Present tense explained

For referencing in Wikipedia, see .For other uses see Present tense (disambiguation).

The present tense is the tense (that is, the form of the verb) that may be used to express:

There are two common types of present tenses to be found in most Indo-European languages: the present indicative (i.e., the combination of present tense and indicative mood) and the present subjunctive (i.e., the combination of present tense and subjunctive mood).

Germanic Languages

English

English, like other Germanic languages, has two tenses, past and non-past. These tenses have several aspects. The present tense aspects comprise:

We use the present simple for thoughts and feelings. (Ex. I think so, I like it.)

In the present simple, we use the verb without an ending. (Ex. I get the lunch ready at one o'clock, usually.) In the third person singular, (after he, she, it, your friend and etc.,) however, the verb ends in -s or -es. (Ex. It gets busy on the weekends. Sarah catches the early train.)

The present simple tense is very often used with adverbs of repeated time. Look at these examples (the adverbs are shown in bold):- I always come to school by cycle.- She frequently arrives here before me. - He never forgets to do his homework. - I often catch the late bus home.

When we want to state a fact or ask a question without any time reference, we use the present simple tense.- I live in Frankfurt. - She plays football but she does not play tennis. - For breakfast, he eats rice and drinks cold milk.

Statements about rules of nature and the way the world is are in the present simple tense.- The sun sets in the West. - Most babies learn to speak when they are about two years old. - Water boils at 100° Celsius.

The conjugation of the present indicative tense in regular verbs is as follows:

 to walk
Iwalk
youwalk
he/she/itwalks
wewalk
theywalk

German present indicative tense

In German, the present tense is used in a rather different fashion from English. The present tense is a simple construction. There is no close equivalent to the English present continuous.

Here is an example of present tense conjugation in German:

 gehensprechenfindenlaufen
ichgehesprechefindelaufe
dugehstsprichstfindestläufst
er/sie/esgehtsprichtfindetläuft
wirgehensprechenfindenlaufen
ihrgehtsprechtfindetlauft
siegehensprechenfindenlaufen

Romance Languages

The Romance languages are derived from Latin, and in particular western Vulgate Latin. As a result, their usages and forms are similar.

Latin present indicative tense

In Latin, the present tense can be translated as being progressive or simple. Below is an example of present indicative tense conjugation in Latin.

 plicāredebēredicerecuperescīre
Egoplicōdebeōdīcōcupiōsciō
Tuplicāsdebēsdīciscupisscīs
Is, Ea, Idplicatdebetdicitcupitscit
Nosplicāmusdebēmusdīcimuscupimusscīmus
Vosplicātisdebētisdīcitiscupitisscītis
Ei, Eae, Eaplicantdebentdīcuntcupiuntsciunt

French present indicative tense

In French, the present tense is used similarly to that of English. Below is an example of present tense conjugation in French.

 parlerprendrefinirpartir
jeparleprendsfinispars
tuparlesprendsfinispars
il/elle/onparleprendfinitpart
nousparlonsprenonsfinissonspartons
vousparlezprenezfinissezpartez
ils/ellesparlentprennentfinissentpartent

To express (and emphasise) the present continuous, expressions such as "en train de" or "en cours de" may be used. For example, Jean est en train de manger, may be translated as John is eating, John is in the middle of eating. On est en train de chercher un nouvel appartement may be translated as We are looking for a new apartment, we are in the process of finding a new apartment.

Italian present indicative tense

In Italian, the present tense is used almost identically to that of English. What follows is an example of present indicative tense conjugation in Italian.

 guardarecrederepartirefinire
ioguardocredopartofinisco
tuguardicredipartifinisci
lui/lei/egli/ellaguardacredepartefinisce
noiguardiamocrediamopartiamofiniamo
voiguardatecredetepartitefinite
loroguardanocredonopartonofiniscono

Portuguese present indicative tense

In Portuguese regular verbs, the present tense is conjugated according to the model below:

 acabarcomerpartir
euacabocomoparto
tuacabascomespartes
ele/ela/vocêacabacomeparte
nósacabamoscomemospartimos
vósacabaiscomeispartis
eles/elas/vocêsacabamcomempartem

In Portuguese, one sometimes uses the present tense where in English one would use the present continuous. The present tense is used with a future sense more often than in English.

Spanish present indicative tense

In Spanish, the present tense is used similarly to that of English. What follows is an example of present tense conjugation in Spanish.

 hablarcomerinsistir
yohablocomoinsisto
hablascomesinsistes
voshabláscomésinsistís
él / ella / ustedhablacomeinsiste
nosotroshablamoscomemosinsistimos
vosotroshabláiscoméisinsistís
ellos / ellas / ustedeshablancomeninsisten

Slavic Languages

Bulgarian present indicative tense

In Bulgarian, the present indicative tense of imperfective verbs is used very similarly to that of English. It can also be used as present progressive. Below is an example of present indicative tense conjugation in Bulgarian.

 писати*говорити*искати*отваряти*
азпишаговоряискамотварям
типишешговоришискашотваряш
той, тя, топишеговориискаотваря
ниепишемговоримискамеотваряме
виепишетеговоритеискатеотваряте
тепишатговорятискатотварят

Finno-Ugric Languages

Finnish present indicative tense

In Finnish, the pronouns have their own ending in the verb. These verbs may be used by themselves, without the pronoun (except he/she=hän).

 ollalaskeaantaakatsoavapista
minäolenlaskenannankatsonvapisen
sinäoletlasketannatkatsotvapiset
hän, seonlaskeeantaakatsoovapisee
meolemmelaskemmeannammekatsommevapisemme
teolettelasketteannattekatsottevapisette
he, neovatlaskevatantavatkatsovatvapisevat

Altaic Languages

Turkish present indicative tense

In the Turkish language, the pronouns have their own ending according to vowel harmony.Present tense suffex is "r".

 endingkal-maksev-mekbul-makgör-mek
Benım/im/um/ümkalırımseverimbulurumgörürüm
Sensın/sin/sun/sünkalırsınseversinbulursungörürsün
Okalırseverbulurgörür
Bizız/iz/uz/üzkalırızseverizbuluruzgörürüz
Sizsınız/siniz/sunuz/sünüzkalırsınızseversinizbulursunuzgörürsünüz
Onlarlar/lerkalırlarseverlerbulurlargörürler

See also

External links