Rhaeto-Romance languages explained

Raeto-Romance
Region:Italy, Switzerland
Familycolor:Indo-European
Fam2:Italic
Fam3:Romance
Fam4:Western
Fam5:Gallo-Iberian
Fam6:Gallo-Romance

Rhaeto-Romance languages are a Romance language sub-family which includes multiple languages spoken in north and north-eastern Italy, and Switzerland. The name "Rhaeto-Romance" refers to the former Roman province of Rhaetia.

Varieties

The area where Rhaeto-Romance languages (also called Ladin languages, not to be confused with Judaeo-Spanish) were spoken during the Middle Ages stretched from Switzerland to the Julian Alps (in modern-day western Slovenia).

Today some of the spoken varieties are:

The inclusion of the following two dialects in the Rhaeto-Romance languages is still debated (the so-called "Questione Ladina"):

Related languages

The family is most closely related to its nearest neighbors: French, Franco-Provençal, Occitan, Gallo-Italian (Piedmontese, Ligurian, Lombard, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Venetian), and Istriote. A number of lexical items are shared with Ibero-Romance due to the similar date of latinization for both regions.

Origin

The Rhaeto-Romance languages originated as a dialect of the provincial Latin of the central Alps, which were incorporated into the Roman Empire during the reign of Augustus. Before the Roman conquest, this area was Celtic-speaking in the north and Rhaetian-speaking in the south. By the end of the Roman Empire, there was an unbroken region of distinctive Romance speech here, which was gradually fragmented into secluded areas in the high valleys by the encroachment of German from the north and of Italian from the south.

Features

Rhaeto-Romance is distinguished by a number of features which separate it from its neighbors.

Examples

EnglishSurselvanSutselvanSurmeiranPuterValladerRumantsch GrischunFriulianNones (ladin)LatinItalian
goldaurorororor, aur, araurauroraurumoro
harddirdirdeirdürdürdirdûrdurdurusduro
eyeeglîlîglöglögleglvolioceloculusocchio
light, easylevleavlevligerleivlevlizêrlizerlevislieve
threetreistrestreistraistraistraistrêtreitrestre
snowneivnevneivnaivnaivnaivnêfneunix (acc.: nivem)neve
wheelrodarodarodaroudaroudarodaruederuedarotaruota
cheesecaschielcaschielcaschielchaschölchaschölchaschielformadiformai (ciasolet)caseolus (formaticus)cacio (formaggio)
housecasatgeasatgesachesachasachasacjaseciasacasacasa
dogtgauntgàntgangchaunchanchauncjanciagncaniscane
legcombatgombatgommachammachommachommagjambegiambagambagamba
chickengaglinagagliegnagaglignagillinagiallinagiaglinagjalinegialinagallinagallina
catgatgiatgiatgiatgiatgiatgjatgiatcatusgatto
alltuttuttottuottuottutduttuttotustutto
shapefuormafurmafurmafuormafuormafurmaformeformaformaforma
Ijeujoujaeaueujaujomiegoio

See also

External links