute trailer, an expedition is sent to check on a non-responsive mining outpost and is attacked by "infected" Veritech mecha. Again, the idea was abandoned midway into production after negative reception within the company, negative fan reactions at the FanimeCon anime convention in 2000, and financial difficulties within Netter Digital who was animating the show. It now exists only in trailer form on the official Robotech website.

Robotech UN Public Service Announcement (2005)

A sixty-second public service announcement for the 60th anniversary of the United Nations, featuring Scott Bernard and Ariel, was animated during the production of The Shadow Chronicles. Although it did not use the original voice actors and the dialogue was somewhat out-of-character, it nonetheless marked the first fully completed Robotech footage in many years.

Robotech: The Shadow Chronicles (2006)

See main article: Robotech: The Shadow Chronicles. In 2002, director Tommy Yune announced development of a new sequel movie, which was untitled until 2004 as Robotech: Shadow Force. The storyline overlaps with and continues from the unresolved ending of the original series. The title of the story-arc was soon changed to . The first trailers with finished animation were shown at Anime Expo and Comic-Con International in 2005. It was not until February 2006, when Kevin McKeever, operations coordinator at Harmony Gold, was able to confirm that the pilot movie had been completed. After a series of delays, FUNimation Entertainment was finally announced as the home video, broadcast, and theatrical distributor at the 2006 Comic-Con International in San Diego. Harmony Gold premiered the movie at various film festivals in 2006, and it was first seen by a public audience at MechaCon on August 9, 2006, where it was showcased as a charity screening to help raise funds for the ongoing Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita recovery effort. A limited theatrical run followed in January 2007, and the film was released on DVD on February 6, 2007.[9] A 2-disc collector's edition was released in November 2007.[10]

Robotech: Shadow Rising (planned, delayed)

On July 27, 2007, at their Comic-Con International panel, Harmony Gold and Yune unveiled the second entry of the Shadow Chronicles production, titled Robotech: Shadow Rising which will be another feature movie. Pre-production reportedly began and a projected release date of sometime in 2009 was originally expected.[11] However, subsequent announcements in mid-2008 have made it clear that little-or-no progress has been made on the film, and it has been indefinitely postponed, pending developments with the live-action film, which itself has been mired in development problems for nearly half a decade.

Robotech: Love Live Alive (2012?)

First revealed in late 2011 in the final minutes of Carl Macek's Robotech Universe, a documentary on the making of Robotech dedicated to the then-recent passing of Macek, Love Live Alive is planned to be an adaptation of the 1985 Genesis Climber Mospeada OVA, Love Live Alive, incorporating some brand new animation.

Unofficial and parody productions

In the 1990s, Seishun Shitemasu, an anime fandubbing group, produced the parodies "Robotech III: Not Necessarily the Sentinels" and "Robotech IV: Khyron's Counterattack," using footage from, respectively, Gunbuster/Aim For The Top! and Gundam: Char's Counterattack, continuing the tradition of the original Robotech's adaptation of unrelated anime series into a single continuity.

In 2010, a Chinese animated series titled Astro Plan was released. Fan-edited videos of the series were produced to make it look like a new Robotech title.[12]

Proposed live-action film

On September 7, 2007, The Hollywood Reporter stated that Warner Bros. had acquired the film rights to Robotech and would be producing a live-action film with an as-yet-unknown release date.[13] Tobey Maguire is producing the film through his Maguire Entertainment banner and is pursuing the lead role in what the studio plans on being a tentpole science fiction franchise.

In an interview,[14] Harmony Gold representative Kevin McKeever said that Warner Brothers had approached Harmony Gold about the project, that Harmony Gold would have "a say" in its creative direction, and that it was not expected to affect the production schedule for Shadow Rising. He was unable to confirm any details of budget, casting, expected release date, or storyline, explaining that it was too early in the life of the project for these things to have been decided.

In June 2008, it was reported that Lawrence Kasdan (Raiders of the Lost Ark, , and The Bodyguard) had been hired to write the film, with Charles Roven (Afro Samurai, Get Smart, The Dark Knight) and Akiva Goldsman joining Tobey Maguire as producers.[15]

During the Robotech Panel at Anime Expo 2008, the involvement of Tobey Maguire and Lawrence Kasdan was confirmed, with Kasdan writing the script for the live action movie. Tommy Yune also revealed that the movie is planned as a re-imagining of the original Robotech universe (with new updated mecha and character designs) and will take place several years in the future, departing from the original cartoon's 2009 setting.[16]

As of November 2008, Alfred Gough and Miles Millar (who both worked in Smallville, Spider-Man 2, , and ) are the set writers for the film.[17]

Due to undisclosed reasons, Roven is currently no longer working on the proposed film adaptation of the Robotech animated series. Roven also announced that he wishes the remaining producers, Akiva Goldsman and Tobey Maguire, "fantastic luck" on the project.[18]

The Mania.com website reported recently that British television writer and novelist Tom Rob Smith "has taken over writing duties" for the proposed film adaptation of the Robotech animated series. Smith wrote for the British soaps Family Affairs and Bad Girls before writing a critically acclaimed crime suspense novel called Child 44. Smith will be the fourth writer or writing team to be reportedly attached to the upcoming film's pre-production.[19]

The Robotech franchise

At the time of its broadcast, Harmony Gold also launched Robotech through a popular line of comics to be followed by novels, role-playing games, toys, and other consumer products. With the cancellation of Robotech II: The Sentinels, many of these licensed products were discontinued, and led to a drought of Robotech product through much of the 1990s, except for publishers who continued The Sentinels storyline in print.

Art books

See main article: Robotech art books.

In 1986, Starblaze Graphics published Robotech Art 1, a reference book containing artwork, Japanese production designs, and episode guides from the original television series. This was followed by Robotech Art 2, which was largely a collection of art by various American artists and fans. In 1988, Carl Macek collected much of the unused designs from Robotech II: The Sentinels into Robotech Art 3: The Sentinels, which also included his story outline for the rest of the unfinished series, with an explanation behind its cancellation. In 2007, Stone Bridge Press published The Art of Robotech: The Shadow Chronicles.

Comics

See main article: Robotech (comics).

Robotech comics were first published in 1984 with DC Comics' short-lived Robotech Defenders and Comico's adaptation of the first episode of the Japanese version of Macross. However, the first adaptation of the Robotech television series did not arrive until 1985 with Comico's Robotech: The Macross Saga Number 2, which continued from the first Macross issue.

The various comic publishers include:

Collectible card game

See main article: Robotech Collectible Card Game.

The first Robotech collectible card game was released in 2006 by Hero Factory, which had previously produced Robotech trading cards.

Music and soundtracks

See main article: Robotech music.

Various Robotech soundtracks have been released on records, cassettes, and compact discs since 1988.

Novelizations

See main article: Robotech (novels).

Since 1987, Robotech was adapted into novel form by "Jack McKinney", a pseudonym for the team of James Luceno and the late Brian Daley, a pair of writers who had been working with Macek since they had collaborated on the animated series Galaxy Rangers. Using fictitious epigraphs in the style of Dune, McKinney's novels fleshed out the chronology (including adapting the incomplete Sentinels source material) in far greater detail than the original animation. Many Robotech fans consider the McKinney series to be an unofficial canon of its own, despite notable divergences in the writing from Harmony Gold's current official animation-based canon. Despite no longer being considered core-continuity by Harmony Gold, the novels have been recently re-issued by Del Rey Books as Omnibus compilations.

Role-playing games

See main article: Robotech (role-playing game).

In 1986, Palladium Books published a role-playing game based on the Robotech series, including several books covering the Sentinels portion of the storyline. The original Robotech RPG line went out of print as of June 30, 2001, but Harmony Gold and Palladium Books signed an agreement in 2007 to produce a new line of Robotech RPG books, beginning with a book covering and promoting the feature-length film The Shadow Chronicles.[20] . The Shadow Chronicles sourcebook first book was released on March 21, 2008, followed by sourcebooks covering the Macross, Masters, and New Generation chapters of Robotech (redrafted to reflect the Harmony Gold canon). Other sourcebooks and supplements are reflected in the Palladium Books production pipeline.

Toys

Action figures in the 3.75inches size of the three Robotech generations were initially released in 1985 by Matchbox toy company, but then reissued in 1992 by Harmony Gold (Lunk and Corg were only released by Matchbox and Lynn Minmei was only released by Harmony Gold). Each included a weapon and helmet where appropriate. Matchbox also released 6inches figures of Zentraedi characters from the first generation. These figures were supposed to represent the size difference between the Humans and the giant Zentraedi forces, but to be correct these figures would had to have been made about 20inches tall. None of the larger figures came with weapons but the Armored Zentraedi came with a removable helmet.

Also many toys depicting the vehicles and mecha from the series were released by Matchbox in 1985, Harmony Gold in 1992 and Playmates in 1994 (under the Exosquad line). There were major differences in packaging, toy stickers and colors between the different releases. The vehicles were designed to be used only with the 3 3/4 inch figures. The SDF-1 Playset was only released under the Matchbox line in the 80s and could be used with both the 3 3/4 and 6 inch figures.

Harmony Gold and Matchbox were unable to sell the 1/55 VF-1 Valkyrie toy originally sold in Japan by Takatoku Toys due to Hasbro licensing it as Jetfire in the Transformers toy line. Because of this, they settled with manufacturing a non-transformable Veritech Fighter that could fit any of the 3 3/4 inch action figures, as well as importing the transformable super deformed Veritech Fighters (originally manufactured in Japan by Bandai as Macross VF-1 Valkyrie "Joke machines").

Since the late 1990s, there has been a resurgence of Robotech-related toys. In 2001, Toynami released the Robotech Masterpiece Collection line, featuring replicas of the Veritech Fighters of The Macross Saga. Since then, Toynami has become the exclusive toy manufacturer of the Robotech franchise - having covered mecha from The Macross Saga, The New Generation and The Shadow Chronicles.

Video games

Robotech spawned five video game licenses, of which the most recent three were released:

Criticism of adaptation

Robotech is often an extremely polarizing subject amongst anime fans.[21] [22] Some critics look down upon the show for its extensive edits to the source material (Westernizing character names, editing for content and chiefly, forging a connection between previously unrelated series),[5] [21] while supporters of the adaptation have pointed out that the weaving of three unrelated series into a contiguous whole necessarily required reworking, and that it helped to maintain a slow but continuous rise in the consumption of anime in the US.[23] [24] [25]

Series writer/actor Greg Snegoff said in an interview on the now-defunct Shadow Chronicles News fansite that, "afterward, we received compliments from the Japanese who thought our dialogue and stories were better than the original".[26] However, Animag magazine (issue 11) and Animerica magazine (issue 9, volume 4) reports that the staff of Macross at Studio Nue and Artland, such as the original story creator and mecha designer Shoji Kawamori and chief director Noboru Ishiguro, expressed their concern over the Robotech adaptation, and surprise at its differences.[27]

In an effort to combine the storylines of three different Japanese series, certain characters underwent drastic role changes, with little explicit character development or plot exposition.[5]

In addition, detractors of the show argue that the need for 65 episodes did not necessarily require a combined storyline, citing adaptations like Voltron which coupled two unrelated Japanese series without directly combining the storylines. However a year after this show ended, 20 additional Voltron episodes and a crossover special were created for American audiences by Toei Animation, after the first daily run of 104 episodes.[28] [29] [30]

Shortly after completing Robotech, Macek would make the less-well-known Captain Harlock and the Queen of a Thousand Years in a similar fashion by combining two Leiji Matsumoto series, Captain Harlock and Queen Millennia, together and altering the storyline significantly. In this case, however, the two anime series were spliced together in a manner where the stories of the characters occurred simultaneously, not one after the other.[5]

In 2009, IGN ranked Robotech as the 34th greatest animated show of all time in their Top 100 list.[31]

Distribution

Following the original broadcast, the series enjoyed popularity on home video in VHS and DVD formats from the following distributors:

For more information, see Robotech (TV series): Home Video Release

External links

Notes and References

  1. News: The 'Robotech' master. San Francisco Chronicle. 2010-05-06. 2010-10-25. Jeff. Yang.
  2. Web site: The Past, Present and Future of Macross. 2010-04-20. IGN.
  3. News: An Introduction to Robotech. Robotech.com. 2008-09-01.
  4. http://www.karridian.net/robotech_defenders.html Robotech Defenders
  5. Web site: Macek Training. 2010-01-25. Anime News Network.
  6. In June 1985, the Yen/US dollar exchange rate was 250-1. By early 1986, the rate had dropped to 200-1. By the end of 1986, the rate had dropped to 160-1. By the end of 1987, the rate had further dropped to 120-1
  7. Web site: Interview with Carl Macek. 2007-07-05. 1995-10-05.
  8. Web site: Unreleased, Incomplete, and Canceled Projects by Harmony Gold. 2007-09-03. Robotech Companion.
  9. Web site: The Shadow Chronicles DVD in stores from Funimation on Feb. 6, 2007. 2007-02-17. 2006-11-20. Robotech.com Forum.
  10. Web site: Anime Expo 2007: Funimation Entertainment. 2007-07-06. 2007-07-01. Anime News Network.
  11. Web site: Comic-Con International 2007: Harmony Gold/Tommy Yune Panel. 2007-07-27. 2007-07-27. Anime News Network.
  12. http://www.macrossworld.com/mwf/index.php?showtopic=32144 Macross World Forums - Astro Plan
  13. News: Maguire, WB attack the big screen with 'Robotech'. 2007-09-12. 2007-09-07. The Hollywood Reporter. yes.
  14. Web site: Live-Action Movie Talk with Kevin McKeever. 2007-09-09. Meadows. Chris. 2007-09-12. mp3. Space Station Liberty.
  15. News: Lawrence Kasdan to pen 'Robotech'. yes.
  16. Web site: Anime Expo 2008: Robotech. 2008-07-05. Anime News Network.
  17. http://www.cinemablend.com/new/Spider-Man-Writers-Hired-For-Robotech-10902.html Spider-Man & Smallville Writers for Robotech
  18. Web site: Batman Producer No Longer on Proposed Robotech Film. 2009-02-03. Anime News Network.
  19. Web site: Proposed Robotech Film Reportedly Gets Another New Writer. 2009-06-24. Anime News Network.
  20. Palladium Books issued a 2007 press release discussing this new contract: press release
  21. Web site: What's getting made. 2010-01-40. Malaysia Star.
  22. Web site: To the stars and beyond: a tribute to Carl Macek. 2010-04-20. Den of Geek.
  23. News: Robotech - Protoculture Collection. DVD Talk. 2009-09-01.
  24. Web site: Carl Macek (1951-2010). 2010-04-19. Cartoon Brew.
  25. Web site: American anime pioneer Carl Macek passes away. 2010-04-20. Comic Book Resources.
  26. Web site: Interview with Greg Snegoff. 2010-02-11. Archive.org. http://web.archive.org/web/20060103112520/www.shadowchroniclesnews.com/snegoff2.html. 2006-01-03.
  27. Web site: Interview with Noboru Ishiguro. 2008-10-10. 2008-05-14.
  28. News: Sometimes I hear the series referred to Macross, Southern Cross and Mospeada. What do they have to do with Robotech?. Robotech.com. 2008-09-01.
  29. News: Why were these three shows combined to make Robotech. Robotech.com. 2008-09-01.
  30. News: Why were the names from the original shows changed?. Robotech.com. 2008-09-01.
  31. Web site: 34, Robotech. IGN. 2009-01-24. 2009-01-23.
  32. http://www.tvshowsondvd.com/news/Robotech-The-Complete-Original-Series/15699 TV Shows on DVD - Robotech: The Complete Original Series