According to the Book of Mormon, Moroni was the son of Mormon, the prophet for whom the Book of Mormon is ostensibly named. Moroni is often easily confused with Captain Moroni, a much earlier Book of Mormon figure that Mormon greatly admired . It is not explicitly stated in the Book of Mormon whether this Moroni is named after Captain Moroni and at least one alternate theory has also been proposed .
Moroni served under his father, the commander in chief of 10,000 Nephites who battled against the Lamanites. Upon the Nephites' defeat, Moroni was forced to go into hiding and to wander from place to place to avoid being killed by the victorious Lamanites. (See Cumorah for more information on this battle.) Moroni was the last known survivor of the Nephite nation.
Moroni had been commanded by his father to complete the Nephite record which Mormon had abridged from previous records. Moroni is the ascribed author of chapters 8 and 9 of the Book of Mormon (Mormon's record within the larger Book of Mormon), the entire Book of Moroni, and the of the Book of Mormon. He is also said to have written the Book of Ether, which is primarily an abridgment of Jaredite writings but also contains extensive commentary by Moroni, especially in,,, and . Moroni was the last prophet to write in the Book of Mormon.
Moroni claimed that he had seen and spoken to Jesus face to face and that he had been shown extensive visions of the future. Speaking directly to modern-day readers of the Book of Mormon, Moroni writes, "Behold, I speak unto you as if ye were present, and yet ye are not. But behold, Jesus Christ hath shown you unto me, and I know your doing."
Upon completion of the record, written on golden plates, Moroni buried the plates in a stone box in a hill in what is now Wayne County, New York. A 12-meter granite and bronze monument to Moroni now stands on this hill, which is commonly called Cumorah.