Richard Stallman Explained

Richard Matthew Stallman
Birth Date:16 March 1953
Birth Place:New York City, New York, United States
Nationality:United States
Other Names:rms,
St. iGNUcius (avatar)
Known For:Free software movement, GNU, Emacs
Alma Mater:Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Occupation:President of the Free Software Foundation

Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often shortened to rms,[1] is an American software freedom activist and computer programmer. In September 1983, he launched the GNU Project[2] to create a free Unix-like operating system, and he has been the project's lead architect and organizer. With the launch of the GNU Project, he initiated the free software movement; in October 1985[3] he founded the Free Software Foundation.

Stallman pioneered the concept of copyleft, and he is the main author of several copyleft licenses including the GNU General Public License, the most widely used free software license.[4] Since the mid-1990s, Stallman has spent most of his time advocating for free software, as well as campaigning against software patents, digital rights management, and what he sees as excessive extension of copyright laws. Stallman has also developed a number of pieces of widely used software, including the original Emacs,[5] the GNU Compiler Collection,[6] the GNU Debugger,[7] and various tools in the GNU coreutils.[8] He co-founded the League for Programming Freedom in 1989.

Early years

Stallman was born to Daniel Stallman and Alice Lippman,[9] in 1953 in New York City. His first experience with computers was while in high school at the IBM New York Scientific Center. He was hired for the summer to write a numerical analysis program in Fortran. He completed the task after a couple of weeks and spent the rest of the summer writing a text editor in APL.[10] Stallman spent the summer after his high-school graduation writing another program, a preprocessor for the PL/I programming language on the IBM System/360.

During this time, Stallman was also a volunteer laboratory assistant in the biology department at Rockefeller University. Although he was already moving toward a career in mathematics or physics, his teaching professor at Rockefeller thought he would have a future as a biologist.[11]

As a first-year student at Harvard University, Stallman was known for his strong performance in Math 55. In 1971 he became a programmer at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and became a regular in the hacker community, where he was usually known by his initials, rms (which was the name of his computer accounts). In the first edition of the Hacker's Dictionary, he wrote "'Richard Stallman' is just my mundane name; you can call me 'rms'."[1] Stallman graduated from Harvard magna cum laude earning a BA in Physics in 1974.[12]

Stallman enrolled as a graduate student at MIT, but then ended his pursuit of a doctorate in physics to focus on his programming at the MIT AI Laboratory.

While a graduate student at MIT, Stallman published a paper on an AI truth maintenance system called dependency-directed backtracking with Gerald Jay Sussman.[13] This paper was an early work on the problem of intelligent backtracking in constraint satisfaction problems. As of 2003, the technique Stallman and Sussman introduced is still the most general and powerful form of intelligent backtracking.[14] The technique of constraint recording, wherein partial results of a search are recorded for later reuse, was also introduced in this paper.[14]

As a hacker in MIT's AI laboratory, Stallman worked on software projects like TECO, Emacs, and the Lisp machine Operating System. He would become an ardent critic of restricted computer access in the lab, which at that time was funded primarily by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. When MIT's Laboratory for Computer Science (LCS) installed a password control system in 1977, Stallman found a way to decrypt the passwords and sent users messages containing their decoded password, with a suggestion to change it to the empty string (that is, no password) instead, to re-enable anonymous access to the systems. Around 20% of the users followed his advice at the time, although passwords ultimately prevailed. Stallman boasted of the success of his campaign for many years afterward.[15]

Decline of MIT's hacker culture

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the hacker culture that Stallman thrived on began to fragment. To prevent software from being used on their competitors' computers, most manufacturers stopped distributing source code and began using copyright and restrictive software licenses to limit or prohibit copying and redistribution. Such proprietary software had existed before, and it became apparent that it would become the norm. This shift in the legal characteristics of software can be regarded as a consequence triggered by the U.S. Copyright Act of 1976, as stated by Stallman's MIT fellow Brewster Kahle.[16]

When Brian Reid in 1979 placed time bombs in Scribe to restrict unlicensed access to the software, Stallman proclaimed it "a crime against humanity."[17] He clarified, years later, that it is blocking the user's freedom that he believes is a crime, not the issue of charging for the software.[18]

In 1980, Stallman and some other hackers at the AI Lab were refused access to the source code for the software of a newly-installed laser printer, the Xerox 9700. Stallman had modified the software for the Lab's previous laser printer (the XGP, Xerographic Printer), so it electronically messaged a user when the person's job was printed, and would message all logged-in users waiting for print jobs if the printer was jammed. Not being able to add these features to the new printer was a major inconvenience, as the printer was on a different floor from most of the users. This experience convinced Stallman of people's need to be free to modify the software they use.[19]

Richard Greenblatt, a fellow AI Lab hacker, founded Lisp Machines, Inc. (LMI) to market Lisp machines, which he and Tom Knight designed at the lab. Greenblatt rejected outside investment, believing that the proceeds from the construction and sale of a few machines could be profitably reinvested in the growth of the company. In contrast, the other hackers felt that the venture capital-funded approach was better. As no agreement could be reached, hackers from the latter camp founded Symbolics, with the aid of Russ Noftsker, an AI Lab administrator. Symbolics recruited most of the remaining hackers including notable hacker Bill Gosper, who then left the AI Lab. Symbolics forced Greenblatt to also resign by citing MIT policies. While both companies delivered proprietary software, Stallman believed that LMI, unlike Symbolics, had tried to avoid hurting the lab's community. For two years, from 1982 to the end of 1983, Stallman worked by himself to clone the output of the Symbolics programmers, with the aim of preventing them from gaining a monopoly on the lab's computers.[20]

Stallman argues that software users should have the freedom to share with their neighbor and to be able to study and make changes to the software that they use. He maintains that attempts by proprietary software vendors to prohibit these acts are antisocial and unethical. The phrase "software wants to be free" is often incorrectly attributed to him, and Stallman argues that this is a misstatement of his philosophy.[21] He argues that freedom is vital for the sake of users and society as a moral value, and not merely for pragmatic reasons such as possibly developing technically superior software.

In February 1984, Stallman quit his job at MIT to work full-time on the GNU project, which he had announced in September 1983.

GNU project

See main article: GNU Project. Stallman announced the plan for the GNU operating system in September 1983 on several ARPANET mailing lists and USENET.[22]

In 1985, Stallman published the GNU Manifesto, which outlined his motivation for creating a free operating system called GNU, which would be compatible with Unix. The name GNU is a recursive acronym for "GNU's Not Unix." Soon after, he started a non-profit corporation called the Free Software Foundation to employ free software programmers and provide a legal infrastructure for the free software movement. Stallman is the nonsalaried president of the FSF, which is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded in Massachusetts.[23] Stallman popularized the concept of copyleft, a legal mechanism to protect the modification and redistribution rights for free software. It was first implemented in the GNU Emacs General Public License, and in 1989 the first program-independent GNU General Public License (GPL) was released. By then, much of the GNU system had been completed. Stallman was responsible for contributing many necessary tools, including a text editor (Emacs), compiler (GCC), debugger (gdb), and a build automator (gmake). The notable exception was a kernel. In 1990, members of the GNU project began a kernel called GNU Hurd, which has yet to achieve the maturity level required for widespread usage.

In 1991, Linus Torvalds, a Finnish student, used the GNU development tools to produce the Linux kernel. The existing programs from the GNU project were readily ported to run on the resultant platform; most sources use the name Linux to refer to the general-purpose operating system thus formed. This has been a longstanding naming controversy in the free software community. Stallman argues that not using GNU in the name of the operating system unfairly disparages the value of the GNU project and harms the sustainability of the free software movement by breaking the link between the software and the free software philosophy of the GNU project.

Stallman's influences on hacker culture include the name POSIX[24] and the Emacs editor. On UNIX systems, GNU Emacs's popularity rivaled that of another editor vi, spawning an editor war. Stallman's take on this was to canonize himself as St. IGNUcius of the Church of Emacs[25] [26] and acknowledge that "vi vi vi is the editor of the beast," while "using a free version of vi is not a sin; it is a penance".

Around 1992, developers at Lucid Inc. doing their own work on Emacs clashed with Stallman and ultimately forked the software into what would become XEmacs.[27] Technology journalist Andrew Leonard has characterized what he sees as Stallman's uncompromising stubbornness as common among elite computer programmers:

Activism

Stallman has written many essays on software freedom and since the early 1990s has been an outspoken political campaigner for the free software movement. The speeches he has regularly given are titled The GNU project and the Free Software movement,[28] The Dangers of Software Patents,[29] and Copyright and Community in the age of computer networks.[30] In 2006 and 2007, during the eighteen month public consultation for the drafting of version 3 of the GNU General Public License, he added a fourth topic explaining the proposed changes.[31]

Linus Torvalds has criticized Stallman for what he considers "black-and-white thinking" and bringing more harm than good to the free software community.[32]

Stallman's staunch advocacy for free software inspired the Virtual Richard M. Stallman (vrms), software that analyzes the packages currently installed on a Debian GNU/Linux system, and report those that are from the non-free tree.[33] Stallman would disagree with parts of Debian's definition of free software.[34]

In 1999, Stallman called for development of a free on-line encyclopedia through the means of inviting the public to contribute articles.[35] The resulting GNUPedia was eventually retired in favour of the emerging Wikipedia, which had similar aims and was enjoying greater success.[36]

In Venezuela, Stallman has delivered public speeches and promoted the adoption of free software in the state's oil company (PDVSA), in municipal government, and in the nation's military. In meetings with Chávez and in public speeches, Stallman criticised some policies on television broadcasting, free speech rights, and privacy.[37] [38] Stallman was on the Advisory Council of Latin American television station teleSUR from its launch[39] but resigned in February 2011, criticizing pro-Gaddafi propaganda during the 2011 North Africa uprisings.[40]

In August 2006 at his meetings with the government of the Indian State of Kerala, he persuaded officials to discard proprietary software, such as Microsoft's, at state-run schools. This has resulted in a landmark decision to switch all school computers in 12,500 high schools from Windows to a free software operating system.[41]

After personal meetings, Stallman has obtained positive statements about the free software movement from the then-President of India, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam,[42] French 2007 presidential candidate Ségolène Royal,[43] and the president of Ecuador Rafael Correa.[44]

Stallman has participated in protests about software patents,[45] DRM,[46] [47] and proprietary software.

Protesting against proprietary software in April 2006, Stallman held a "Don't buy from ATI, enemy of your freedom" placard at a speech by an ATI representative in the building where Stallman works, resulting in the police being called.[48] ATI has since merged with AMD Corporation and has taken steps to make their hardware documentation available for use by the free software community.[49]

Stallman has also helped and supported the International Music Score Library Project in getting back online, after it had been taken down on October 19, 2007 following a cease and desist letter from Universal Edition.[50]

After the death of Steve Jobs, Stallman wrote the following eulogy:

Stallman's remark stirred up accusations of being in bad taste while Eric S. Raymond, author of Cathedral and the Bazaar summarized that Stallman statement was not personal, but was simply criticizing walled gardens.[51]

Stallman's only computer is a Lemote Yeeloong netbook (using the same company's Loongson processor) which he chose because it can run with 100% free software even at the BIOS level, stating "freedom is my priority. I've campaigned for freedom since 1983, and I am not going to surrender that freedom for the sake of a more convenient computer."[52] Lemote is a joint venture of the Institute of Computing Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, an institution of the State Council of China.

Stallman has suggested that the United States government may encourage[53] [54] the use of software as a service because this would allow them to access users' data without needing a search warrant.[55] [56] [57]

Terminology

Stallman places great importance on the words and labels people use to talk about the world, including the relationship between software and freedom. He untiringly asks people to say free software and GNU/Linux, and to avoid the terms intellectual property and piracy (in relation to copyright). His requests that people use certain terms, and his ongoing efforts to convince people of the importance of terminology are a source of regular misunderstanding and friction with parts of the free software and open source communities.

One of his criteria for giving an interview to a journalist is that the journalist agree to use his terminology throughout the article.[58] Sometimes he has even required journalists to read parts of the GNU philosophy before an interview, for "efficiency's sake". He has been known to turn down speaking requests over some terminology issues.[59]

Stallman rejects a common alternative term, open source software, because it does not call to mind what Stallman sees as the value of the software: freedom.[60] Thus it will not inform people of the freedom issues, and will not lead to people valuing and defending their freedom.[61] Two alternatives which Stallman does accept are software libre and unfettered software, but free software is the term he asks people to use in English. For similar reasons, he argues for the term "proprietary software" rather than "closed source software", when referring to software that is not free software.

Stallman repeatedly asks that the term GNU/Linux, which he pronounces "GNU slash Linux", be used to refer to the operating system created by combining the GNU system and the Linux kernel. Stallman refers to this operating system as "a variant of GNU, and the GNU Project is its principal developer."[59] He claims that the connection between the GNU project's philosophy and its software is broken when people refer to the combination as merely Linux.[62] Starting around 2003, he began also using the term GNU+Linux, which he pronounces "GNU plus Linux", to prevent others from pronouncing the phrase "GNU/Linux" as "GNU Linux", which would erroneously imply that the Linux kernel is maintained by the GNU project. (See: GNU/Linux naming controversy)

Stallman argues that the term intellectual property is designed to confuse people, and is used to prevent intelligent discussion on the specifics of copyright, patent, trademark and other laws by lumping together areas of law that are more dissimilar than similar.[63] He also argues that by referring to these laws as property laws, the term biases the discussion when thinking about how to treat these issues.

An example of cautioning others to avoid other terminology while also offering suggestions for possible alternatives, is this sentence of an email by Stallman to a public mailing list:

Personal life

Stallman has devoted the bulk of his life’s energies to political and software activism.[64] Professing to care little for material wealth, he explains that "I've always lived cheaply ... like a student, basically. And I like that, because it means that money is not telling me what to do."[65]

Until around 1998, his office at MIT's AI Lab was also his residence.[66] He was registered to vote from there. Nowadays he has a separate residence in Cambridge not far from MIT.[67] His position as a research affiliate at MIT is unpaid.[68]

In a footnote to an article he wrote in 1999, he says "As an atheist, I don't follow any religious leaders, but I sometimes find I admire something one of them has said."[69] Stallman often wears a button that reads "Impeach God".[70] [71]

Stallman chooses not to celebrate Christmas, instead celebrating "Grav-mass" on December 25. The name and date are references to Isaac Newton, whose birthday falls on that day on the old style calendar.[72]

When asked about his influences, he replied that he admires Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., Nelson Mandela, Aung San Suu Kyi, Ralph Nader, and Dennis Kucinich, and commented as well: "I admire Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill, even though I criticize some of the things that they did."[73] Stallman is a Green Party supporter,[1] and a supporter of the National Initiative proposal.[74]

Stallman recommends not owning a mobile phone,[75] as he believes the tracking of cell phones creates harmful privacy issues.[76] Also, Stallman avoids use of a key card to enter the building where his office is.[77] Such a system would track doors entered and times. For personal reasons, he generally does not actively browse the web from his computer; rather, he uses wget and reads the fetched pages from his e-mail mailbox, claiming to limit direct access via browsers to a few sites such as his own or those related to his work with GNU and the FSF.[78] [79]

In a lecture in Manchester, England on May 1, 2008, Stallman advocated paper voting over machine voting, insisting that there was a much better chance of being able to do a recount correctly if there was a paper copy of the ballots.[80]

Stallman enjoys a wide range of musical styles from the works of Conlon Nancarrow[81] to folk;[82] the Free Software Song takes the form of alternative words for the Bulgarian folk dance Sadi Moma. More recently he wrote a take-off on the Cuban folk song Guantanamera, about a prisoner in the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, and recorded it in Cuba with Cuban musicians.[83] He also enjoys music by Béla Fleck and the Flecktones and Weird Al Yankovic.[84]

Stallman is a fan of science fiction, including works by the author Greg Egan.[85] He occasionally goes to science fiction conventions[86] and wrote the Free Software Song while awaiting his turn to sing at a convention. He has written two science fiction stories, "The Right to Read" and "Jinnetic Engineering".

Along with his native English, Stallman is also fluent enough in French and Spanish to deliver his two-hour speeches in those languages, and claims a "somewhat flawed" command of Indonesian.[87] [88]

Recognition

Stallman has received the following recognition for his work:

Selected publications

Stallman has written and been the subject of several books, including:

Papers in technical and academic journals:
Manuals:
Selected Essays:
Biography:

Stallman has four topics that he has spoken on often:[104]

See also

External links

Notes and References

  1. Web site: Richard Stallman's 1983 biography.
    "'Richard Stallman' is just my mundane name; you can call me 'rms'". Stallman. Richard. N.D.. Richard Stallman's homepage. (Published in the first edition of "The Hacker's Dictionary"). 20 November 2008.
  2. Web site: Initial GNU announcement. 1983-09-27. 20 November 2008. Stallman. Richard.
  3. Web site: The Free Software Foundation Management. Richard. Stallman. March 7, 2011. Free Software Foundation. Richard M. Stallman, President. July 21, 2011.
  4. Web site: Make Your Open Source Software GPL-Compatible. Or Else.. 20 November 2008. Wheeler. David A.. 2002-05-06/2008-10-03. (See the list in section 2).
  5. Web site: Multics Emacs: The History, Design and Implementation. Bernard S. Greenberg.
    Web site: GNU Emacs FAQ. ; Web site: Emacs Timeline. Jamie Zawinski.
  6. Web site: GCC Contributors.
  7. Web site: Richard Stallman lecture at the Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden (1986-10-30). 2006-09-21. Then after GNU Emacs was reasonably stable, which took all in all about a year and a half, I started getting back to other parts of the system. I developed a debugger which I called GDB which is a symbolic debugger for C code, which recently entered distribution. Now this debugger is to a large extent in the spirit of DBX, which is a debugger that comes with Berkeley Unix..
  8. Richard Stallman is credited in the AUTHORS file included with the GNU coreutils for having contributed to the cat, comm, dir, ls, rm, split, tee, uniq, and vdir utilities.
  9. "Richard Stallman's mother, Alice Lippman, still remembers the moment she realized her son had a special gift." Chapter 3, Free as in Freedom http://oreilly.com/openbook/freedom/ch03.html
  10. Web site: Stallman. Richard M. RMS Berättar. September 22, 2009.
  11. Book: Williams, Sam. . O'Reilly Media. 2002. 0-596-00287-4. Chapter 3. Available under the GFDL in both the initial O'Reilly edition (accessed on 27 October 2006) and the updated FAIFzilla edition . Retrieved 27 October 2006.
  12. Web site: Richard Stallman's Personal Page. Stallman.org. 2011-06-07.
  13. Web site: Stallman. Richard M. Sussman, Gerald J. 1977. Forward Reasoning and Dependency-Directed Backtracking In a System for Computer-Aided Circuit analysis. Artificial Intelligence 9. 135–196.
  14. Book: Russell, Stuart. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. 2003. Norvig, Peter. 157.
  15. Levy,S: Hackers, page 417. Penguin USA, 1984
  16. Robert X. Cringely's interview with Brewster Kahle, around the 46th minute
  17. Book: Williams, Sam. Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software. O'Reilly Media. 2002. 0-596-00287-4. Chapter 6. Available under the GFDL in both the initial O'Reilly edition (accessed on 27 October 2006) and the updated FAIFzilla edition . Retrieved 27 October 2006.
  18. Web site: Richard Stallman, Live and Unplugged. Q: You once said "the prospect of charging money for software was a crime against humanity." Do you still believe this? A: Well, I was not distinguishing the two meanings of free..
  19. Book: Williams, Sam. Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software. O'Reilly Media. 2002. 0-596-00287-4. Chapter 1. Available under the GFDL in both the initial O'Reilly edition (accessed on 27 October 2006) and the updated FAIFzilla edition . Retrieved 27 October 2006.
  20. Levy,S: Hackers. Penguin USA, 1984
  21. http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20050513135545766 The Daemon, the GNU and the Penguin
  22. Web site: new UNIX implementation. Groups.google.co.uk. 2010-03-12.
  23. Web site: Free Software Foundation. Steven. DuBois. October 15, 2010. Free Software Foundation. July 21, 2011.
  24. Web site: 2006-02-02. POSIX 1003.1 FAQ Version 1.12. 2006-07-16.
  25. http://web.archive.org/web/20090601054752/http://melbourne.indymedia.org/news/2004/10/80957.php "Richard Stallman: GNU/Linux and a free society" article by Takver Sunday October 10, 2004 at 08:06 AM on Melbourne Indymedia web site.
  26. Web site: St IGNUcius web page at www.stallman.org. Stallman.org. 2010-03-12.
  27. Web site: The Lemacs/FSFmacs Schism. 2009-12-12. 2009-12-12. http://www.webcitation.org/5lyRUxhVp.
  28. Web site: Transcript of Richard Stallman on the Free Software movement, Zagreb; 2006-03-09. 2008-01-17. FSFE.
  29. Web site: IFSO: Richard Stallman: The Dangers of Software Patents; 2004-05-24 (transcript). 2008-01-17.
  30. Web site: Copyright and Globalization in the Age of Computer Networks — GNU Project — Free Software Foundation (FSF). 2008-01-17.
  31. Web site: GPLv3 - GNU General Public License, version 3. 2008-01-17. FSFE.
  32. Web site: Linus' blog: Black and white. Torvalds-family.blogspot.com. 2008-11-02. 2011-10-09.
  33. Web site: The Virtual Richard M. Stallman package. 2008-01-17. Debian.
  34. Web site: Debian Bug report logs - #221807: "vrms and RMS disagree sometimes....
  35. Web site: The Free Universal Encyclopedia and Learning Resource. 2006-10-15. Richard Stallman.
  36. Web site: The Free Encyclopedia Project. 2011-10-15. Richard Stallman.
  37. Stallman, Richard. "Encounter with President Chavez (2004-12-01 to 2004-12-06)". Richard Stallman Travel and Free Software Activities Journal.
  38. Web site: Chavez threatens dignitaries.
  39. News: Chavez TV beams into South America. The Guardian. London. 2005-07-26. 2010-05-22. Alfonso. Daniels.
  40. Web site: 2010: November - February Political Notes - Richard Stallman. Stallman.org. 2011-06-07.
  41. Web site: Kerala logs Microsoft out. The Financial Express. 2010-03-12.
  42. Web site: Richard Stallman Meets the President of India.
  43. Web site: Meeting between Ségolène Royal and Richard Stallman.
  44. Web site: Success for free software in Latin America!.
  45. Web site: Protest in Brussels against software patents.
  46. Web site: Protest outside and inside MPAA meeting on DRM.
  47. Web site: Protest in France against DRM.
  48. Web site: Protest against ATI nearly led to the arrest of RMS. Free Software Foundation page.
  49. Web site: AMD will deliver open graphics drivers.
  50. http://imslp.wikidot.com/ Temporary main page of the IMSLP
  51. http://www.theregister.co.uk/2011/10/10/stallman_glad_jobs_gone/
  52. Web site: the setup is a bunch of nerdy interviews: What do people use to get the job done?. Richard.stallman.usesthis.com. 2010-01-23. 2010-03-12.
  53. Web site: Arthur. Charles. Google's ChromeOS means losing control of data, warns GNU founder Richard Stallman | Technology | guardian.co.uk. Guardian. 2010-12-14. 2012-02-16.
  54. Web site: Posted by John 14 Jan 2011 at 06:00. Cloud Computing is Careless Computing | JDPFu.com 2012. Blog.jdpfu.com. 2011-01-14. 2012-02-16.
  55. Adhikari, Richard. "Why Richard Stallman Takes No Shine to Chrome." LinuxInsider, 15 December 2010.
  56. Web site: Stallman. Richard. Who does that server really serve?. GNU, Boston Review. 15 January 2012. 2011/09/20 08:15:47.
  57. Examples: Web site: Hill. Benjamin Mako. Show Me the Code. Revealing Errors. 15 January 2012. Benjamin Mako Hill. Sun, 01 Feb 2009. Feb. 2009. Assange. Julian.,Julian Assange. London. April 9, 2011. 15 January 2012. "Facebook, Google, Yahoo – all these major US organizations have built-in interfaces for US intelligence. It’s not a matter of serving a subpoena. They have an interface that they have developed for US intelligence to use.".
  58. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/11.11/linus_pr.html Leader of the Free World
  59. http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/linux-gnu-freedom.html Linux, GNU, Freedom
  60. http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-software-for-freedom.html Why "Free Software" is better than "Open Source"
  61. http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/shouldbefree.html Why Software Should Be Free
  62. http://www.gnu.org/gnu/why-gnu-linux.html What's in a name?
  63. Web site: Transcript of Richard Stallman speaking on GPLv3 in Torino. 18 March 2006. Everyone who uses the term intellectual property is either confused himself or trying to confuse you..
  64. Web site: Stallman. Richard. My Personal Ad. 2006-11-26. My 23-year-old child, the Free Software Movement, occupies most of my life, leaving no room for more children, but I still have room to love a sweetheart..
  65. Web site: Stallman. Richard. Transcript of Richard M. Stallman’s speech. Free Software Foundation. 2001-05-29. 2006-11-26.
  66. Web site: Jones. K.C.. A Rare Glimpse into Richard Stallman's World. InformationWeek.
  67. Web site: LifeStyle. Stallman.org. 2011-09-02.
  68. Web site: Stallman shares Takeda award of nearly $1M. MIT. 2001-10-17. 2006-11-26.
  69. Book: Various. Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution. O'Reilly Media. 1999. 1-56592-582-3. Stallman chapter. http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/stallman.html. 2006-12-09.
  70. Web site: Free as in Freedom: Chapter 4. Oreilly.com. 1986-10-30. 2011-09-02.
  71. Web site: By François @ Edito.qc.ca François Proulx+ Add Contact. Richard Stallman | Flickr - Photo Sharing!. Flickr. 2011-09-02.
  72. Web site: Celebrate Grav-mass. 2008-01-17. stallman.org.
  73. Web site: FSF India: A Q & A session with Richard M. Stallman. Free Software Foundation of India. 2006-11-26. http://web.archive.org/web/20061015205039/http://www.gnu.org.in/node/68 . 2006-10-15.
  74. Web site: Richard Stallman's Personal Page. Long Term Action Items: Support the National Initiative for Democracy.
  75. Web site: Transcript of Richard Stallman at the 3rd international GPLv3 conference; 22nd June 2006.
  76. Web site: A Rare Glimpse Into Richard Stallman's World.
  77. Web site: The Shaggy God.
  78. Web site: Real men don't attack straw men. 2009-03-24. Stallman, Richard. 2007-12-15. OpenBSD 'misc' Mailing List. For personal reasons, I do not browse the web from my computer.
  79. Web site: How I do my computing. 2010-08-01.
  80. Free Software in Ethics and Society. Stallman, Richard. 2008-5-1. Manchester, England. 2010-05-30.
  81. Web site: Bruce Sterling interview.
  82. Web site: Humorous bio.
  83. Web site: Stallman. Richard M. Guantanamero. 2007-05-04.
  84. Web site: Richard Stallman Playlist.
  85. Web site: The Leading N Earth Worth Site on the Net. nearthwort.com. 2011-09-02.
  86. Book: Williams, Sam. Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman"s Crusade for Free Software. O'Reilly Media. 2002-03-15. 0-596-00287-4. 2006-11-26.
  87. Web site: WGIG nominees — Richard Stallman. 2006-11-26.
  88. Web site: Re: How to open Gnome Malaysia Usergroup. Mail.gnome.org. 2011-01-25. 2011-06-07.
  89. http://www.macfound.org/site/c.lkLXJ8MQKrH/b.1142703/k.787E/Fellows_List__August_1990.htm MacArthur Fellows - August 1990
  90. Web site: Grace Murry Hopper award citation.
  91. http://www.kth.se/om/fame/hedersdoktorer/hedersdoktorer-1944-2009-1.3974 Hedersdoktorer 1944-2009
  92. https://w2.eff.org/awards/pioneer/1998.php Torvalds, Stallman, Simons Win 1998 Pioneer Awards
  93. Web site: Richard Stallman Wins Microsoft's Money.
  94. http://www.takeda-foundation.jp/en/aboutus/topics/p20010911.html The Takeda Foundation announces winners of the Takeda Award 2001 to honor achievements in engineering
  95. http://www.gla.ac.uk/news/archive/2001/february/headline_29920_en.html University announces honorary degrees to celebrate 550th anniversary
  96. http://www.nae.edu/MembersSection/Directory20412/30606.aspx Members Directory - Dr. Richard M. Stallman
  97. http://www.vub.ac.be/english/home/DHC/overview.html Honorary Doctorates
  98. Web site: RESOLUCIÓN CS N° 204/04. Bo.unsa.edu.ar. 2010-03-12.
  99. [20 Minutos]
  100. Web site: Laurea in Ingegneria Informatica a Richard Stallman..
  101. Web site: YouTube — RMS Given Honorary Degree at Lakehead.
  102. Web site: Agora Online — Honorary Degree Recipients.
  103. Web site: Honoris Causa for Richard Stallman, Free Software guru.
  104. Web site: Serious Bio of Stallman.