One World Trade Center Explained

One World Trade Center, more simply known as 1 WTC, and formerly known as the Freedom Tower or sometimes called the New World Trade Center, is the lead building of the new World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan of New York City. The 104-story supertall skyscraper is being constructed in the northwest corner of the 16-acre World Trade Center site, occupying the location where the original 8-story 6 World Trade Center once stood. The building is bound to the west by West Street, to the north by Vesey Street, to the south by Fulton Street, and to the east by Washington Street. Construction on below-ground utility relocations, footings, and foundations for the building began on April 27, 2006.[6] On March 30, 2009, the Port Authority confirmed that the building would be known by its legal name of One World Trade Center, rather than the colloquial name, Freedom Tower.

Upon its completion in 2013, One World Trade Center will be the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere by pinnacle height and the 3rd-tallest building in the world, with its spire reaching a symbolic 1776feet in reference to the year of American independence.[7] [8] However, its roof height, at 1368feet, will still be 82 feet (25.0 m) shorter than the roof of Chicago's Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower). The new World Trade Center complex will also feature three other high-rise office buildings, located along Greenwich Street, and the National September 11 Memorial & Museum, located just south of One World Trade Center, where the Twin Towers once stood. The construction is part of an effort to memorialize and rebuild after the original World Trade Center complex was destroyed during the attacks of September 11, 2001.

History

Following the destruction of the original World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, there was much debate regarding the future of the World Trade Center site. Proposals began almost immediately, and by 2003, the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation organized a competition to determine how to use the site. Public rejection of the first round of designs, the "Preliminary Design Concepts," led to a second, more open competition in December 2002, in which a design by Daniel Libeskind was selected. This went through many revisions,[9] largely because of disagreements with developer Larry Silverstein, who held the lease to the World Trade Center site on September 11, 2001. Criticism was leveled at the limited number of floors in an early plan that were designated for office space and other amenities. Only 82 floors would have been habitable, and the overall office space of the entire rebuilt World Trade Center would have been reduced by more than 3000000square feet in comparison with the original complex. The floor limit was imposed by Silverstein, who expressed concern that higher floors would be a liability in the event of a future terrorist attack or other incident. Much of the building's height would have consisted of a large, open-air steel lattice structure above the roof of the tower, containing wind turbines and "sky gardens." In a subsequent design, the highest space that could be occupied became comparable to the original World Trade Center, and the steel structure was removed.[10] In 2005, during the tower's planning stages, former New York Governor George Pataki faced accusations of cronyism for supposedly using his influence to get the winning architect's bid picked as a personal favor for his friend and campaign contributor, Ron Lauder.[11]

A final design for the "Freedom Tower" was formally unveiled on June 28, 2005. To satisfy security issues raised by the New York City Police Department, a 187feet concrete base was added in April of that year. The design originally included plans to clad the base in glass prisms to address criticism that it looked uninviting and resembled a "concrete bunker." However, this later proved unworkable, as preliminary testing revealed that the prismatic glass easily shattered into large and dangerous shards. As a result, it was replaced by a simpler facade consisting of stainless steel panels and blast-resistant glass.[12] Contrasting with Libeskind's plan, the final design tapers octagonally as it rises. Its designers stated that the tower would be a "monolithic glass structure reflecting the sky and topped by a sculpted antenna." Larry Silverstein commented in 2006 on a planned completion date: "By 2012 we should have a completely rebuilt World Trade Center, more magnificent, more spectacular than it ever was."[13] On April 26, 2006, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey approved a conceptual framework that enabled foundation construction to begin, and a formal agreement was drafted on the following day, the 75th anniversary of the 1931 opening of the Empire State Building. The tower's construction began in May with a formal ceremony that took place when the first construction team arrived.[14] The building's topping out has been projected for spring 2012, and it is expected to be ready for occupancy in 2013.[12]

In 2009, the Port Authority changed the official title of the building from "Freedom Tower" to "One World Trade Center," stating that this name was the "easiest for people to identify with."[15] [16] In May 2011, detailed floor plans of the tower were displayed on New York City's Department of Finance website, resulting in an uproar from the media and citizens of the surrounding area, who warned that the plans could potentially be used for a future terrorist attack.[17]

Construction history

See main article: Construction of One World Trade Center.

The symbolic cornerstone of One World Trade Center was laid in a ceremony on July 4, 2004,[18] but further construction work was stalled until 2006 due to acrimonious disputes over money, security and design. The last major issues were resolved on April 26, 2006, when a deal was struck between developer Larry Silverstein and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. For two months during the summer of 2006, explosives were detonated at the World Trade Center construction site, testing the use of charges to clear bedrock for the building's foundations. On November 18, 2006, 400cuyd of concrete were poured onto the foundations, carried by as many as 40 trucks. On December 17, 2006, a ceremony was held in Battery Park City, with the public invited to sign a 30feet steel beam.[19] This beam, the first to be installed, was welded onto the building's base on December 19, 2006.[20] Afterwards, construction of the foundation and further steel installation commenced, and by the end of 2007, the tower’s footings and foundations were nearly complete.[21]

In January 2008, two construction cranes were moved onto the construction site. The tower's concrete core began rising in the first months of 2008,[21] and had reached street level by May 17. Construction of the base continued through 2009 and was completed by early 2010. Afterwards, the construction of the office floors began, as did the installation of the first glass windows. In May 2010, the Port Authority stated that they were building nearly one floor of the tower per week, and it was projected that 1 WTC would reach 55 stories by the end of 2010.[22] An advanced "cocoon" scaffolding system was installed to protect workers from falling, marking the first time that such a safety system had been installed on a steel structure in the city.[23]

On December 16, 2010, the Port Authority announced that the tower's construction had reached the 52nd floor, rising to over 600feet and marking the halfway point for the tower's steel frame.[24] [25] By September 11, 2011, ten years after the destruction of the original World Trade Center, the tower's steel had reached the 82nd floor, while its concrete flooring had reached the 72nd floor, and glass cladding had reached the 56th floor.[26]

While under construction, the tower was specially illuminated on several occasions.[1] On the weekend of July 4, 2011, it was lit up in the colors of the American flag to commemorate Independence Day, and it was lit up in the same colors on September 10 to mark the 10th anniversary of the September 11 terrorist attacks. On October 27, it was illuminated in pink in honor of Breast Cancer Awareness Month. On December 11, the Port Authority illuminated the tower in multicolored lights to celebrate the holiday season. On February 24, 2012, the building was illuminated in red in honor of Archbishop of New York Timothy Dolan.

On January 31, 2012, the Port Authority stated that the tower's loading dock would not be finished in time to move equipment into the completed building, and that five temporary loading bays would be added instead, at a cost of "millions". The temporary Trans Hudson station will not be removed until its replacement is completed, preventing access to the planned loading area.[27] By March 2012, the tower's steel had reached the 93rd floor, rising over 1120feet above street level.[28]

Construction on One World Trade Center continues today, rising at about one floor per week. As of March 23, 2012, steel had risen to the 93rd floor, concrete flooring is at the 88th floor, and glass panels have reached the 71st floor.[28] Glass installation should resume in mid-April. As of March 30, 2012 the tower has reached its 100th floor at a height of 1240feet, upon completion of mechanical floors 91-93. [29] The building's structure is expected to top out sometime in late spring or early summer of 2012, whereupon its 408adj=onNaNadj=on radio antenna will be installed.

Estimated cost and funding

A February 2007 estimate put the initial construction cost of the tower at about $3 billion, or $1,150 per square foot ($12,380 per square meter).[30] However, by January 2012 the tower's estimated cost had risen to $3.8 billion, making it the most expensive single building in the world.[3] [31] Approximately $1 billion of insurance money recouped by Silverstein in connection with the September 11 attacks was used for the tower's construction.[30] The State of New York provided $250 million toward construction costs, and the Port Authority agreed to finance a further $1 billion through the sale of bonds.[32] A series of bridge and tunnel toll hikes were also implemented by the Port Authority to raise funds, with a 56% toll increase scheduled between 2011 and 2015; however, the proceeds of these toll hikes were not ultimately used to pay for the tower's construction.[3] [33]

Architecture and design

Many remaining vestiges of the concepts drawn from the 2002 competition were later discarded from the tower's design. One World Trade Center's final design consisted of simple symmetries and a more traditional profile, intended to bear comparison with selected elements of the contemporary New York skyline. The tower's central spire draws from precedents such as the Empire State Building and the Chrysler Building, and is also visually reminiscent of the North Tower of the original World Trade Center, rather than being an off-center spire intended to echo the Statue of Liberty.

The building's footprint is a 200feet square, nearly identical to the footprints of the original Twin Towers. The tower rises from a 185feet windowless concrete base, designed to protect it against truck bombs and other ground-level terror threats.[34] Originally, the base was intended to be clad in decorative prismatic glass, but a simpler glass-and-steel façade was adopted when this proved unworkable.[12] [35] Cable-net glass façades on all four sides of the building for the higher floors, designed by Schlaich Bergermann, will be consistent with the other buildings in the complex. They measure 60feet high and range in width from 30feet on the east and west sides (for access to the observation deck) to 50feet on the north side and 70feet on the south for primary tenant access.[5] The curtain wall was manufactured and assembled in Portland, Oregon, by Benson Industries using glass made in Minnesota by Viracon.[36]

From the 20th floor upwards, the square edges of the tower's cubic base are chamfered back, transforming the building's shape into eight tall isosceles triangles, or an elongated square antiprism.[37] Near its middle, the tower forms a perfect octagon in-plan, and then culminates in a glass parapet whose shape is a square oriented 45 degrees from the base. A 408-foot (124 m) sculpted mast containing the broadcasting antenna – designed in a collaboration between SOM, artist Kenneth Snelson (who invented the tensegrity structure), lighting designers and engineers – is secured by a system of cables, and rises from a circular support ring which will contain additional broadcasting and maintenance equipment. At night, an intense beam of light will be projected above the spire, being visible over 1000feet into the air above the tower.[38]

David Childs of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, the architect of One World Trade Center, said the following regarding the tower's design:[39]

Layout

One World Trade Center will have a top floor denoted as 105.[40] The building will have 74 usable above-ground floors, of which 69 will be designated as office space (approximately 2,600,000 square feet or 240,000 square metres).[41] [42] [43] The base will occupy floors 1–19, including a 65-ft-high (20 m) public lobby. The office stories will begin at floor 20, and run through floor 63. There will be a sky lobby on floor 64, and then office floors will resume between floors 65–90. Meanwhile, floors 91–99 and 103–105 will be designated as mechanical space.[5] The design also includes a three-story observation deck located on floors 100–102, as well as broadcast and antenna facilities, all supported by both above and below-ground mechanical infrastructure for the building and its adjacent public spaces. Below-ground tenant parking and storage, shopping, and access to the PATH and subway trains and the World Financial Center are also provided. There will be approximately 55000square feet of below-grade retail space. A plan to build a restaurant near the top of the tower was abandoned as logistically too difficult. The window washing tracks are located on a 16-square-foot area which will be denoted as floor 110, in a symbolic reference to the 110 stories of the original Twin Towers.[44]

Sustainability

One World Trade Center, along with the other buildings of the new World Trade center complex, is designed to be environmentally friendly in a number of ways. Much of the building's structure is made from recycled materials, some of which was recovered from the debris of the original World Trade Center. Although the roof area of any tower is comparatively limited, the building will implement a rainwater collection and recycling scheme for its cooling systems. The building's PureCell fuel cells will generate 4.8 million watts of power, and waste steam will also help generate electricity.[45] The New York Power Authority selected UTC Power to provide the tower's fuel cell system, which will rank as one of the largest installations of fuel cells in the world once complete.[46] The tower will also make use of off-site hydroelectric and wind power.[47] The windows are made of an ultra-clear glass which allows maximum daylight to pass through, while interior lighting is equipped with dimmers that automatically lower the lights on sunny days, thereby reducing energy costs.[38] Like all of the new facilities at the World Trade Center site, One World Trade Center will be heated by steam, with limited oil or natural gas utilities located on-site.[48] One World Trade Center is expected to receive a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold Certification, making it one of the most environmentally sustainable buildings of its size in the world.[49]

Safety and security

Along with the protection offered by the reinforced concrete base, a number of other safety features were included in the building's design, in order to better prepare it for a major accident or terrorist attack. These features include 3feet thick reinforced concrete walls for all stairwells, elevator shafts, risers, and sprinkler systems; extra-wide, pressurized stairwells; a dedicated set of stairwells exclusively for the use of firefighters; and biological and chemical filters throughout its ventilation system. The building is no longer 25feet away from West Street, as the Twin Towers were; at its closest point, West Street is 65feet away. The windows on the side of the building facing in this direction are equipped with specially tempered blast-resistant plastic, which looks nearly the same as the glass used in the other sides of the building.[38] The 70 elevators and 9 escalators for 1 World Trade Center will be provided by ThyssenKrupp,[50] with steel counterweights supplied by Concord Steel.[51] The Port Authority has stated: "Its structure is designed around a strong, redundant steel moment frame consisting of beams and columns connected by a combination of welding and bolting. Paired with a concrete-core shear wall, the moment frame lends substantial rigidity and redundancy to the overall building structure while providing column-free interior spans for maximum flexibility."[49]

In addition to optimum safety design, new security measures will also be implemented. All vehicles will be screened before they enter the site via the underground roadway, including for radioactive materials, and visitors to the September 11 memorial will undergo airport-style screening. 400 closed-circuit surveillance cameras will be placed in and around the site, with live camera feeds being monitored around the clock by the NYPD. A computer system will use video-analytic computer software designed to detect potential threats such as unattended bags and retrieve images based on descriptions of terror or other criminal suspects. New York City and Port Authority police will patrol the site. Once the World Trade Center site is fully completed, the plaza will be opened entirely to the public, as was the original World Trade Center plaza.[34]

Height

The roof of the top floor of One World Trade Center will be 1368feet tall, including a parapet. This height is the same as the North Tower of the original World Trade Center.[52] The building's spire will bring One World Trade Center to a total height of 1776feet,[53] a figure symbolic of the year of the United States Declaration of Independence.[54] This will allow the tower to surpass the 1671-foot (509-meter) height of Taipei 101 to become the world's tallest all-office building and the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, surpassing the Willis Tower (formerly known as the Sears Tower) in Chicago. However, its roof height will still be 83feet shorter than the Willis Tower. At the time of its completion, One World Trade Center will be the third-tallest skyscraper in the world, behind the Burj Khalifa and the Abraj Al Bait. One World Trade Center will also become the 6th-tallest freestanding structure in the world. The Chicago Spire, with a planned height of 2000feet, was expected to exceed the height of One World Trade Center, but its construction was canceled in 2009 due to financial difficulties.[55]

Owners and tenants

One World Trade Center is owned principally by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Around 5% equity of the building was sold to the Durst Organization in exchange for an investment of at least US$100 million. The Durst Organization assisted in supervising the building's construction, and manages the building for the Port Authority, having responsibility for leasing, property management and tenant installations.[56] [57]

Government tenants

In 2006, the State of New York agreed to a 15-year lease of 415000square feet of space inside 1 WTC, with an option to extend the term of the lease and occupy up to 1000000square feet.[58] The General Services Administration (GSA) initially agreed to lease approximately 645000square feet of space,[48] [58] and New York State's Office of General Services (OGS) planned to lease approximately 412000square feet of space. However, in July 2011, the GSA ceded most of its leased floor space to the Port Authority, and the OGS withdrew from the lease agreement.[59] In April 2008, the Port Authority announced that it was seeking a bidder to operate an 18000square feet observation deck on the tower's 102nd floor.[60]

China Center

The building's first lease was announced on March 28, 2009, as a joint project between the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and Beijing-based Vantone Industrial Co. A 190810square feet "China Center", combining business and cultural facilities, is to be located between floors 64 and 69, to represent Chinese business and cultural links to the United States, and to serve American companies that wish to conduct business in China. Vantone Industrial's lease is for 20 years and 9 months.[61] In April 2011, a new interior design for the China Center was unveiled, featuring a vertical "Folding Garden" based on an initial proposal by the Chinese artist Zhou Wei.[62]

Condé Nast

On August 3, 2010, Condé Nast signed a tentative agreement to move the headquarters and offices of its 18 magazines into One World Trade Center, occupying up to 1000000square feet of the building.[63] On May 17, 2011, Condé Nast reached an agreement with the Port Authority, securing a 25-year lease with an estimated value of $2 billion.[64] On May 25, 2011, Condé Nast finalized the lease agreement, leasing 1008012square feet of office space on floors 20–41 of the tower. The lease also covers 30000square feet of usable space in the podium and below grade floors, for mail, messenger services, and storage use. On January 17, 2012, it was reported that Condé Nast would be leasing an additional 133000square feet of space, occupying floors 42–44 of the tower.[65]

Proposed tenants

On January 27, 2012, it was announced that Chadbourne & Parke, a Midtown Manhattan law firm, would be signing a lease to around 300,000 square feet of space in One World Trade Center.[66] However, negotiations broke down and the deal collapsed abruptly in March 2012.[67]

Key figures

Larry Silverstein

Larry Silverstein of Silverstein Properties, the leaseholder and developer of the complex, will retain control of the surrounding buildings, while the Port Authority has full control of the tower itself. Silverstein signed a 99-year lease for the World Trade Center site in July 2001. Silverstein has pledged to support the reconstruction and remains actively involved in most aspects of the redevelopment process.[68]

David Childs

David Childs, one of Silverstein's favorite architects, initially joined the project at the urging of Silverstein and developed a proposal for 1 WTC in collaboration with Daniel Libeskind. The design was revised in May 2005 to address security concerns. He is the project architect of the tower, and is responsible for overseeing the day-to-day design development from rough inception to final completion.[69]

Daniel Libeskind

Architect Daniel Libeskind won the invitational competition to develop a plan for the World Trade Center's redevelopment in 2002. He included an initial proposal, 'Memory Foundations', for the design of 1 WTC, a building with aerial gardens and windmills with an off-center spire. Libeskind later denied a request to place the tower in a more rentable location next to the PATH station and instead placed it a block west, because in profile it would line up with, and resemble, the Statue of Liberty. Although these designs were later scrapped, he continued to contribute to the design and development of the World Trade Center site.[70]

Dan Tishman

Dan Tishman, along with his father John Tishman, builder of the original World Trade Center, is leading the construction management effort for Tishman Realty & Construction, the selected builder for 1 WTC.[71]

Douglas and Jody Durst

Douglas and Jody Durst, the co-presidents of the Durst Organization, a real estate development company, won the right to invest at least $100 million in the project on July 7, 2010. The Durst Organisation is a family-owned company that specializes in the development, managing, leasing, and operation of sustainable commercial construction space.[72] [73] [74] Condé Nast, a long-time Durst tenant, also confirmed a tentative deal to move into 1 World Trade Center in August 2010,[73] [74] [75] and finalized the deal on May 26, 2011.[76]

Port Authority construction workers

A WoodSearch Films short-subject documentary was uploaded to YouTube on August 31, 2010, entitled How does it feel to work on One World Trade Center?. Nearly all of the construction workers interviewed praised the unity and work ethic of the new World Trade Center's construction team. Others spoke of the importance they believed the construction of the tower had to the people of the United States. A deputy foreman, George Collins, said, "All the men are working in conjunction to put this building up. They all know how important this is to the country – and to show the world what us Americans can do – and get this done, union and proud." Another deputy foreman, Scott Williams, commented, "[The] camaraderie of the crew is very good."[77]

See also

External links

Notes and References

  1. http://www.panynj.gov/wtcprogress/index.html WTC Progress from PANYNJ
  2. News: Phifer. Donica. Concrete Workers Resume Work as Strike Comes to an End. NearSay. 2011-08-04. 2011-10-14.
  3. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203920204577191371172049652.html?mod=WSJ_hp_LEFTTopStories "Tower Rises, And So Does Its Price Tag"
  4. http://www.wtc.com/about/freedom-tower/freedom-tower-Freedom Tower
  5. . Retrieved 2012-01-17.
  6. News: Building of N.Y. Freedom Tower begins. Associated Press. 2009-02-01. USA Today. April 28, 2006.
  7. http://skyscraperpage.com/diagrams/?cityID=8 Skyscraperpage.com, tallest buildings in NY
  8. http://skyscraperpage.com/diagrams/?25002165 Skyscraperpage.com Tallest buildings under construction in the world
  9. http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2006/01/03/opinion/20060103_TOWERS_GRAPHIC.html "Freedom Tower's Evolution"
  10. http://www.emporis.com/application/?nav=building&lng=3&id=201521 One World Trade Center
  11. News: America's Freedom Tower?. MSNBC. February 17, 2005. 2011-10-22.
  12. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/05/12/world-trade-center-update_n_860992.html "Prismatic glass façade for WTC tower scrapped"
  13. News: Architects in New York unveil new Freedom Tower. Reuters. June 29, 2006.
  14. News: Trucks roll to begin Freedom Tower construction. http://web.archive.org/web/20060503233834/http://www.nydailynews.com/front/story/412525p-348812c.html. 2006-05-03. New York Daily News. April 27, 2006.
  15. News: Freedom Tower has a new preferred name. Associated Press. March 26, 2009. 2009-03-30. http://www.webcitation.org/5hBhzvIg8. 2009-05-31.
  16. News: The World Trade Centre Slow building. The Economist. April 23, 2009. 2009-05-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5hBhmQrCW. 2009-05-31.
  17. Lois Weiss and Chuck Bennett. "Detailed schematics of 1 World Trade Center posted online". New York Post. May 19, 2011
  18. Governor Pataki, Governor McGreevey, Mayor Bloomberg Lay Cornerstone for Freedom Tower. July 4, 2004. Office of the Governor of New York State.
  19. News: Messages of Love and Hope on a Freedom Tower Beam. December 18, 2006. Chan, Sewell. The New York Times.
  20. News: First Freedom Tower Beam Rises At Ground Zero. http://web.archive.org/web/20061220065543/http://wcbstv.com/topstories/local_story_353063928.html. 2006-12-20. WCBS-TVV. December 19, 2006.
  21. Statement by Port Authority Regarding Preparation of Towers 3 and 4 Bathtub at WTC Site to Allow Silverstein Properties to Begin Construction in January. December 31, 2007. Port Authority of New York & New Jersey.
  22. http://www.nj.com/opinion/times/oped/index.ssf?/base/news-1/1273124715235280.xml&coll=5 World Trade Center project has begun to take shape
  23. http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2010/05/port_authority_installs_cocoon.html Port Authority installs cocoon safety system around World Trade Center steel structure
  24. http://online.wsj.com/article/AP963a03879d90473a8e230286ac9086e3.html "1 WTC, aka Freedom Tower, reaches halfway mark"
  25. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/world/news/article.cfm?c_id=2&objectid=10694936 "Freedom Tower half complete"
  26. http://www.panynj.gov/wtcprogress/progress.html "World Trade Center Growing This Summer"
  27. News: World Trade Center design flaw could cost millions. Hawley. Chris. News & Record. Associated Press. 2012-02-01. 2012-02-01.
  28. http://lowermanhattan.info/construction/project_updates/freedom_tower_26204.aspx One World Trade Center construction updates
  29. News: One World Trade Center Hits 100 Stories, Helped by Funny Math. Wall Street Journal. March 30, 2012. Brown, Eliot. 2012-04-01.
  30. News: Freedom From Fear. The New York Times. February 16, 2007. Nordenson, Guy. 2012-02-02.
  31. http://newyork.ibtimes.com/articles/291469/20120201/new-world-trade-center-expensive-building.htm "New World Trade Center Set to Be World's Most Expensive Building"
  32. News: Spitzer, in Reversal, Is Expected to Approve Freedom Tower, Officials Say. The New York Times. February 13, 2007. Bagli, Charles V..
  33. http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2011/11/new_world_trade_center_tower_w.html "Critics blast Port Authority for changing position on how toll hike money will be spent"
  34. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/8687807/New-York-beefs-up-World-Trade-Center-site-security-for-September-11-10th-anniversary.html "New York beefs up World Trade Center site security for September 11 10th anniversary"
  35. http://www.wtc.com/news/new-glass-design-for-one-world-trade-center-base-wins-approval "New glass design for One World Trade Center base wins approval"
  36. Curtain Wall Installation Begins at One World Trade Center. Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP. November 16, 2010.
  37. Web site: The Freedom Tower: World Trade Center, New York. Glass Steel and Stone. 2010-03-13.
  38. SOM Freedom Tower Fact Sheet. Lower Manhattan Development Corporation. June 2005. PDF.
  39. http://web.archive.org/web/20070609123405/http://www.projectrebirth.org/rebuild/architecture/davidC_pt2.html Interview with David Childs (cont'd)
  40. http://buildingdb.ctbuh.org/index.php?do=building&building_id=98 CTBUH – One World Trade Center
  41. Web site: World Trade Centre Behind Schedule And Over Budget Says New York Governor. Sky News. 2010-03-13.
  42. Web site: Freedom Tower || About the WTC || World Trade Center ||. Wtc.com. 2010-03-13.
  43. News: Barrionuevo. Alexei. In Chicago, Plans for a High-Rise Raise Interest and Post-9/11 Security Concerns. New York Times. July 26, 2005. 2010-03-13.
  44. http://www.freedom-tower-nyc.com/freedom-tower-news/outdoor-observation-deck-at-one-world-trade-center-a-no-go-developer-says-dnainfo/ "Outdoor Observation Deck At One World Trade Center A No-Go, Developer Says"
  45. http://cleantechnica.com/2011/12/18/fuel-cells-a-clean-energy-alternative-at-new-world-trade-center-new-york-citys-octagon/ Fuel cells: a clean energy alternative at new World Trade Center
  46. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703708404575586630000766308.html?mod=googlenews_wsj WTC taps fuel cells
  47. http://news.thomasnet.com/green_clean/2012/01/03/green-facts-about-new-yorks-new-one-world-trade-center/ Green Facts About 1 WTC
  48. News: David W.. Dunlap. Answers About Ground Zero Rebuilding. New York Times. July 9, 2008. 2008-07-09.
  49. Web site: One World Trade Center: A New Icon for New York City. The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. 2011-01-27.
  50. Web site: Ask The Port Authority. Lynda Tollner. The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. 2011-01-27.
  51. Concord Steel Awarded With ThyssenKrupp Elevator Contract to Supply 800,000 Pounds of Elevator Counterweights for One World Trade Center in New York City. PRNewswire. April 27, 2009.
  52. News: Redesign Puts Freedom Tower on a Fortified Base. New York Times. June 30, 2005. 2009-01-18. David W.. Dunlap. Glenn. Collins.
  53. http://www.renewnyc.org/ThePlan/world_trade_center_towers.asp RenewNYC – World Trade Center Towers
  54. Web site: One World Trade Center Symbolic height. www.wtc.com. 2010-09-11.
  55. News: Push to Finish Tallest Tower. The Wall Street Journal. Joe. Barrett. December 9, 2009.
  56. News: Durst, Onetime Critic, Wins Bid for Stake in 1 WTC. David M. Levitt. July 8, 2010. Bloomberg BusinessWeek.
  57. News: In Skyscraper at Ground Zero, Sentiment Trumped Numbers. September 17, 2010. Joe Nocera. New York Times.
  58. News: Gov. Pataki, Governor Corzine, Mayor Bloomberg Announce Agreements to Occupy Freedom Tower. US States News. September 17, 2006.
  59. http://www.nypost.com/p/news/business/gsa_haircut_at_wtc_yBKFAbMqgRYq09wNef0BiM "A GSA haircut at 1 WTC"
  60. News: Douglas. Feiden. Freedom Tower to open observation deck on 102nd floor. Daily News. Mortimer Zuckerman. April 10, 2008.
  61. News: Owners drop Freedom Tower name for new WTC skyscraper. CNN. March 28, 2009. 2010-05-20.
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