NATO explained

North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord
(NATO / OTAN)
Mcaption:NATO countries shown in green
Type:Military alliance
Headquarters:Brussels, Belgium
Membership Type:Member states
Language:English
French[1]
Leader Title:Secretary General
Leader Name:Anders Fogh Rasmussen
Leader Title2:Chairman of the NATO Military Committee
Leader Name2:Giampaolo Di Paola
Formation:4 April 1949
Website:nato.int

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO (; French: link=no|'''Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord''' ('''OTAN''')), also called the (North) Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. NATO headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium, and the organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. The alliance includes 28 members in North America and Europe, with the newest being Albania and Croatia who joined in April 2009. An additional 22 countries participate in NATO's Partnership for Peace, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programs. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the world's defence spending.[2]

For its first few years, NATO was not much more than a political association. However, the Korean War galvanized the member states, and an integrated military structure was built up under the direction of two U.S. supreme commanders. The course of the Cold War led to a rivalry with nations of the Warsaw Pact, formed in 1955. The first NATO Secretary General, Lord Ismay, stated in 1949 that the organization's goal was "to keep the Russians out, the Americans in, and the Germans down." Doubts over the strength of the relationship between the European states and the United States ebbed and flowed, along with doubts over the credibility of the NATO defence against a prospective Soviet invasion—doubts that led to the development of the independent French nuclear deterrent and the withdrawal of the French from NATO's military structure in 1966.

After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the organization became drawn into the Breakup of Yugoslavia, and conducted their first military interventions in Bosnia from 1991 to 1995 and later Yugoslavia in 1999. Politically, the organization sought better relations with former Cold War rivals, which culminated with several former Warsaw Pact states joining the alliance in 1999 and 2004. The September 2001 attacks signalled the only occasion in NATO's history that Article 5 of the North Atlantic treaty has been invoked as an attack on all NATO members.[3] After the attack, troops were deployed to Afghanistan under the NATO-led ISAF, and the organization continues to operate in a range of roles, including sending trainers to Iraq, assisting in counter-piracy operations[4] and most recently in 2011 enforced a no-fly zone over Libya in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 1973.

History

Beginnings

The Treaty of Brussels, signed on 17 March 1948 by Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, and the United Kingdom, is considered the precursor to the NATO agreement. The treaty and the Soviet Berlin Blockade led to the creation of the Western European Union's Defence Organization in September 1948. However, participation of the United States was thought necessary to counter the military power of the USSR, and talks for a new military alliance began almost immediately resulting in the North Atlantic Treaty, which was signed in Washington, D.C. on 4 April 1949. It included the five Treaty of Brussels states plus the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. Popular support for the Treaty was not unanimous, and some Icelanders commenced a pro-neutrality, anti-membership riot in March 1949.

The members agreed that an armed attack against any one of them in Europe or North America would be considered an attack against them all. Consequently they agreed that, if an armed attack occurred, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defence, would assist the member being attacked, taking such action as it deemed necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area. The treaty does not require members to respond militarily action against aggressor. Although obliged to respond, they maintain the freedom to choose the method. This differs from Article IV of the Treaty of Brussels, which clearly states that the response will be military in nature. It is nonetheless assumed that NATO members will aid the attacked member militarily. The treaty was later clarified to include both the member's territory and their "vessels, forces or aircraft" above the Tropic of Cancer, including some Overseas departments of France.[5]

The creation of NATO brought about some standardization of allied military terminology, procedures, and technology, which in many cases meant European countries adopting U.S. practices. The roughly 1300 Standardization Agreements codified many of the common practices that NATO has achieved. Hence, the 7.62×51 NATO rifle cartridge was introduced in the 1950s as a standard firearm cartridge among many NATO countries. Fabrique Nationale de Herstal's FAL became the most popular 7.62 NATO rifle in Europe and served into the early 1990s. Also, aircraft marshalling signals were standardized, so that any NATO aircraft could land at any NATO base. Other standards such as the NATO phonetic alphabet have made their way beyond NATO into civilian use.

Cold War

See main article: Cold War. The outbreak of the Korean War in 1950 was crucial for NATO as it raised the apparent threat of all Communist countries working together, and forced the alliance to develop concrete military plans. The 1952 Lisbon conference, seeking to provide the forces necessary for NATO's Long-Term Defence Plan, called for an expansion to ninety-six divisions. However this requirement was dropped the following year to roughly thirty-five divisions with heavier use to be made of nuclear weapons. At this time, NATO could call on about fifteen ready divisions in Central Europe, and another ten in Italy and Scandinavia. Also at Lisbon, the post of Secretary General of NATO as the organization's chief civilian was created, and Baron Hastings Ismay eventually appointed to the post.[6]

In September 1952, the first major NATO maritime exercises began; Operation Mainbrace brought together 200 ships and over 50,000 personnel to practice the defence of Denmark and Norway. Other major exercises that followed included Operation Grand Slam, NATO's first naval exercise in the Mediterranean Sea, 'Mariner,' which involved convoy protection, naval control of shipping, and striking fleet operations in the North Atlantic, Italic Weld, a combined air-naval-ground exercise in northern Italy, Grand Repulse, involving the British Army on the Rhine (BAOR), the Netherlands Corps and Allied Air Forces Central Europe (AAFCE), Monte Carlo a simulated atomic air-ground exercise involving the Central Army Group, and Weldfast, a combined amphibious landing exercise in the Mediterranean Sea involving British, Greek, Italian, Turkish, and U.S. naval forces.

Greece and Turkey also joined the alliance in 1952, forcing a series of controversial negotiations, in which the United States and Britain were the primary disputants, over how to bring the two countries into the military command structure.[7] While this overt military preparation was going on, covert stay-behind arrangements initially made by the Western European Union to continue resistance after a successful Soviet invasion, including Operation Gladio, were transferred to NATO control. Ultimately unofficial bonds began to grow between NATO's armed forces, such as the NATO Tiger Association and competitions such as the Canadian Army Trophy for tank gunnery.

In 1954, the Soviet Union suggested that it should join NATO to preserve peace in Europe.[8] The NATO countries, fearing that the Soviet Union's motive was to weaken the alliance, ultimately rejected this proposal. The incorporation of West Germany into the organization on 9 May 1955 was described as "a decisive turning point in the history of our continent" by Halvard Lange, Foreign Affairs Minister of Norway at the time.[9] A major reason for Germany's entry into the alliance was that without German manpower, it would have been impossible to field enough conventional forces to resist a Soviet invasion. One of its immediate results was the creation of the Warsaw Pact, which was signed on 14 May 1955 by the Soviet Union, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, and East Germany, as a formal response to this event, thereby delineating the two opposing sides of the Cold War.

Three major exercises were held concurrently in the northern autumn of 1957. Operation Counter Punch, Operation Strikeback, and Operation Deep Water were the most ambitious military undertaking for the alliance to date, involving more than 250,000 men, 300 ships, and 1,500 aircraft operating from Norway to Turkey.[10]

French withdrawal

NATO's unity was breached early in its history with a crisis occurring during Charles de Gaulle's presidency of France starting in 1958. De Gaulle protested the United States' strong role in the organization and what he perceived as a special relationship between it and the United Kingdom. In a memorandum sent to President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Prime Minister Harold Macmillan on 17 September 1958, he argued for the creation of a tripartite directorate that would put France on an equal footing with the U.S. and U.K., and also for expanding NATO's coverage to include areas of interest to France, most notably French Algeria, where France was waging a counter-insurgency and sought NATO assistance.

Considering the response he received to his memorandum unsatisfactory, de Gaulle began constructing an independent defense force for his country. He wanted to give France, in the event of an East German incursion into West Germany, the option of coming to a separate peace with the Eastern bloc instead of being drawn into a NATO-Warsaw Pact general war. In February 1959, France withdrew its Mediterranean Fleet from NATO command. He later banned the stationing of foreign nuclear weapons on French soil. This caused the United States to transfer two hundred military aircraft out of France and return control of the ten major air force bases that had operated in France since 1950 to the French by 1967.

Though France showed solidarity with the rest of NATO during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, de Gaulle continued his pursuit of an independent defence by removing France's Atlantic and Channel fleets from NATO command. In 1966, all French armed forces were removed from NATO's integrated military command, and all non-French NATO troops were asked to leave France. This withdrawal forced the relocation of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) from Rocquencourt, near Paris, to Casteau, north of Mons, Belgium, by 16 October 1967.[11] France remained a member of the alliance, and committed to the defence of Europe from possible Communist attack with its own forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany throughout the Cold War. A series of secret accords between U.S. and French officials, the Lemnitzer-Ailleret Agreements, detailed how French forces would dovetail back into NATO's command structure should East-West hostilities break out.[12]

Détente and escalation

See main article: Détente. During most of the Cold War, NATO's watch against the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact did not actually lead to direct military action. On 1 July 1968, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty opened for signature: NATO argued that its nuclear sharing arrangements did not breach the treaty as U.S. forces controlled the weapons until a decision was made to go to war, at which point the treaty would no longer be controlling. Few states knew of the NATO nuclear sharing arrangements at that time, and they were not challenged. In May 1978, NATO countries officially defined two complementary aims of the Alliance, to maintain security and pursue détente. This was supposed to mean matching defences at the level rendered necessary by the Warsaw Pact's offensive capabilities without spurring a further arms race.

On 12 December 1979, in light of a build-up of Warsaw Pact nuclear capabilities in Europe, ministers approved the deployment of U.S. GLCM cruise missiles and Pershing II theatre nuclear weapons in Europe. The new warheads were also meant to strengthen the western negotiating position regarding nuclear disarmament. This policy was called the Dual Track policy. Similarly, in 1983–84, responding to the stationing of Warsaw Pact SS-20 medium-range missiles in Europe, NATO deployed modern Pershing II missiles tasked to hit military targets such as tank formations in the event of war. This action led to peace movement protests throughout Western Europe, and support for the deployment wavered as many doubted whether the push for deployment could be sustained.

The membership of the organization at this time remained largely static. In 1974, as a consequence of the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, Greece withdrew its forces from NATO's military command structure but, with Turkish cooperation, were readmitted in 1980. The Falklands War between the United Kingdom and Argentina did not result in NATO involvement because of the limited scope of NATO. On 30 May 1982, NATO gained a new member when, following a referendum, the newly democratic Spain joined the alliance.

After the Cold War

The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact in 1991 removed the de facto main adversary of NATO. This caused a strategic re-evaluation of NATO's purpose, nature and tasks. In practice this ended up entailing a gradual expansion of NATO to Eastern Europe, as well as the extension of its activities to areas that had not formerly been NATO concerns.

The first post–Cold War expansion of NATO came with German reunification on 3 October 1990, when the former East Germany became part of the Federal Republic of Germany and the alliance. This had been agreed in the Two Plus Four Treaty earlier in the year. To secure Soviet approval of a united Germany remaining in NATO, it was agreed that foreign troops and nuclear weapons would not be stationed in the east. The scholar Stephen F. Cohen argued in 2005 that a commitment was given that NATO would never expand further east,[13] but according to Robert Zoellick, then a State Department official involved in the Two Plus Four negotiating process, this appears to be a misperception; no formal commitment of the sort was made.[14] In May 2008, Gorbachev repeated his view that such a commitment had been made, and that "the Americans promised that NATO wouldn't move beyond the boundaries of Germany after the Cold War".[15]

As part of post–Cold War restructuring, NATO's military structure was cut back and reorganized, with new forces such as the Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps established. The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe agreed between NATO and the Warsaw Pact and signed in Paris in 1990, mandated specific reductions. The changes brought about by the collapse of the Soviet Union on the military balance in Europe were recognized in the Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty, which was signed in 1999. The policies of French President Nicolas Sarkozy have resulted in a major reform of France's military position, culminating with the return to full membership on 4 April 2009, which also included France rejoining the integrated military command of NATO, while maintaining an independent nuclear deterrent.[12] [16]

New NATO structures were also formed while old ones were abolished: The NATO Response Force (NRF) was launched at the 2002 Prague summit on 21 November, the first summit in a former Comecon country. On 19 June 2003, a major restructuring of the NATO military commands began as the Headquarters of the Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic were abolished and a new command, Allied Command Transformation (ACT), was established in Norfolk, Virginia, United States, and the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) became the Headquarters of Allied Command Operations (ACO). ACT is responsible for driving transformation (future capabilities) in NATO, whilst ACO is responsible for current operations.

Membership went on expanding with the accession of seven more Northern and Eastern European countries to NATO: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania. They were first invited to start talks of membership during the 2002 Prague Summit, and joined NATO on 29 March 2004, shortly before the 2004 Istanbul summit. The same month, NATO's Baltic Air Policing began, which supported the sovereignty of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia by providing fighters to react to any unwanted aerial intrusions. Four fighters are based in Lithuania, provided in rotation by virtually all the NATO states. Operation Peaceful Summit temporarily enhanced this patrolling during the 2006 Riga summit.[17]

The 2006 Riga summit was held in Riga, Latvia, which had joined the Atlantic Alliance two years earlier. It is the first NATO summit to be held in a country that was part of the Soviet Union. Energy Security was one of the main themes of the Riga Summit.[18] At the April 2008 summit in Bucharest, Romania, NATO agreed to the accession of Croatia and Albania and invited them to join. Both countries joined NATO in April 2009. Ukraine and Georgia were also told that they will eventually become members.[19]

At the end of the Cold War, European countries accounted for 34% of NATO's military spending; by 2012, that had fallen to 21%.[20]

Military operations

Bosnia and Herzegovina

See main article: 1995 NATO bombing campaign in Bosnia and Herzegovina, IFOR and SFOR. The Bosnian War began in 1992, as a result of the Breakup of Yugoslavia. NATO intervention began on 12 April 1993 with Operation Deny Flight, enforcing a no-fly zone under UN mandate over central Bosnia and Herzegovina until December 1995, the end of the war. In June 1993, Operation Sharp Guard commenced, and ran until October 1996. It provided maritime enforcement of the arms embargo and economic sanctions against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 28 February 1994, NATO took its first military action, shooting down four Bosnian Serb aircraft violating the no-fly zone. A NATO bombing campaign, Operation Deliberate Force, began in August 1995, against the Army of the Republika Srpska, after the Srebrenica massacre.

On 10 and 11 April 1994, during the Bosnian War, the United Nations Protection Force called in air strikes to protect the Goražde safe area, resulting in the bombing of a Serbian military command outpost near Goražde by 2 US F-16 jets acting under NATO direction.[21] This resulted in the taking of 150 U.N. personnel hostage on 14 April.[21] On 16 April a British Sea Harrier was shot down over Goražde by Serb forces.

NATO air strikes that year helped bring the Yugoslav wars to an end, resulting in the Dayton Agreement. As part of this agreement, NATO deployed a UN-mandated peacekeeping force, under Operation Joint Endeavor, first named IFOR and then SFOR, which ran from December 1996 to December 2004. Following the lead of its member nations, NATO began to award a service medal, the NATO Medal, for these operations. Between 1994 and 1997, wider forums for regional cooperation between NATO and its neighbors were set up, like the Partnership for Peace, the Mediterranean Dialogue initiative and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. On 8 July 1997, three former communist countries, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland, were invited to join NATO, which finally happened in 1999. In 1998, the NATO-Russia Permanent Joint Council was established.

Kosovo

See main article: 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia and KFOR. In an effort to stop Serbian-led crackdown on Albanian civilians in Kosovo, NATO saw its first broad-scale military engagement in the Kosovo War, waging an 11-week bombing campaign starting on 24 March 1999. Operation Allied Force targeted the military capabilities of what was then the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The conflict ended on 11 June 1999, when Yugoslavian leader Slobodan Milošević agreed to NATO's demands by accepting UN resolution 1244. During the crisis, NATO also deployed one of its international reaction forces, the ACE Mobile Force (Land), to Albania as the Albania Force (AFOR), to deliver humanitarian aid to refugees from Kosovo.[22] NATO then helped establish the KFOR, a NATO-led force under a United Nations mandate that operated the military mission in Kosovo. In August–September 2001, the alliance also mounted Operation Essential Harvest, a mission disarming ethnic Albanian militias in the Republic of Macedonia.[23]

The United States, the United Kingdom, and most other NATO countries opposed efforts to require the U.N. Security Council to approve NATO military strikes, such as the action against Serbia in 1999, while France and some others claimed that the alliance needed UN approval. The U.S./UK side claimed that this would undermine the authority of the alliance, and they noted that Russia and China would have exercised their Security Council vetoes to block the strike on Yugoslavia, and could do the same in future conflicts where NATO intervention was required, thus nullifying the entire potency and purpose of the organization. Recognizing the post–Cold War military environment, NATO adopted the Alliance Strategic Concept during its Washington summit in April 1999 that emphasized conflict prevention and crisis management.[24]

Afghanistan

See main article: International Security Assistance Force and War in Afghanistan. The 11 September attacks in the United States caused NATO to invoke Article 5 of the NATO Charter for the first time in its history. The Article says that an attack on any member shall be considered to be an attack on all. The invocation was confirmed on 4 October 2001 when NATO determined that the attacks were indeed eligible under the terms of the North Atlantic Treaty.[25] The eight official actions taken by NATO in response to the attacks included Operation Eagle Assist and Operation Active Endeavour, a naval operation in the Mediterranean Sea and is designed to prevent the movement of terrorists or weapons of mass destruction as well as to enhance the security of shipping in general which began on 4 October 2001.

Despite this early show of solidarity, NATO faced a crisis little more than a year later, when on 10 February 2003, France and Belgium vetoed the procedure of silent approval concerning the timing of protective measures for Turkey in case of a possible war with Iraq. Germany did not use its right to break the procedure but said it supported the veto. On the issue of Afghanistan on the other hand, the alliance showed greater unity: on 16 April 2003, NATO agreed to take command of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. The decision came at the request of Germany and the Netherlands, the two nations leading ISAF at the time of the agreement, and all nineteen NATO ambassadors approved it unanimously. The handover of control to NATO took place on 11 August, and marked the first time in NATO's history that it took charge of a mission outside the north Atlantic area. Canada had originally been slated to take over ISAF by itself on that date.

ISAF was initially charged with securing Kabul and surrounding areas from the Taliban, al Qaeda and factional warlords, so as to allow for the establishment of the Afghan Transitional Administration headed by Hamid Karzai.[26] In October 2003, the UN Security Council authorized the expansion of the ISAF mission throughout Afghanistan,[27] and ISAF subsequently expanded the mission in four main stages over the whole of the country.[28]

On 31 July 2006, the ISAF additionally took over military operations in the south of Afghanistan from a U.S.-led anti-terrorism coalition. Due to the intensity of the fighting in the south, France has recently allowed a squadron of Mirage 2000 fighter/attack aircraft to be moved into the area, to Kandahar, in order to reinforce the alliance's efforts.[29] NATO is also training the military of Afghanistan and the Afghan National Police to be better equipped in forcing out the Taliban.

Iraq training mission

See main article: NATO Training Mission – Iraq. In August 2004, during the Iraq War, NATO formed the NATO Training Mission – Iraq, a training mission to assist the Iraqi security forces in conjunction with the U.S. led MNF-I.[30] The NATO Training Mission-Iraq (NTM-I) was established at the request of the Iraqi Interim Government under the provisions of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1546. The aim of NTM-I was to assist in the development of Iraqi security forces training structures and institutions so that Iraq can build an effective and sustainable capability that addresses the needs of the nation. NTM-I was not a combat mission but is a distinct mission, under the political control of NATO's North Atlantic Council. Its operational emphasis was on training and mentoring. The activities of the mission were coordinated with Iraqi authorities and the U.S.-led Deputy Commanding General Advising and Training, who is also dual-hatted as the Commander of NTM-I. The mission officially concluded on 17 December 2011.[31]

Missile defence

For some years, the United States negotiated with Poland and the Czech Republic for the deployment of interceptor missiles and a radar tracking system in the two countries.[32] Both countries' governments indicated that they would allow the deployment. In August 2008, Poland and the United States signed a preliminary deal to place part of the missile defence shield in Poland that would be linked to air-defence radar in the Czech Republic.[33] More than 130,000 Czechs signed a petition for a referendum on the base.[34]

In April 2007, NATO's European allies called for a NATO missile defence system which would complement the American national missile defense system to protect Europe from missile attacks and NATO's decision-making North Atlantic Council held consultations on missile defence in the first meeting on the topic at such a senior level.[35] In response, Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin claimed that such a deployment could lead to a new arms race and could enhance the likelihood of mutual destruction. He also suggested that his country would freeze its compliance with the 1990 Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE)—which limits military deployments across the continent—until all NATO countries had ratified the adapted CFE treaty.[36] Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer claimed the system would not affect strategic balance or threaten Russia, as the plan is to base only ten interceptor missiles in Poland with an associated radar in the Czech Republic.[37]

On 14 July 2007, Russia gave notice of its intention to suspend the CFE treaty, effective 150 days later.[38] [39] On 14 August 2008, the United States and Poland came to an agreement to place a base with ten interceptor missiles with associated MIM-104 Patriot air defence systems in Poland. This came at a time when tension was high between Russia and most of NATO and resulted in a nuclear threat on Poland by Russia if the building of the missile defences went ahead. On 20 August 2008 the United States and Poland signed the agreement, while Russia sent word to Norway that it was suspending ties with NATO.[40]

On 17 September 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama announced that the planned deployment of long-range missile defence interceptors and equipment in Poland and the Czech Republic was not to go forward, and that a defence against short- and medium-range missiles using AEGIS warships would be deployed instead.[41] [42] Following the change in plans, Russian President Dimitri Medvedev announced that a proposed Russian Iskander surface to surface missile deployment in nearby Kaliningrad would also not go ahead. The two deployment cancellation announcements were later followed with a statement by newly named NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen calling for a strategic partnership between Russia and the Alliance, explicitly involving technological cooperation of the two parties' missile defence systems.[43] The first element of this revised system, an early warning radar station in Malatya, Turkey, went operational on 16 January 2012. Other parts of the missile defence system are planned to be built in Portugal, Poland, Romania and Spain.[44]

In September 2011, The NATO invited India to be a partner in its ballistic missile defence.[45] [46] V. K. Saraswat, the architect of Indian Ballistic Missile Defense Program, subsequently told the press, "We are analysing the report. It is under consideration."[46]

Gulf of Aden piracy

See main article: Operation Ocean Shield. Beginning on 17 August 2009, NATO deployed warships in an operation to protect maritime traffic in the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean from Somali pirates, and help strengthen the navies and coast guards of regional states. The operation was approved by the North Atlantic Council and involves warships primarily from the United States though vessels from many other nations are also included. Operation Ocean Shield focuses on protecting the ships of Operation Allied Provider which are distributing aid as part of the World Food Programme mission in Somalia. China and South Korea have sent warships to participate in the activities as well.[47] [48]

Operations in Libya

See main article: 2011 military intervention in Libya and 2011 Libyan civil war. During the 2011 Libyan civil war, violence between protestors and the Libyan government under Colonel Muammar Gaddafi escalated, and on 17 March 2011 led to the passage of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, which called for a ceasefire, and authorized military action to protect civilians. A coalition that included several NATO members began enforcing a no-fly zone over Libya shortly afterwards. On 20 March 2011, NATO states agreed on enforcing an arms embargo against Libya with Operation Unified Protector using ships from NATO Standing Maritime Group 1 and Standing Mine Countermeasures Group 1,[49] and additional ships and submarines from NATO members.[50] They would "monitor, report and, if needed, interdict vessels suspected of carrying illegal arms or mercenaries".[49]

On 24 March, NATO agreed to take control of the no-fly zone from the initial coalition, while command of targeting ground units remained with the coalition's forces.[51] [52] NATO began officially enforcing the UN resolution on 27 March 2011 with assistance from Qatar and the United Arab Emirates.[53] By June, reports of divisions within the alliance surfaced as only eight of the 28 member nations were participating in combat operations,[54] resulting in a confrontation between U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates and countries such as Poland, Spain, the Netherlands, Turkey, and Germany to contribute more, the latter believing the organization has overstepped its mandate in the conflict.[55] [56] [57] In his final policy speech in Brussels on 10 June, Gates further criticized allied countries in suggesting their actions could cause the demise of NATO.[58] The German foreign ministry pointed to "a considerable [German] contribution to NATO and NATO-led operations" and to the fact that this engagement was highly valued by President Obama.[59]

While the mission was extended into September, Norway that day announced it would begin scaling down contributions and complete withdrawal by 1 August.[60] Earlier that week it was reported Danish air fighters were running out of bombs.[61] [62] The following week, the head of the Royal Navy said the country's operations in the conflict were not sustainable.[63] By the end of the mission in October 2011, after the death of Colonel Gaddafi, NATO planes had flown about 9,500 strike sorties against pro-Gaddafi targets.[64] [65]

Participating countries

See main article: Member states of NATO and Enlargement of NATO. NATO has added new members seven times since first forming in 1949, and now comprises 28 nations. New membership in the alliance has been largely from Eastern Europe and the Balkans, including former members of the Warsaw Pact. At the 2008 summit in Bucharest, three countries were promised future invitations: the Republic of Macedonia,[66] Georgia and Ukraine.[67] Though Macedonia completed its requirements for membership at the same time as Croatia and Albania, NATO's most recent members, its accession was blocked by Greece pending a resolution of the Macedonia naming dispute.[68] Cyprus also has not progressed toward further relations, in part because of opposition from Turkey.[69] Other candidate countries include Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, which joined the Adriatic Charter of potential members in 2008.[70] Their accession to the alliance is governed with individual Membership Action Plans, and will require approval by each current member.

Russia continues to oppose further expansion, seeing it as inconsistent with understandings between Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and U.S. President George H. W. Bush that allowed for a peaceful German reunification.[13] NATO's expansion efforts are often seen by Moscow leaders as a continuation of a Cold War attempt to surround and isolate Russia.[71] After the 2010 election in Ukraine, pro-Russian President Viktor Yanukovych declared his administration would not be pursuing NATO membership.[72] Ukraine is one of eight countries in Eastern Europe with an Individual Partnership Action Plan. IPAPs began in 2002, and are open to countries that have the political will and ability to deepen their relationship with NATO.[73]

Map of NATO affiliations in EuropeMap of NATO partnerships globally
colspan=2NATO members Membership Action Plan Individual Partnership Action Plan Partnership for Peace Mediterranean Dialogue Istanbul Cooperation Initiative Contact countries































Kazakhstan

Montenegro

































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NATO and the European Union signed a comprehensive package of arrangements under the Berlin Plus agreement on 16 December 2002. With this agreement the EU was given the possibility to use NATO assets in case it wanted to act independently in an international crisis, on the condition that NATO itself did not want to act—the so-called "right of first refusal."[74] A double framework has been established to help further co-operation between the 28 NATO members and 22 "partner countries".

Additionally, NATO cooperates and discusses their activities with numerous other non-NATO members.

Since 1990–91, the Alliance has gradually increased its contact with countries that do not form part of any of the above cooperative groupings. Political dialogue with Japan began in 1990, and a range of non-NATO countries have contributed to peacekeeping operations in the former Yugoslavia. The Allies established a set of general guidelines on relations with other countries, beyond the above groupings in 1998.[80] The guidelines do not allow for a formal institutionalization of relations, but reflect the Allies' desire to increase cooperation. Following extensive debate, the term "Contact Countries" was agreed by the Allies in 2000. Two of these countries are also members of the AUSCANNZUKUS strategic alliance.

Structures

The main headquarters of NATO is located on Boulevard Léopold III, B-1110 Brussels, which is in Haren, part of the City of Brussels municipality.[81] A new headquarters building is,, under construction nearby, due for completion by 2015.[82] The design is an adaptation of the original award-winning scheme designed by Michel Mossessian and his team when he was a Design Partner with SOM.[83]

The staff at the Headquarters is composed of national delegations of member countries and includes civilian and military liaison offices and officers or diplomatic missions and diplomats of partner countries, as well as the International Staff and International Military Staff filled from serving members of the armed forces of member states.[84] Non-governmental citizens' groups have also grown up in support of NATO, broadly under the banner of the Atlantic Council/Atlantic Treaty Association movement.

NATO Council

Like any alliance, NATO is ultimately governed by its 28 member states. However, the North Atlantic Treaty, and other agreements, outline how decisions are to be made within NATO. Each of the 28 members sends a delegation or mission to NATO's headquarters in Brussels, Belgium.[85] The senior permanent member of each delegation is known as the Permanent Representative and is generally a senior civil servant or an experienced ambassador (and holding that diplomatic rank). Several countries have diplomatic missions to NATO through embassies in Belgium.

Together, the Permanent Members form the North Atlantic Council (NAC), a body which meets together at least once a week and has effective governance authority and powers of decision in NATO. From time to time the Council also meets at higher level meetings involving foreign ministers, defence ministers or heads of state or government (HOSG) and it is at these meetings that major decisions regarding NATO's policies are generally taken. However, it is worth noting that the Council has the same authority and powers of decision-making, and its decisions have the same status and validity, at whatever level it meets. NATO summits also form a further venue for decisions on complex issues, such as enlargement.

The meetings of the North Atlantic Council are chaired by the Secretary General of NATO and, when decisions have to be made, action is agreed upon on the basis of unanimity and common accord. There is no voting or decision by majority. Each nation represented at the Council table or on any of its subordinate committees retains complete sovereignty and responsibility for its own decisions.

colspan=4List of Secretaries General[86]
NameCountryDuration
1General Lord Ismay4 April 1952 – 16 May 1957
2Paul-Henri Spaak16 May 1957 – 21 April 1961
3Dirk Stikker21 April 1961 – 1 August 1964
4Manlio Brosio1 August 1964 – 1 October 1971
5Joseph Luns1 October 1971 – 25 June 1984
6Lord Carrington25 June 1984 – 1 July 1988
7Manfred Wörner1 July 1988 – 13 August 1994
Sergio Balanzino (acting)13 August 1994 – 17 October 1994
8Willy Claes17 October 1994 – 20 October 1995
Sergio Balanzino (acting)20 October 1995 – 5 December 1995
9Javier Solana5 December 1995 – 6 October 1999
10Lord Robertson14 October 1999 – 17 December 2003
Alessandro Minuto-Rizzo (acting)17 December 2003 – 1 January 2004
11Jaap de Hoop Scheffer1 January 2004 – 1 August 2009
12Anders Fogh Rasmussen1 August 2009–present
colspan=4List of Deputy Secretaries General[87]
NameCountryDuration
1Jonkheer van Vredenburch1952–1956
2Baron Adolph Bentinck1956–1958
3Alberico Casardi1958–1962
4Guido Colonna di Paliano1962–1964
5James A. Roberts1964–1968
6Osman Olcay1969–1971
7Paolo Pansa Cedronio1971–1978
8Rinaldo Petrignani1978–1981
9Eric da Rin1981–1985
10Marcello Guidi1985–1989
11Amedeo de Franchis1989–1994
12Sergio Balanzino1994–2001
13Alessandro Minuto Rizzo2001–2007
14Claudio Bisogniero2007–present

NATO Parliamentary Assembly

See main article: NATO Parliamentary Assembly. The body that sets broad strategic goals for NATO is the NATO Parliamentary Assembly (NATO-PA) which meets at the Annual Session, and one other during the year, and is the organ that directly interacts with the parliamentary structures of the national governments of the member states which appoint Permanent Members, or ambassadors to NATO. The NATO Parliamentary Assembly is made up of legislators from the member countries of the North Atlantic Alliance as well as thirteen associate members. Karl A. Lamers, German Deputy Chairman of the Defence Committee of the Bundestag and a member of the Christian Democratic Union, became president of the assembly in 2010.[88] It is however officially a different structure from NATO, and has as aim to join together deputies of NATO countries in order to discuss security policies on the NATO Council.

The Assembly is the political integration body of NATO that generates political policy agenda setting for the NATO Council via reports of its five committees:

These reports provide impetus and direction as agreed upon by the national governments of the member states through their own national political processes and influencers to the NATO administrative and executive organizational entities.

Military structures

See main article: Military units and formations of NATO. The second pivotal member of each country's delegation is the Military Representative, a senior officer from each country's armed forces, supported by the International Military Staff. Together the Military Representatives form the Military Committee, a body responsible for recommending to NATO's political authorities those measures considered necessary for the common defence of the NATO area. Its principal role is to provide direction and advice on military policy and strategy. It provides guidance on military matters to the NATO Strategic Commanders, whose representatives attend its meetings, and is responsible for the overall conduct of the military affairs of the Alliance under the authority of the Council. The Chairman of the NATO Military Committee is Giampaolo Di Paola of Italy, since 2008.

Like the Council, from time to time the Military Committee also meets at a higher level, namely at the level of Chiefs of Defence, the most senior military officer in each nation's armed forces. Until 2008 the Military Committee excluded France, due to that country's 1966 decision to remove itself from NATO's integrated military structure, which it rejoined in 1995. Until France rejoined NATO, it was not represented on the Defence Planning Committee, and this led to conflicts between it and NATO members. Such was the case in the lead up to Operation Iraqi Freedom.[89] The operational work of the Committee is supported by the International Military Staff.

NATO's military operations are directed by the Chairman of the NATO Military Committee, and split into two Strategic Commands commanded by a senior US officer[90] and a senior French officer[91] assisted by a staff drawn from across NATO. The Strategic Commanders are responsible to the Military Committee for the overall direction and conduct of all Alliance military matters within their areas of command.

The Military Committee in turn directs two principal NATO organizations: the Allied Command Operations responsible for the strategic, operational and tactical management of combat and combat support forces of the NATO members, and the Allied Command Transformation organization responsible for the induction of the new member states' forces into NATO, and NATO forces' research and training capability.[92]

Bibliography

Further reading

Early period
Late Cold War period
Post Cold War period
General histories
Other issues

External links

Notes and References

  1. "English and French shall be the official languages for the entire North Atlantic Treaty Organization.", Final Communiqué following the meeting of the North Atlantic Council on 17 September 1949. "(..) the English and French texts [of the Treaty] are equally authentic (...)" The North Atlantic Treaty, Article 14
  2. Web site: The SIPRI Military Expenditure Database. Milexdata.sipri.org. 22 August 2010.
  3. Web site: NATO and the fight against terrorism. North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 27 May 2011.
  4. Web site: Counter-piracy operations. North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 27 May 2011.
  5. Web site: Protocol to the North Atlantic Treaty on the Accession of Greece and Turkey. NATO. 4 April 1949. 17 January 2012.
  6. News: Time. NATO: The Man with the Oilcan. 24 March 1952. 17 January 2012.
  7. Sean M. Maloney, 'To Secure Command of the Sea: NATO Command Organization and Naval Planning for the Cold War at Sea, 1945–54,' MA thesis, University of New Brunswick, 1991, p.270–291
  8. News: Fast facts. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 16 July 2011.
  9. News: West Germany accepted into Nato. BBC News. 9 May 2011. 17 January 2012.
  10. News: Emergency Call. 27 September 2008. Time. 30 September 1957.
  11. Web site: The Big Move. NATO Review. François. Le Blévennec. 25 October 2011. 19 December 2011.
  12. News: The Washington Post. After 43 Years, France to Rejoin NATO as Full Member. March 12, 2009. Edward. Cody. December 19, 2011.
  13. News: Gorbachev's Lost Legacy. Stephen F.. Cohen. The Nation. 24 February 2005.
  14. News: Robert B.. Zoellick. The Lessons of German Unification. The National Interest. 22 September 2000.
  15. News: Gorbachev: US could start new Cold War. Blomfield A and Smith M. Paris. 6 May 2009. The Telegraph. 22 May 2009.
  16. News: Sarkozy military plan unveiled. Stratton. Allegra. The Guardian. UK. 17 June 2008.
  17. L. Neidinger "NATO team ensures safe sky during Riga Summit", 8 December 2006, AF.mil
  18. Nazemroaya. Mahdi Darius. The Globalization of Military Power: NATO Expansion. Centre for Research on Globalization. 17 May 2007.
  19. http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/04/03/nato.members/index.html U.S. wins NATO backing for missile defense shield – CNN.com
  20. The future of NATO: Bad timing. 31 March 2012. The Economist. 3 April 2012.
  21. Report A/54/549, Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to General Assembly resolution 53/35: The fall of Srebrenica
  22. http://www.afsouth.nato.int/operations/harbour/ NATO website describing AFOR
  23. NATO's role in FYROM
  24. Web site: Allied Command Atlantic. 3 September 2008. NATO Handbook. NATO.
  25. Web site: NATO Update: Invocation of Article 5 confirmed – 2 October 2001. Nato.int. 22 August 2010.
  26. http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N01/708/55/PDF/N0170855.pdf?OpenElement Official Documents System of the United Nations
  27. Web site: UNSC Resolution 1510, October 13, 2003. PDF. 5 July 2010.
  28. Web site: ISAF Chronology. Nato.int. 5 July 2010.
  29. Web site: La France et l'OTAN. Le Monde. French. France. 16 July 2011.
  30. http://www.afsouth.nato.int/JFCN_Missions/NTM-I/NTMI_intro.htm Introduction
  31. News: NATO closes up training mission in Iraq. Reuters. Rania. El Gamal. 17 December 2011. 17 January 2012.
  32. News: Post Store. U.S. Might Negotiate on Missile Defense. The Washington Post. 24 April 2007. 22 August 2010.
  33. News: Poland, U.S. sign missile shield deal. CNN. 15 August 2008. 22 August 2010.
  34. Web site: Více jak 130 000 podpisů pro referendum. Nezakladnam.cz. 27 August 2008. 22 August 2010.
  35. Web site: Xinhua – English. News.xinhuanet.com. 19 April 2007. 22 August 2010.
  36. News: Russia in defence warning to US. BBC News. 26 April 2007. 22 August 2010.
  37. News: Nato chief dismisses Russia fears. BBC News. 19 April 2007. 22 August 2010.
  38. News: Europe | Russia suspends arms control pact. BBC News. 14 July 2007. 3 March 2011.
  39. Y. Zarakhovich, "Why Putin Pulled Out of a Key Treaty" in Time, 14 July 2007
  40. Web site: Norway: Russia to freeze NATO military ties. MSNBC. 20 August 2008. 3 March 2011.
  41. News: Americas | Obama shelves Europe missile plan. BBC News. 17 September 2009. 3 March 2011.
  42. News: Americas | Russia hails US missile overhaul. BBC News. 18 September 2009. 3 March 2011.
  43. News: Nato chief reaches out to Russia. BBC News. 18 September 2009. 3 March 2011.
  44. News: Part of NATO missile defense system goes live in Turkey. CNN. 16 January 2012. 16 January 2012.
  45. News: PTI. NATO offers missile defence cooperation to India. 15 March 2012. The Hindu. 4 September 2011.
  46. News: T.S. Subramanian. India studying NATO offer on joining missile programme. 15 March 2012. The Hindu. 7 October 2011.
  47. Web site: Operation Ocean Shield. NATO. 3 March 2011.
  48. Web site: 2009 Operation Ocean Shield News Articles. NATO. October 2010. 19 May 2011.
  49. Web site: Statement by the NATO Secretary General on Libya arms embargo. NATO. 22 March 2011.
  50. Web site: Press briefing by NATO Spokesperson Oana Lungescu, Brigadier General Pierre St-Amand, Canadian Air Force and General Massimo Panizzi, spokesperson of the Chairman of the Military Committee. NATO. 23 March 2011.
  51. News: NATO reaches agreement on Libya command. 24 March 2011.
  52. News: NATO to police Libya no-fly zone. 24 March 2011.
  53. News: NATO takes command of Libya campaign. Yahoo! News. Agence France-Presse. Laurent. Thomet. 27 March 2011. 27 March 2011.
  54. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2011/6/9/worldupdates/2011-06-09T025953Z_01_NOOTR_RTRMDNC_0_-575860-1&sec=Worldupdates "NATO strikes Tripoli, Gaddafi army close on Misrata"
  55. Coughlin, Con (9 June 2011). "Political Gridlock at NATO", Wall Street Journal. Accessed 9 June 2011
  56. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-libya-nato-20110609,0,6023643.story "Gates Calls on NATO Allies to Do More in Libya"
  57. Cloud, David S. (9 June 2011). "Gates calls for more NATO allies to join Libya air campaign", Los Angeles Times. Accessed 9 June 2011
  58. Burns, Robert (10 June 2011). "Gates blasts NATO, questions future of alliance", Houston Chronicle. Accessed 10 June 2011
  59. Birnbaum, Michael (10 June 2011). "Gates rebukes European allies in farewell speech", Washington Post. Accessed 10 June 2011.
  60. Amland, Bjoern H. (10 June 2011). "Norway to quit Libya operation by August", Boston Globe. Accessed 10 June 2011
  61. http://www.timesofmalta.com/articles/view/20110610/world/Danish-planes-running-out-of-bombs.369868 "Danish planes running out of bombs"
  62. http://www.defensenews.com/story.php?i=6770530&c=EUR&s=AIR "Danish Planes in Libya Running Out of Bombs: Report"
  63. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/africaandindianocean/libya/8573849/Navy-chief-Britain-cannot-keep-up-its-role-in-Libya-air-war-due-to-cuts.html "Navy chief: Britain cannot keep up its role in Libya air war due to cuts"
  64. News: NATO: Ongoing resistance by pro-Gadhafi forces in Libya is ‘surprising’. The Washington Post. Associated Press. Slobodan. Lekic. 11 October 2011. 11 October 2011.
  65. News: NATO strategy in Libya may not work elsewhere. 22 October 2011. USA Today. 21 October 2011.
  66. In NATO official statements, the country is always referred to as the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, with a footnote stating that "Turkey recognizes the Republic of Macedonia under its constitutional name"; see Macedonia naming dispute.
  67. George J, Teigen JM. 2008. NATO Enlargement and Institution Building: Military Personnel Policy Challenges in the Post-Soviet Context. European Security. 17. 2. 346. 10.1080/09662830802642512.
  68. News: Croatia & Albania Invited Into NATO. BalkanInsight. 3 April 2008. 3 April 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080407170352/http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/main/news/9102/ . 7 April 2008.
  69. News: Cyprus a sticking point in EU-NATO co-operation. 14 June 2007. 7 June 2010. Ayhan. Simsek. Southeast European Times.
  70. News: Montenegro, BiH join Adriatic Charter. 12 September 2008. Jusuf. Ramadanovic. Nedjeljko Rudovic. Southeast European Times. 24 March 2009.
  71. News: Medvedev warns on Nato expansion. BBC News. 25 March 2008. 20 May 2010.
  72. News: Ukraine drops Nato membership pursuit. The Daily Telegraph. 28 May 2010. 7 June 2010.
  73. Web site: NATO Topics: Individual Partnership Action Plans. Nato.int. 22 August 2010.
  74. Bram Boxhoorn, Broad Support for NATO in the Netherlands, 21 September 2005, ATAedu.org
  75. Web site: Partnership for Peace. Nato.int. 3 March 2011.
  76. Web site: Nato and Belarus – partnership, past tensions and future possibilities. Foreign Policy and Security Research Center. 25 November 2010.
  77. Web site: NATO Topics: The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. Nato.int. 22 August 2010.
  78. Web site: NATO Partner countries. Nato.int. 6 March 2009. 15 June 2011.
  79. Web site: Declaration by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Nato.int. 22 August 2010.
  80. NATO, Relations with Contact Countries. Retrieved 18 June 2008.
  81. Web site: NATO homepage. 12 March 2006.
  82. Web site: Work starts on new NATO Headquarters. NATO. 16 December 2010. NATO. 25 March 2011.
  83. Web site: Michel Mossessian talks to Lucy Lethbridge. European Council. 12 September 2011.
  84. Web site: NATO Headquarters. Nato.int. 10 August 2010. 22 August 2010.
  85. Web site: National delegations to NATO What is their role?. NATO. 18 June 2007. 15 July 2007.
  86. Web site: NATO Who's who? – Secretaries General of NATO. Nato.int. 22 August 2010.
  87. Web site: NATO Who's who? – Deputy Secretaries General of NATO. Nato.int. 22 August 2010.
  88. http://www.nato-pa.int/default.asp?SHORTCUT=2294 Press Statement: German MP Karl A. Lamers elected President of NATO PA
  89. Web site: Thomas. Fuller. Reaching accord, EU warns Saddam of his 'last chance'. International Herald Tribune. 18 February 2003. 15 July 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071012115843/http://iht.com/articles/2003/02/18/eu_ed3__1.php . 12 October 2007.
  90. http://www.aco.nato.int/page181313621.aspx Admiral James Stavridis, United States Navy, assumed duties as Supreme Allied Commander Europe in summer 2009
  91. http://www.act.nato.int/organization/hq-sact/whos-who/300-supreme-allied-commander-transformation General Stéphane Abrial, French Air Force, assumed duties as Supreme Allied Commander Transformation in summer 2009
  92. Web site: Eide. Espen Barth. Frédéric Bozo. Should NATO play a more political role?. Nato Review. NATO. Spring 2005. 15 July 2007.