|Governor:||Fabian Stang (H)|
|Governor As Of:||2007|
|Population As Of:||2008|
(formerly Christiania) is the capital and largest city in Norway. Metropolitan Oslo or the Greater Oslo Region makes up the third largest urban area in Scandinavia after Metropolitan Stockholm and Metropolitan Copenhagen.
The population of the municipality of Oslo is 575,475 (as of 1 January 2009). The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus, (muncipallities of Bærum, Asker, Røyken, Lørenskog, Skedsmo, Gjerdrum, Sørum, Oppegård) its agglomeration total 856,915 inhabitants. The metropolitan area of Oslo, also referred to as the Greater Oslo Region (Norwegian: Stor-Osloregionen), has a land area of 6920km2 with a population of 1,283,533 as of 2004. The Inner Oslo Fjord Region, or the Capital Region made up by the 5 counties of Oslo, Akershus, Buskerud, Vestfold (west bank of the Oslo fjord) and Østfold (east bank) has a population of 1.85 million people. Furthermore about 50% of the population of Norway lives within a radius of 120km of downtown Oslo. Oslo proper has a current annual growth exceeding 15,000; the urban zone more than 30.000, which makes it one of the fastest growing cities in Europe. The city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjord from where the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors" from its centre; inland north-eastwards and southwards lining both sides of the fjord giving the city area more or less the shape of a large "Y" when seen from the north.
To the north and east wide forested hills (Marka) rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre.The urban municipality (bykommune) of Oslo and county (fylke) is the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated. Of Oslo's total area, 115km2 is built-up and 7km2 is agricultural. The open areas within the built-up zone amount to 22km2.
The city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). It was separated from the county of Akershus to become a county of its own in 1842. The rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January 1948 (and simultaneously transferred from Akershus county to Oslo county). Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county.
Oslo's share of the national GDP is 17%; the metropolitan area's share is 25%. Oslo is one of the most expensive cities in the world.
The definition of the name Oslo has been the subject of much debate. It is certainly derived from Old Norse and was in all probability the name of a large farm at the site of the first settlements in Bjørvika.
During the Middle Ages the name was initially spelled "Áslo" and later "Óslo". The earlier spelling suggests that the first component ás refers either to the Ekeberg ridge southeast of the town ("ås" in modern Norwegian), or to the Norse homonym meaning "god" or "divinity". The most likely interpretations would therefore be "the meadow beneath the ridge" or "the meadow of the gods". Both are equally plausible.
The early settlements took place where the river Lo - today known as Alnaelva - runs out into Bjørvika . With the word "Os" being an Old Norse term for "river mouth", this is also a plausible origin of the name.
A fire in 1624 destroyed much of the medieval city, and when the city was rebuilt it was moved westwards in order to be nearer the Akershus Fortress. King Christian IV of Denmark and Norway renamed the reborn city Christiania. From 1897, the name of the city was also spelt "Kristiania". An official decision was never made, so both forms were in use. Arguably, Christiania was always the legal name of the city. The area where the city centre had been prior to the fire was still known as Oslo, however.
This original name was restored by a law of 11 July, 1924, effective 1 January, 1925; a decision which caused much debate in its time.
When the city in general now took up the name of Oslo again, the eastern district of the city that had preserved the old name became known simply as Gamlebyen (Old Town). As of 2009, history is about to come full circle as the City Council has announced their intention to rename the city centre today known as Oslo Sentrum (Central Oslo)- calling it Kristiania or Christiania. This central area will roughly correspond to the area built up as the "new city" after the 1624 fire.  There is some debate whether to use the historical name Christiania, in use for over 300 years, or the spelling Kristiania, introduced in 1897 and only used for 27 years. The spelling "Kristiania" is considered ahistorical by historians .
The city was once referred to as Tigerstaden (the City of Tigers) by the author Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson around 1870, due to his perception of the city as a cold and dangerous place. This name has over the years achieved an almost official status, to the extent the 1000-year anniversary was celebrated by a row of tiger sculptures around city hall. The prevalence of homeless and other beggars in more recent times led to the slight rewording of the nickname into Tiggerstaden (the City of Beggars), and a harsh picture of the city was drawn by Knut Hamsun in his novel Sult (Hunger) from 1890 (cinematised in 1966 by Henning Carlsen).
Oslo is the only city in Norway, besides Bergen, that does not use a formal coat-of-arms, but uses a city seal instead. The seal of Oslo shows the city's patron saint, St. Hallvard. The seal shows St. Hallvard with his attributes, the millstone and arrows, with a dead woman on his feet. He is seated on a throne with lion decorations, which at the time was also commonly used by the Norwegian Kings. By seating him on such a throne he was made equal to the kings.
The oldest known seal of Oslo showed the same composition as today's seal. The seal was probably made around 1300 and has been in use for nearly three centuries. After the Protestant Reformation, the city continued the use of St. Hallvard on its seal. The second seal of Oslo dates from around 1590. It shows the same basic design, but the saint holds his attributes in the opposite hands. Also the stars and some other smaller details were lost. This seal was used until around 1660.
At the time the church of St. Hallvard has become a ruin and the legend was no longer well known. The third seal of Oslo, made in 1659, therefore showed still the basic design, but the saint was transformed into a woman figure. She still held the arrows and had a dead knight (with harness and helmet) near her feet. The millstone had become thinner and looked more like a ring. This image can still be seen on an iron plate dating from 1770. These plates became very popular in Denmark in the 18th century and the figure was presented as Queen Margaret I, who unified the three Kingdoms of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, which are represented by the ring (union) and the three arrows. The dead knight was to symbolise her opponent, Albrecht of Mecklenburg.
In 1854, A. T. Kaltenborn wrote about the Norwegian municipal arms and also was shown a medieval seal of Oslo. He recognized the St. Hallvard and the legend. He managed to persuade the city to have a new seal made, based on the old medieval composition. Finally a new design was made by the German E. Doepler in 1892. He only changed one item on the old seal; in his design the woman was clothed instead of naked as on the seal. His composition was also used on a proper shield. It was made in 1899 by Reidar Haavin. In 1924, the present design was made, again with the naked woman.
See main article: History of Oslo. According to the Norse sagas, Oslo was founded around 1049 by King Harald Hardråde. Recent archaeological research has uncovered Christian burials from before 1000, evidence of a preceding urban settlement. This called for the celebration of Oslo's millennium in 2000.
It has been regarded as the capital city since the reign of Håkon V (1299-1319), who was the first king to reside permanently in the city. He also started the construction of the Akershus Fortress. A century later Norway was the weaker part in a personal union with Denmark, and Oslo's role was reduced to that of provincial administrative centre, with the monarchs residing in Copenhagen. The fact that the University of Oslo was founded as late as 1811 had an adverse effect on the development of the nation.
Oslo was destroyed several times by fire, and after the fourteenth calamity, in 1624, King Christian IV of Denmark (and Norway) ordered it rebuilt at a new site across the bay, near Akershus Fortress and given the name Christiania. But long before this, Christiania had started to establish its stature as a centre of commerce and culture in Norway. The part of the city built from 1624 is now often called Kvadraturen because of its orthogonal layout. In 1814 Christiania once more became a real capital when the union with Denmark was dissolved. Many landmarks were built in the 19th century, including the Royal Palace (1825-1848), Stortinget (the Parliament) (1861-1866), the University, Nationaltheatret and the Stock Exchange. Among the world-famous artists who lived here during this period were Henrik Ibsen and Knut Hamsun (the latter was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature). In 1850, Christiania also overtook Bergen and became the most populous city in the country. In 1878 the city was renamed to Kristiania. The original name of Oslo was restored in 1925.
Oslo's centrality in the political, cultural and economical life of Norway continues to be a source of considerable controversy and friction. Numerous attempts at decentralization have not appreciably changed this during the last century. While continuing to be the main cause of the depopulation of the Norwegian countryside, any form of development is almost always opposed by neighbours, and as a consequence the growth of a modern urban landscape has all but stopped. Specifically, the construction of highrises in the city centre has been met with skepticism. It is projected, however, that the city will need some 20,000 additional apartments before 2020, forcing the difficult decision of whether to build tall or the equally unpopular option of sprawling out.
A marked reluctance to encourage the growth of the city for fear of causing further depletion of the traditional farming and fishing communities has led to several successive bursts of construction both in infrastructure and building mass, as the authorities kept waiting in vain for the stream of people to diminish. Neoclassical city apartments built in the 1850s to 1900s dotted with remnants of Christian IV's renaissance grid dominate the architecture around the city centre, except where slums were demolished in the 1960s to construct modernist concrete and glass low-rises, now generally regarded as embarrassing eyesores. The variety in Oslo's architectural cityscape does however provide for some striking, and often hauntingly beautiful sights.While most of the forests and lakes surrounding Oslo are in private hands, there is great public support for not developing those areas. Parts of Oslo suffer from congestion, yet it is one of the few European capitals where people live with the wilderness literally in their back yard, or with access to a suburban train line that allows the city's many hikers and cross-country skiers to simply step off the train and start walking or skiing.
Oslo occupies an arc of land at the northernmost end of the Oslofjord. The fjord, which is nearly bisected by the Nesodden peninsula opposite Oslo, lies to the south; in all other directions Oslo is surrounded by green hills and mountains. There are 40 islands within the city limits, the largest being Malmøya (0.56abbr=onNaNabbr=on), and scores more around the Oslofjord. Oslo has 343 lakes, the largest being Maridalsvannet (3.91abbr=onNaNabbr=on). This is also a main source of drinking water for large parts of Oslo. Although Eastern Norway has a number of mighty rivers, none of these flows into the ocean at Oslo. Instead Oslo has two smaller rivers: Akerselva (draining Maridalsvannet) and Alna (Oslo's longest river). Akerselva traditionally separates Oslo's East and West end, and flows into the fjord in Bjørvika. River Alna flows through Groruddalen, Oslo's major suburb and industrial area. The highest point is Kirkeberget, at . Although the city's population is small compared to most European capitals, it occupies an unusually large land area, of which two thirds are protected areas of forests, hills and lakes. Its boundaries encompass many parks and open areas, giving it an airy and often very green appearance. It is not uncommon to encounter wild moose in relatively urban areas of Oslo, especially during wintertime.
Oslo has a humid continental climate (Dfb according to the Köppen climate classification system). Because of its northern latitude, daylight varies greatly from more than 18 hours in midsummer to around 6 hours in midwinter. Despite its northernly location, the climate is relatively mild throughout the year because of the Gulf Stream.
Oslo has pleasantly mild, to warm summers with average high temperatures of 20-22°C (68-71°F) and lows of around 12C. Temperatures exceed 25C quite often, and heatwaves are common during the summer. The highest temperature ever recorded was 35C on 21 July 1901. Due to the fjord being a relatively enclosed body of water, the water temperatures can get quite high during long warm periods. During the summer of 2008, the water reached a temperature of 24C. Spring and autumn are generally chilly. Winters are cold and snowy with temperatures between -7C up to -1C. The coldest temperature recorded is -27.1°C in January 1942. Temperatures have tended to be higher in recent years.
Annual precipitation is 763mm with moderate rainfall throughout the year. Snowfall can occur from November to April, but snow accumulation mainly occurs from January thru March. Almost every winter, ice develops in the innermost parts of the Oslofjord, and some winters the whole inner fjord freezes. As it is far from the mild Atlantic water of the west coast, this large fjord can freeze over, although this has become rare.
|Jan Hi °F:||29|
|Jan Rec Hi °F:||55|
|Feb Hi °F:||30|
|Feb Rec Hi °F:||59|
|Mar Hi °F:||38|
|Mar Rec Hi °F:||64|
|Apr Hi °F:||49|
|Apr Rec Hi °F:||79|
|May Hi °F:||60|
|May Rec Hi °F:||86|
|Jun Hi °F:||69|
|Jun Rec Hi °F:||93|
|Jul Hi °F:||71|
|Jul Rec Hi °F:||95|
|Aug Hi °F:||68|
|Aug Rec Hi °F:||94|
|Sep Hi °F:||59|
|Sep Rec Hi °F:||81|
|Oct Hi °F:||49|
|Oct Rec Hi °F:||74|
|Nov Hi °F:||38|
|Nov Rec Hi °F:||58|
|Dec Hi °F:||31|
|Dec Rec Hi °F:||55|
|Year Hi °F:||49|
|Year Rec Hi °F:||95|
|Jan Lo °F:||20|
|Jan Rec Lo °F:||-15|
|Feb Lo °F:||20|
|Feb Rec Lo °F:||-13|
|Mar Lo °F:||26|
|Mar Rec Lo °F:||-6|
|Apr Lo °F:||33|
|Apr Rec Lo °F:||3|
|May Lo °F:||44|
|May Rec Lo °F:||24|
|Jun Lo °F:||51|
|Jun Rec Lo °F:||33|
|Jul Lo °F:||54|
|Jul Rec Lo °F:||39|
|Aug Lo °F:||52|
|Aug Rec Lo °F:||36|
|Sep Lo °F:||46|
|Sep Rec Lo °F:||25|
|Oct Lo °F:||39|
|Oct Rec Lo °F:||12|
|Nov Lo °F:||29|
|Nov Rec Lo °F:||3|
|Dec Lo °F:||22|
|Dec Rec Lo °F:||-11|
|Year Lo °F:||36|
|Year Rec Lo °F:||-15|
|Jan Precip Mm:||49|
|Feb Precip Mm:||36|
|Mar Precip Mm:||47|
|Apr Precip Mm:||41|
|May Precip Mm:||53|
|Jun Precip Mm:||65|
|Jul Precip Mm:||81|
|Aug Precip Mm:||89|
|Sep Precip Mm:||90|
|Oct Precip Mm:||84|
|Nov Precip Mm:||73|
|Dec Precip Mm:||55|
|Year Precip Mm:||763|
|Source:||Minifakta om Norge (SSB) |
Oslo has a large number of parks and green areas within the city core, as well as outside it. The large park Vigeland Park is located a few minutes walk away from the city centre. This is the biggest and most reputed park in Norway.
Oslo (with neighboring Sandvika-Asker) is basically built in a horseshoe shape on the shores of the Oslofjord and limited in most directions by hills and forests. This means that any point within the city is relatively close to the forest. There are two major forests with immediate access: Østmarka (literally "Eastern Forest", on the eastern perimeter of the city), and the very large Nordmarka (literally "Northern Forest", stretching from the northern perimeter of the city deep into the hinterland).
The city of Oslo runs eight public swimming pools. Tøyenbadet is the largest indoor swimming facility in Oslo and one of the few pools in Norway offering 50 meter main pool. The outdoor pool Frognerbadet also has the 50 meter range.
Oslo is the capital of Norway, and as such is the seat of Norway's national government. Most government offices, including that of the Prime Minister, are gathered at Regjeringskvartalet, a cluster of buildings close to the national Parliament - the Storting.
Constituting both a municipality and a county of Norway, the city of Oslo is represented in the Storting by seventeen Members of Parliament. Six MPs are from the Labour Party; the Conservative Party and the Progress Party have three each, the Socialist Left Party and the Liberals have two each, and one is from the Christian Democrats.
The combined municipality and county of Oslo has had a parliamentary system of government since 1986. The supreme authority of the city is the City Council (Bystyret), which currently has 59 seats. Representatives are popularly elected every four years. The City Council has five standing committees, each with their own areas of responsibility. These are: Health and Social Welfare, Education and Cultural Affairs, Urban Development, Transport and Environmental Affairs, and Finance. The council's executive branch (Byrådet) consists of a head of government (byrådsleder) and six commissioners (byråder, sing. byråd) holding ministerial positions. Each of the commissioners needs the confidence of the City Council and each of them can be voted out of office.
Since the local elections of 2003, the city government has been a coalition of the Conservative Party and the Progress Party. Based mostly on support from the Christian Democrats and the Liberals, the coalition maintains a majority in the City Council. After the 2007 local elections on 10 September, the conservative coalition remained in majority. The largest parties in the City Council are the Labour Party and the Conservatives, with 18 and 16 representatives respectively.
The Mayor of Oslo is the head of the City Council and the highest ranking representative of the city. This used to be the most powerful political position in Oslo, but after the implementation of parliamentarism the Mayor has had more of a ceremonial role, similar to that of the President of the Storting at the national level. The current Mayor of Oslo is Fabian Stang.
Following the latest reform of 1 January 2004, the city is divided into fifteen boroughs (bydeler) that are to a considerable extent self governed. Each borough is responsible for local services not overseen by the City Council, such as social services, basic healthcare, and kindergartens.
Sentrum (the city centre) and Marka (the rural/recreational areas surrounding the city) are separate geographical entities, but do not have an administration of their own. Sentrum is governed by the borough of St. Hanshaugen. The administration of Marka is shared between neighbouring boroughs.
Oslo is an important centre of maritime knowledge in Europe and is home to approximately 980 companies and 8,500 employees within the maritime sector, among which are some of the world's largest shipping companies, shipbrokers, and insurance brokers. Det Norske Veritas, headquartered at Høvik outside Oslo, is one of the three major maritime classification societies in the world, with 16.5% of the world fleet to class in its register. The city's port is the largest general cargo port in the country and its leading passenger gateway. Close to 6,000 ships dock at the Port of Oslo annually with a total of 6 million tonnes of cargo and over five million passengers.The gross domestic product of Oslo totaled NOK268.047 billion (€33.876 billion) in 2003, which amounted to 17% of the national GDP. This compares with NOK165.915 billion (€20.968 billion) in 1995. The metropolitan area, bar Moss and Drammen, contributed 25% of the national GDP in 2003 and was also responsible for more than one quarter of tax revenues. In comparison, total tax revenues from the oil and gas industry on the Norwegian Continental Shelf amounted to about 16%. The region has one of the highest per capita GDPs in Europe, at NOK391,399 (€49,465) in 2003. If Norway were a member of the European Union, the capital region would have the fourth strongest GDP per capita, behind Inner London, Brussels-Capital and Luxembourg.
Oslo is one of the most expensive cities in the world. As of 2006, it is ranked tenth according to the Worldwide Cost of Living Survey provided by Mercer Human Resource Consulting and first according to the Economist Intelligence Unit. The reason for this discrepancy is that the EIU omits certain factors from its final index calculation, most notably housing. Although Oslo does have the most expensive housing market in Norway it is comparably cheaper to other cities on the list in that regard. Meanwhile, prices on goods and services remain some of the highest of any city.According to a report compiled by Swiss bank UBS in the month of August 2006, Oslo and London were the world's most expensive cities. Total pay packets were the biggest in Oslo along with Copenhagen and Zurich.
An estimated 25 percent of Oslo's population consists of immigrants (about 140,000 inhabitants). Norwegians of Pakistani descent make up 20,036 of the city's inhabitants, followed by: Somalians (9,708), Swedes (7,462) and Sri Lankan Tamils (7,128) are the four largest ethnic minority groups. Other large immigrant groups are people from Poland, Vietnam, Turkey, Iraq and Denmark.  
The population of Oslo is currently increasing at a record rate of nearly 2 percent annually (17 percent over the last 15 years), making it the fastest-growing Scandinavian capital. The increase is due, in almost equal degree, to high birth rates and immigration. In particular, immigration from Poland and the Baltic states has increased sharply since the accession of these countries to the EU in 2004.
Oslo now has over 50 schools, colleges and universities in itself alone.
Public ferries run daily to and from the islands scattered in the Oslo harbour basin.
Oslo Sentralstasjon is the main railway station in Oslo. From there, there are connections to far away destinations Trondheim, Bergen, Stavanger, Stockholm (Sweden), Gothenburg (Sweden) and Copenhagen (Denmark), as well as several local an regional destinations in southern Norway and Sweden. In 2004 Norwegian Trains were Europe's third most punctual national train company. For the first 4 months in 2005 the punctuality was 92.9%. During winter in particular, weather conditions such as snow and blizzards may cause delays and cancellations on the routes crossing the central mountains.
The public transportation system in Oslo is managed by the municipal transport company Ruter. This includes metro, tram, bus and ferry, but not the local train lines, which are operated by the state railway company NSB. All public transport in Oslo, including local trains, operates on a common ticket system, allowing free transfer within a period of one hour with a regular ticket. Tickets also transfer to the local and inter-city trains, unless you intend to cross the city border. In 2004, 160 million journeys were made using public transport, of which 85% was handled by Oslo Sporveier's own subsidiaries and 15% by private bus and ferry operators under cost-based contracts. The tram system, Oslotrikken, is made up of six lines that criss-cross the inner parts of the city and extend out towards the suburbs. Trams partly run on in the streets and partly on separate roads. The metro system, known as the T-bane, connects the eastern and western suburbs and comprises six lines which all converge in a tunnel beneath downtown Oslo. The metro lines are identified by numbers from 1 to 6, with two lines running into the municipality of Bærum in the west. The tramway lines are numbered 11 to 13 and 17 to 19.
A new, partially underground loop line was opened in August 2006, connecting Ullevål in the north-west and Carl Berners plass in the east. Two new stations, Nydalen and Storo, have been operational for a couple of years already, the third station, Sinsen, opened 20 August 2006. This completed the loop. In conjunction with the opening of the circle line, there will be a major upgrade of the rolling stock, with delivery taking place between 2007 and 2010. An RFID ticketing system with automatic turnstile barriers has been under introduction for several years, but has been heavily delayed and is not yet in service.
A public bicycle rental programme has been in operation from April every year since 2002. With an electronic subscription card, users can access bikes from over 90 stations across the city.
As Norway's capital and biggest city several national highways meet or passes through Oslo. European route E6 runs through Oslo in the eastern suburbs on its way from Southern Sweden to Northern Norway. European route E18 runs through downtown Oslo (including a tunnel under Akershus festning) on its way from Stavanger and Kristiansand to Stockholm. European route E16 from Bergen doesn't go into Oslo proper, but ends on E18 at Sandvika a few kilometers west of Oslo. Oslo also has a system of "ring roads" connecting east and west. Ring 3 is the outer one running from the E6 junction in the east via Ullevål to E18 on the border to Bærum municipality in the west. Ring 2 runs from Gamlebyen in the east to E18 at Skøyen in the west. Ring 1 is the downtown "through road". The ring roads make navigation easier and improve trafic flow. E18, E6, Ring 2 and Ring 3 are connected by an elaborate system of tunnels and bridges in the Økern-Ekeberg area. At present (2008) a new underwater tunnel for E18 is constructed in Bjørvika to divert traffic from the street level.
Access into the city centre requires the payment of a toll at one of 19 entry points around the ring road. It costs 25 NOK to enter the cordoned zone at all times of day, seven days a week. A 20% price reduction is available to car owners using the AutoPASS-system. Since 2 February 2008 coins are no longer accepted at the Toll Station, and all cars must pass through the automatic lanes without stopping. If you are fitted with the electronic AutoPASS system then you will be debited as you pass, all other drivers will receive an invoice in the mail.
Initially revenues from the road tolls funded the public road network, but since 2002 it mainly finances new developments for the public transport system in Oslo. There has been discussion whether to continue to use the cordon after 2007, based on the funding decisions, extensions, accommodation of time-differentiated pricing or replaced by another form of pricing altogether, perhaps to make congestion pricing possible.
The newspapers Aftenposten, Verdens Gang, Dagbladet, Dagsavisen, Morgenbladet, Vårt Land, Nationen and Klassekampen are published in Oslo. The main office of the national broadcasting company NRK is located at Marienlyst in Oslo, near Majorstuen. TVNorge (TVNorway) is also located in Oslo, while TV2 (based in Bergen) and TV3 (based in London) operate branch offices in central Oslo. There is also a variety of specialty publications and smaller media companies.
Oslo was the host city for the 1952 Winter Olympics. Except for the downhill skiing at Norefjell, all events took place within the city limits. The opening and closing ceremonies were held at Bislett stadion, which was also used for the speed skating events. In recent years, the stadium has been better known for hosting the annual Bislett Games track and field event in the IAAF Golden League. The stadium was rebuilt in 2004/2005 and was formally opened for the Bislett Games on 29 July 2005.
Holmenkollen nordic skiing arena, and its centrepiece the ski jump, was an important venue during the 1952 Olympics. The arena has hosted numerous Nordic skiing and biathlon world championships since 1930, and its ski jump competition is the second oldest in the world, having been contested since 1892. Holmenkollen has been selected to once again host the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, in 2011. Thursday October 16, 2008, the work began on the dismantling of the ski jump, as a new ski jump is going to be built; this is expected to be finished within the end of 2009.
During the summer months, the harbour becomes a venue for various maritime events, including the start of a large sailing regatta that attracts around 1,000 contesting boats each year, and one race of the international Class 1 offshore powerboat racing circuit.
Two football clubs from Oslo, Vålerenga and Lyn, play in the Norwegian Premier League. In the 2005 season, the teams placed 1st and 3rd respectively. In addition, two teams from the conurbations are represented - Stabæk Fotball and Lillestrøm Sportsklubb. Oslo had two ice hockey teams in the highest division in the previous season, Vålerenga Ishockey and Furuset I.F., the former winning the cup and league double in 2007. Speed skating is also held at the Valle Hovin venue, which in the summer is host to large popular music concerts.
Ullevaal stadion, located in the borough of Nordre Aker, is the home of the Norwegian national football team. Built in 1926, it is the largest football stadium in Norway, and has served as the venue for the Norwegian Cup final since 1948. Both Lyn and Vålerenga use the stadium as their home ground.
Oslo is also home of Norway Cup - the world's biggest football tournament for youth from all over the world. It is a great opportunity for young men to join together and play the much loved sport.
See also: Largest urban areas of Norway.
See main article: cat.
Oslo has a longstanding tradition of sending a Christmas tree every year to the cities of Washington, D.C., New York, London, Rotterdam, Antwerp, and Reykjavík.  Since 1947, Oslo sends a 65-80 foot (20-25 m) high spruce, which may be 50 to 100 years old (according to the sources), as an expression of gratitude for Britain's support to Norway during World War II which is usually placed in Trafalgar Square. For the 61st time, this spruce will have been lit by the Mayor of Oslo, Fabian Stang and The Lord Mayor of Westminster, Councilor Carolyn Keen, between 6 December 2007 and 4 January 2008, and it has received yet more special attention than before, expressing environmental concern.