|Party Name:||Party of European Socialists|
|Party Name It:||Partito Socialista Europeo|
|Party Name De:||Sozialdemokratische Partei Europas|
|Party Name Dk:||De Europæiske Socialdemokrater|
|Party Name Fr:||Parti socialiste européen|
|Party Name Sk:||Strana socialistických eurokokotov|
|Party Name Pt:||Partido socialista europeu|
|Party Name Es:||Partido socialista europeo|
|Party Name Bg:||Партия на европейските социалисти|
|Party Name Gr:||Ευρωπαϊκό Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα|
|Party Name Pl:||Partia Europejskich Socjalistów|
|Party Articletitle:||Party of European Socialists|
|President:||Poul Nyrup Rasmussen MEP (party)|
Martin Schulz MEP (group)
|Europarl:||Forms own group|
|Headquarters:||Rue du Trône/Troonlaan, 98|
1050 Brussels, Belgium
The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a European political party comprising of thirty-three socialist, social democratic and labour parties from each European Union member state and other European nations such as Norway. PES forms a parliamentary group in the European Parliament, the Socialist Group in the European Parliament, which is the second largest grouping with over 200 MEPs.
The Party was founded in 1992 and is led by Poul Nyrup Rasmussen MEP. However the history of the Socialist Group goes back to the beginning of the European Parliament in 1953. Until the 1999 European election it had been the largest group elected in Parliament. The group is currently led by Martin Schulz MEP.
In 1952 the Socialist Group was formed and in 1973 the Confederation of Socialist Parties was founded, later becoming the Party of European Socialists in 1992. The party had done well in elections, being the largest single group in Parliament, until 1999 after the Santer Commission crisis.
In 1953, the European Parliament had been established (as the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community), socialist Paul Henri Spaak was elected as its first President. The social democrats within the chamber established the Socialist Group to work and vote together. Guy Mollet MEP was elected as its first chair and a bureau and secretariat was established in Luxembourg. In 1961 the socialists attempted to produce a common European Socialist Programme but were eclipsed by the applications for enlargement. Their 1962 congress pushed for greater democratisation and powers for Parliament though it was only in 1969 that this possibility was examined by the member states. In 1964 the first woman chair was elected: Käte Strobel MEP. In 1971, once more a socialist, Walter Behrendt, is elected President of the Parliament.
In 1973, Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom joined the European Community bringing in new parties from these states. The enlarged Socialist Congress meet in Bonn and inaugurated the Confederation of the Socialist Parties of the European Community. The Congress also passed a resolution on social policy, including the right to decent work, social security, democracy and equality in the European economy. In 1975 Socialist Georges Spénale was elected President of the Parliament.
With the first direct elections to Parliament coming in 1979, the Confederation approved the first common European election manifesto. The manifesto had aims to ensure a right to decent work, fight pollution, end discrimination, protect the consumer and promote peace, human right and civil liberties. They following year they won 113 of the 411 seats making them the largest single group. The Confederation approved its first statue in 1980 and the accession of Greece, then Spain and Portugal in that decade brought in more parties. Socialist Piet Dankert served as Parliament president between 1983 and 1984. In the 1984 election they won 164 of the 518 seats.
In 1987 the Single European Act comes into force the Socialist Group begin co-operation with the People's Party Group in order to generate the majorities demanded under the cooperation procedure. With the exception of the 1999-2004 People's-Liberal coalition the post of President of the Parliament has been split between the EPP and PES from this point on, with the PES Presidents being Enrique Barón Crespo MEP, Klaus Hänsch MEP and Josep Borrell Fontelles MEP. This left-right coalition has dominated Parliament for this period.
In the 1989 election they won 180 of the 518 seats. In 1992, with the creation of the European Union, the Confederation was transformed into the Party of European Socialists. The first manifesto of the party concentrated on job creation, gender equality, environmental and consumer protection, peace and security, regulation of immigration, discouragement of racism, fighting organised crime and democracy. They went onto win 215 of the 626 seats in the 1994 election, the largest and most cohesive group, and Pauline Green MEP was elected Group President, its second female leader.
In 1999, the Parliament sparked a crisis when it refused to approve the Commission's handling of the EU budget. Allegations of corruption centred on two socialist members of the Commission (Commissioner Édith Cresson and Commissioner Manuel Marín), leading PES to view it as an attempt to discredit them ahead of the 1999 elections. So while the People's Party withdrew support from the Commission to force the member's resignation, the Socialists defended the Commission and attempted to bloc that move with Pauline Green MEP attempting a vote of confidence in the Commission. During this period the two parties took on a rare government-opposition dynamic with the Socialists taking on the position of the government-supporting party. However they eventually withdrew their support which forced the resignation of the Santer Commission.
In the following elections, the People's Party defeated the Socialists, taking 233 seats to the Socialists' 180. 2004 brought in a further 10 member states and new parties with them. In the 2004 election the Party lost again, winning just 200 of the 732 seats.
Presidents of the Party of European Socialists and its predecessors.
|1.||Wilhelm Dröscher||Germany||Social Democratic Party||April 1974||January 1979|
|2.||Robert Pontillon||France||Socialist Party||January 1979||March 1980|
|3.||Joop den Uyl||Netherlands||Labour Party||March 1980||May 1987|
|4.||Victor Constancio||Portugal||Socialist Party||May 1987||January 1989|
|5.||Guy Spitaels||Belgium||Socialist Party||February 1989||May 1992|
|6.||Willy Claes||Belgium||Socialist Party Different||November 1992||October 1994|
|7.||Rudolf Scharping||Germany||Social Democratic Party||March 1995||May 2001|
|8.||Robin Cook||United Kingdom||Labour Party||May 2001||April 2004|
|9.||Poul Nyrup Rasmussen||Denmark||Social Democrats||April 2004||-|
Presidents of the Socialist Group in Parliament;
|1.||Guy Mollet||France||French Section of the Workers' International||1953||1956|
|2.||Hendrik Fayat||Belgium||Socialist Party||1956||1958|
|3.||Pierre Lapie||France||French Section of the Workers' International||1958||1959|
|4.||Willi Birkelbach||Germany||Social Democratic Party||1959||1964|
|5.||Käte Strobel||Germany||Social Democratic Party||1964||1967|
|6.||Francis Vals||France||French Section of the Workers' International||1967||1974|
|7.||Georges Spénale||France||Socialist Party||1974||1975|
|8.||Ludwig Spénale||Germany||Social Democratic Party||1975||1979|
|9.||Ernest Glinne||Belgium||Socialist Party||1979||1984|
|10.||Rudi Arndt||Germany||Social Democratic Party||1984||1989|
|11.||Jean-Pierre Cot||France||Socialist Party||1989||1994|
|12.||Pauline Green||United Kingdom||Labour Party||1994||1999|
|13.||Enrique Barón Crespo||Spain||Spanish Socialist Workers' Party||1999||2004|
|14.||Martin Schulz||Germany||Social Democratic Party||2004||-|
PES is of course founded by socialist parties and hence carries that tradition. Their headline policy is New Social Europe, of a "fairer, more inclusive, and more dynamic society" for Europe. It is based on a report written by PES President Poul Nyrup Rasmussen and former President of the European Commission Jacques Delors and has ten principles;
There are thirty-three member parties from all the twenty-seven member states and Norway (however, the Smer party is currently suspended). There are a further six associate and seven observer parties. PES is an associated organisation of the Socialist International. Ecosy is the youth organisation of PES and PES Women is the party's women's organisation.
The parties meet in the party Congress twice every five years to decide on political orientation, such as adopting manifestos ahead of elections. Every year that the Congress does not meet, the Council (a quarter Congress) shapes PES policy. The Congress also elects the party's President, Vice Presidents and the Presidency.
The President (currently Poul Nyrup Rasmussen MEP) represents the party on a daily basis and chairs the Presidency, which also consists of the Secretary General, President of the PES group in Parliament (see below) and one representative per full member party and organisation. They may also be joined by the President of the European Parliament (if a PES member), a PES European Commissioner and a representatives from associate parties and organisations.
The Leader's Conference brings together Prime Ministers and Party Leaders from PES parties three to four times a year to agree strategies and resolutions.
The parliamentary group consists of 215 MEPs, the second largest group in Parliament, from all but two member states. It is led by a President, currently Martin Schulz MEP, and a Bureau of Vice-Presidents.
European Commissioners are meant to remain independent, however there has been an increasing degree of politicisation within the Commission. Six of the twenty-seven Commissioners belong to PES. These are First Vice-President Margot Wallström, Vice-President Günter Verheugen (Enterprise & Industry), Commissioner Joaquín Almunia (Economy), Commissioner Peter Mandelson (Trade), Commissioner Vladimír Špidla (Social) and Commissioner László Kovács (Taxation).
Parties in the Council of Ministers and the European Council are some times subject to coalitions. At present the following countries are led PES members (European Council member in brackets): Bulgaria (Sergey Stanishev), Hungary (Ferenc Gyurcsány), Portugal (José Sócrates), Slovakia (Robert Fico), Spain (José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero) and United Kingdom (Gordon Brown). PES is in coalition in a further six countries: Belgium, Cyprus, Finland, Germany, Italy and Luxembourg. PES is, like the other parties, also present in other minor institutions such as the Committee of the Regions. There it has 110 members as of 2007.
With 33 members it is the only political party to have a member from every EU state, although not all of them have elected MEPs (note: the EPP-ED is the only group to have elected MEPs from every country, but is not a single party).
|State||Name (original language)||Name (English)||abbr.||MEPs|
|Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs||Social Democratic Party of Austria||SPÖ||7|
|(Flanders)||Socialistische Partij Anders||Socialist Party Different||sp.a||3|
|(Wallonia)||Parti Socialiste||Socialist Party||PS||4|
|Българска социалистическа партия|
Bălgarska Socialističeska Partija
|Bulgarian Socialist Party||BSP||5|
|Movement for Social Democracy||EDEK||0|
|Česká strana sociálně demokratická||Czech Social Democratic Party||ČSSD||2|
|Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond||Social Democratic Party||SDE||3|
|Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen Puolue||Social Democratic Party of Finland||SDP||3|
|Parti Socialiste||Socialist Party||PS||31|
|Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands||Social Democratic Party of Germany||SPD||23|
|Πανελλήνιο Σοσιαλιστικό Κίνημα|
Panellínio Sosialistikó Kínima
|Panhellenic Socialist Movement||PASOK||8|
|rowspan=2||Magyar Szocialista Párt||Hungarian Socialist Party||MSZP||9|
|Magyarországi Szociáldemokrata Párt||Social Democratic Party of Hungary||MSZDP||0|
|Páirtí an Lucht Oibre||Labour Party||Lab.||1|
|Partito Socialista||Socialist Party||PS||4|
|Latvijas Sociāldemokrātiskā Strādnieku Partija||Social Democratic Workers' Party of Latvia||LSDSP||0|
|Lietuvos Socialdemokratų Partija||Social Democratic Party of Lithuania||LSDP||2|
|Lëtzebuerger Sozialistesch Arbechterpartei||Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party||LSAP||1|
|Partit Laburista||Labour Party||PL||3|
|Partij van de Arbeid||Labour Party||PvdA||7|
|Det norske Arbeiderparti||Norwegian Labour Party||DNA||N/A|
|rowspan=2||Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej||Democratic Left Alliance||SLD||5|
|Unia Pracy||Labour Union||UP||0|
|Partido Socialista||Socialist Party||PS||12|
|Partidul Social Democrat||Social Democratic Party||PSD||10|
|Smer – sociálna demokracia||Direction - social democracy||Smer||3|
|Socialni demokrati||Social Democrats||SD||1|
|Partido Socialista Obrero Español||Spanish Socialist Workers' Party||PSOE||24|
|Sveriges socialdemokratiska arbetareparti||Social Democratic Workers' Party of Sweden||S||5|
|colspan=2||Social Democratic and Labour Party||SDLP||0|
|colspan=5||Non-PES parties who sit with the PES Group in the European Parliament|
|Партия Български социалдемократи|
Partija Balgarski socialdemokrati
|Party of Bulgarian Social Democrats||PBS||1|
|Partito Democratico||Democratic Party||PD||9|
|Sinistra Democratica||Democratic Left||SD||3|
|rowspan=2||Socjaldemokracja Polska||Social Democracy of Poland||SDPL||3|
|Samoobrona Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej||Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland||SRP||1|
|State||Name (original language)||Name (English)||abbr.||Status|
|Partit Socialdemòcrata||Social Democratic Party||PS||Observer|
|Socijaldemokratska Partija BiH||Social Democratic Party||SDP||Observer|
|Партия Български социалдемократи|
Partija Balgarski socialdemokrati
|Party of Bulgarian Social Democrats||PBS||Associate|
|Socijaldemokratska Partija Hrvatske||Social Democratic Party of Croatia||SDP||Associate|
|Samfylkingin||Social Democrat Alliance||S||Observer|
|Vitality - Together||MY||Observer|
|Социјалдемократски Сојуз на Македонија|
Socijaldemokratski Sojuz na Makedonija
|Social Democratic Union of Macedonia||SDSM||Associate|
|Partito dei Socialisti e dei Democratici||Party of Socialists and Democrats||PSD||Observer|
|Демократска странка |
|Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz /|
Parti socialiste suisse
|Social Democratic Party of Switzerland||SP/PS||Associate|
|rowspan=2||Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi||Republican People's Party||CHP||Associate|
|Demokratik Toplum Partisi||Democratic Society Party||DTP||Associate|