A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a type of republic which operates under a parliamentary system of government - meaning a system with no clear-cut separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches. There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state; with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies. Some have fused the roles of head of state and head of government, much like Presidential systems.
For the first case mentioned above, in particular, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other parliamentary and semi-presidential republics which separate the head of state (usually designated as the "president") from the head of government (usually designated as "prime minister", "premier" or "chancellor") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a flexible tenure in office while the head of state lacks either dependency, and investing either office with the majority of executive power.
In contrast to republics operating under either the presidential system or the semi-presidential system, the head of state usually does not have broad executive powers as an executive president would, because many of those powers have been granted to a head of government (usually called a prime minister).
However, in a parliamentary republic with a head of state whose tenure is dependent on parliament, the head of government and head of state may form one office (as in Botswana, Guyana, the Marshall Islands, Nauru and South Africa; as well as Switzerland, in which the Swiss Federal Council is the head of state and head of government collectively), but the president is still selected in much the same way as the prime minister is in most Westminster systems. This usually means that they are the leader of the largest party or coalition of parties in parliament.
In some instances, the president may legally have executive powers granted to them to undertake the day-to-day running of government (as in Finland) but by convention they either do not use these powers or they use them only to give effect to the advice of the parliament and/or head of government. Some parliamentary republics could therefore be seen as following the semi-presidential system but operating under a parliamentary system.
Typically, parliamentary republics are states that were previously constitutional monarchies with a parliamentary system, with the position of head of state hitherto a monarch. However, the first parliamentary republic, the new Swiss Confederation formed in 1803, was created from a loose confederation of independent Cantons. 
Following the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War, France once again became a republic - the French Third Republic - in 1870. The President of the Third republic had significantly less executive powers than the previous two republics had. The third republic lasted until the invasion of France by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following the end of the war, the French Fourth Republic was constituted along similar lines in 1946. The Fourth Republic saw an era of great economic growth in France and the rebuilding of the nation's social institutions and industry after the war, and played an important part in the development of the process of European integration which changed the continent permanently. Some attempts were made to strengthen the executive branch of government to prevent the unstable situation that had existed before the war, but the instability remained and the Fourth Republic saw frequent changes in government - there were 20 governments in ten years. Additionally, the government proved unable to make effective decisions regarding decolonization. As a result, the Fourth Republic collapsed and what some critics considered to be a de facto coup d'état, subsequently legitimized by a referendum on 5 October 1958, led to the establishment of the French Fifth Republic in 1959.
See main article: Commonwealth of Nations. Since the London Declaration of 29 April 1949 (just weeks after the Ireland declared itself a republic and excluded itself from the Commonwealth) republics have been admitted as members of the Commonwealth of Nations. A number of these republics kept the Westminster Parliamentary system inherited during their British colonial rule.
In the case of many republics in the Commonwealth of Nations, it was common for the Sovereign, formerly represented by a Governor-General, to be replaced by an elected non-executive head of state. This was the case in with South Africa (which left the Commonwealth soon after becoming a republic), Malta, Trinidad and Tobago, India and Vanuatu. In many of these examples, the last Governor-General became the first president. Such was the case with Sri Lanka.
Others, such as Samoa became parliamentary republics upon gaining independence.
|Country||Formerly||Parliamentary republic adopted||Head of state elected by|
|Albania||One-party state||1991||Parliament, by majority|
|Austria||One-party state||1955||Directly, by second-round system|
|Bangladesh||Presidential republic (Commonwealth realm)||1991||Parliament|
|Botswana||British protectorate (Bechuanaland Protectorate)||1966||Parliament|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||One-party state (Part of Yugoslavia)||1991||Directly, by second-round system|
|Bulgaria||One-party state||1989||Directly, by second-round system|
|Cape Verde||Portuguese colony||1975||Directly|
|Croatia||Semi-presidential republic||2000||Directly, by second-round system|
|Czech Republic||One-party state (Part of Czechoslovakia)||1993||Parliament, by majority|
|Dominica||British overseas territory||1978||Parliament, by majority|
|East Timor||Military junta (Occupied by Indonesia)||1999||Directly, by second-round system|
|Estonia||One-party state (Part of Soviet Union)||1991||Parliament, by two-thirds majority|
|Ethiopia||One-party state||1991||Parliament, by two-thirds majority|
|Finland||Constitutional monarchy (Part of Russian Empire)||1919||Directly, by second-round system|
|Germany||One-party state||1949||Federal assembly (Parliament and state delegates), by absolute majority|
|Greece||Military junta; Constitutional monarchy||1975||Parliament, by majority|
|Haïti||One-party state||1860||Parliament, by majority|
|Hungary||One-party state||1990||Parliament, by absolute majority|
|Iceland||Formerly part of Denmark - constitutional monarchy||1944||Directly, by transferable vote|
|Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)||1950||Parliament and state legislators, by single transferable vote|
|Iraq||One-party state||2005||Parliament, by two-thirds majority|
|Ireland||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)||1949||Directly, by single transferable vote|
|Israel||Protectorate (Part of British Mandate of Palestine)||1948||Parliament, by majority|
|Italy||Constitutional monarchy||1946||Parliament, by majority|
|Latvia||One-party state (Part of Soviet Union)||1991||Parliament|
|Lebanon||Protectorate (French mandate of Lebanon)||1941||Parliament|
|Lithuania||One-party state (Part of Soviet Union)||1991||Directly, by second-round system|
|Macedonia||One-party state (Part of the Yugoslavia)||1991||Directly, by second-round system|
|Malta||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)||1974||Parliament, by majority|
|Marshall Islands||UN Trust Territory (Part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)||1979||Parliament|
|Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)||1992||Parliament, by majority|
|Federated States of Micronesia||UN Trust Territory (Part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)||1986||Parliament|
|Montenegro||One-party state (Part of Yugoslavia)||1992||Directly, by second-round system|
|Nauru||Australian Trust Territory||1968||Parliament|
|Pakistan||Presidential and Semi-presidential system, and Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)||1956–1958, 1973–1978, 1988–1999, 2010–present ||Parliament and state legislators, by single transferable vote|
|Poland||One-party state||1990||Directly, by second-round system|
|Portugal||One-party state (Military junta transition)||1976||Directly, by second-round system|
|Samoa||Territory of New Zealand||2007||Parliament|
|Serbia||One-party state (Part of Yugoslavia)||1991||Directly, by second-round system|
|Singapore||Constitutional monarchy (Part of Malaysia)||1965||Directly, by second-round system|
|Slovakia||One-party state (Part of Czechoslovakia)||1993||Parliament (before 1999)Directly, by second-round system (since 1999)|
|Slovenia||One-party state (Part of Yugoslavia)||1991||Directly, by second-round system|
|South Africa||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)||1961||Parliament, majority|
|Suriname||One party Military Dictatorship||1987||Parliament, by two-thirds majority.|
|Switzerland||Military junta (Occupied by France)||1802||Parliament|
|Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)||1976||Parliament|
|Turkey||Constitutional monarchy (Ottoman Empire)||1923||Directly (since 2007, previously by parliament)|
|Vanuatu||British-French condominium (New Hebrides)||1980||Parliament and regional council presidents, by majority|
|Country||Year became a Parliamentary republic||Year status changed||Changed to||Status changed due to|
|French Third Republic||1870||1940||Presidential system||World War II German Occupation|
|French Fourth Republic||1946||1958||Semi-presidential system||Political instability|
|1987||2006||Military Junta||Military coup (2006)|
|1970||1980||Semi-presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|1945||1959||Presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|1963||1979||Presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|Philippines||1978||1987||Presidential system||Ratification of the 1987 Constitution|
|1970||1979||Parliamentary system||Creation of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia|
|1972||1978||Presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|1963||1966||Presidential system||Suspension of the constitution|
|1979||1979||Parliamentary system||Creation of Southern Rhodesia|
|Zimbabwe||1980||1987||Presidential System||Constitutional amendment|