Morocco Explained

Native Name:

Conventional Long Name:Kingdom of Morocco
Common Name:Morocco
National Motto:Arabic: الله، الوطن، الملك (Arabic)

Berber languages: ⴰⴽⵓⵛ, ⴰⵎⵓⵔ, ⴰⴳⴻⵍⵍⵉⴷ (Berber)
Berber languages: Akuc, Amur, Agellid (Berber)
"God, Homeland, King"
National Anthem:
النشيد الوطني المغربي
"Cherifian Anthem"
Official Languages:Arabic[1]
Berber (Tamazight)[2]
Languages Type:Native languages
Languages:Berber, Moroccan Arabic, Hassaniya.
Ethnic Groups:99.1% Arab-Berber
0.7% Other
0.2% Jews [3]
Demonym:Moroccan
Capital:Rabat
Latd:34
Latm:02
Latns:N
Longd:6
Longm:51
Longew:W
Largest City:Casablanca
Government Type:Unitary parliamentary democracy and Constitutional Monarchy
Leader Title1:King
Leader Name1:Mohammed VI
Leader Title2:Prime Minister
Leader Name2:Abdelillah Benkirane
Legislature:Parliament
Upper House:Assembly of Councillors
Lower House:Assembly of Representatives
Sovereignty Type:Monarchy
Established Event1:Kingdom of Mauretania
Established Date1:110 BC – 40 AD
Established Event2:Alaouite dynasty
Established Date2:1666–modern day
Sovereignty Type:Independence
Established Event1:from France
Established Date1:March 2, 1956
Established Event2:from Spain
Established Date2:April 7, 1956
Area Rank:58th/40th
Area Magnitude:1_E10
Area Footnote: or 710,850 km²
Area Km2:446,550
Area Sq Mi:172,487
Percent Water:250 km² (0,056%)
Population Estimate:36,064,173[4]
Population Estimate Year:2012
Population Estimate Rank:38th
Population Census:35,657,056[5]
Population Census Year:2011
Population Density Km2:71.6
Population Density Sq Mi:185.5
Population Density Rank:122nd
Gdp Ppp Year:2011
Gdp Ppp:$158.994 billion[6]
Gdp Ppp Rank:56th
Gdp Ppp Per Capita:$4,940
Gdp Ppp Per Capita Rank:115th
Gdp Nominal:$100.323 billion
Gdp Nominal Rank:59th
Gdp Nominal Year:2011
Gdp Nominal Per Capita:$3,117
Gdp Nominal Per Capita Rank:112nd
Hdi Year:2011
Hdi: 0.582
Hdi Rank:130th
Pnb Rank:60th
Pib Rank:60th
Hdi Category:medium
Currency:Moroccan dirham
Currency Code:MAD
Time Zone:WET
Utc Offset:+0
Time Zone Dst:WEST
Utc Offset Dst:+1
Drives On:right
Cctld:.ma
Calling Code:+212
Footnotes:a. French is also used in official government documents and by the business community, although it has no official status.

b. see also Languages of Morocco.

c. 446550km2 excludes all disputed territories.
710850km2 Includes Moroccan-administered territory of Western Sahara which is claimed by the Polisario Front as the Sahrawi Republic

Morocco (Arabic: المغرب ; Berber languages: ⵍⵎⴻⵖⵔⵉⴱ / ⴰⵎⴻⵔⵔⵓⴽ[7] Berber languages: ''Elmeɣrib / Amerruk''), officially the Kingdom of Morocco,[8] is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of about 35 million and an area of 710,850 km², including the disputed region of the Western Sahara, seen by and mostly administered by Morocco as the Southern Provinces. Morocco is part of the Maghreb region, in addition to Tunisia, Algeria, Mauritania, and Libya, with which it shares cultural, historical and linguistic ties.

Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive powers, including the power to dissolve the parliament. Executive power is exercised by the government but more importantly by the king himself. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can also issue decrees called dahirs which have the force of law. The latest Parliamentary elections were held in November 25, 2011, and were considered by some neutral observers to be mostly free and fair. Voter turnout in these elections was estimated to be 43% of registered voters, but only about 25% of Moroccan adult citizens actually voted. The rest either chose not to vote or they were not registered as voters. The political capital is Rabat, but the largest city is Casablanca; other main cities include Marrakesh, Tetouan, Tangiers, Salé, Fes, Agadir, Meknes, Oujda, and Nador.

Most Moroccans natively speak either Moroccan Arabic or Berber as a mother tongue. Both languages have regional dialects and accents. Hassaniya Arabic is also spoken natively in the southern parts of the country by a small population.

Etymology

The full Arabic name (Arabic: المملكة المغربية) translates to "The Western Kingdom". (Arabic: المغرب), meaning "The West", is commonly used. For historical references, medieval Arab historians and geographers used to refer to Morocco as (Arabic: المغرب الأقصى, "The Farthest West"), disambiguating it from neighboring historical regions called (Arabic: المغرب الأوسط, "The Middle West", Algeria) and (Arabic: المغرب الأدنى, "The Nearest West", Tunisia).[9]

The English name "Morocco" originates from Spanish "Marruecos" or the Portuguese "Marrocos", from medieval Latin "Morroch", which referred to the name of the former Almoravid and Almohad capital, Marrakesh.[10] In Persian and Urdu, Morocco is still called "Marrakesh". Until recent decades, Morocco was called "Marrakesh" in Middle Eastern Arabic. In Turkish, Morocco is called "Fas" which comes from the ancient Idrisid and Marinid capital, Fez.

The word "Marrakesh" is made of the Berber word combination Mur n Akush (Berber languages: ''Mur n Akuc''), meaning Land of God.

History

See main article: History of Morocco. The earliest well-known Moroccan independent state was the Berber kingdom of Mauretania under king Bocchus I. This Berber Kingdom of Mauretania (current northern Morocco) dates at least to 110 BC.[11] The region remained a part of the Roman Empire until 429 AD when invading Vandals overran the area and Roman administrative presence came to an end.

Umayyad Muslims conquered the region in the 7th century, bringing their language, their system of government, and Islam, to which many of the Berbers slowly converted, mostly after the Arab rule receded. In the Islamic era the first Moroccan Muslim state, independent from the Abbasid Empire, was The Kingdom of Nekor, an emirate in the Rif area. It was founded by the Legend of Salih I ibn Mansur in 710 AD, as a client state to Caliphal grant. According to the Medieval Legends Idris I fled to Morocco from the Abbasids' massacre against his tribe in Iraq and managed to convince the Awraba Berber tribes to break allegiance to the distant Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad. He founded the Idrisid Dynasty in 780 AD. Morocco became later a center of learning and a major power.From the 11th century onwards, a series of powerful Berber[12] [13] [14] dynasties arose. Under the Almoravid dynasty and the Almohad dynasty, Morocco dominated the Maghreb, Muslim-conquered Spain, and the western Mediterranean region. In the 13th century the Merinids gained power over Morocco and strove to replicate the successes of the Almohads. In the 15th century the Reconquista ended Islamic rule in central and southern Iberia (modern day Spain + Portugal) and many Muslims and Jews fled to Morocco. Under the Saadi Dynasty, the first Moroccan dynasty initiated by ethnic Arabs since the Idrisids, the country would consolidate power and fight off Portuguese and Ottoman invaders, as in the battle of Ksar el Kebir. The reign of Ahmad al-Mansur brought new wealth and prestige to the Sultanate, and a massive invasion of the Songhay Empire was initiated.

However, managing the territories across the Sahara proved too difficult. After the death of al-Mansur the country was divided among his sons. In 1666 the sultanate was reunited by the Alaouite dynasty, who have since been the ruling house in Morocco. The organization of the state developed with Ismail Ibn Sharif. With his Jaysh d'Ahl al-Rif (the Riffian Army) he seized Tangier from the English in 1684 and drove the Spanish from Larache in 1689.

In 1912, after the First Moroccan Crisis and the Agadir Crisis, the Treaty of Fez was signed, effectively dividing Morocco into a French and a Spanish protectorate. In 1956, after forty-four years of occupation, Morocco regained independence from France and Spain as the "Kingdom of Morocco".

Population of Morocco

The area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times (at least since 200,000 BC, as attested by signs of the Aterian culture), a period when the Maghreb was less arid than it is today. In Paleolithic ages, the geography of Morocco resembled a savanna more than the present-day arid landscape.[15] In the classical period, Morocco was known as Mauretania, although this should not be confused with the modern-day nation of Mauritania. The suggested skeletal similarities between the robust Iberomaurusian "Mechta-Afalou" burials and European Cro-Magnon remains, as well as the case for continuity of the bearers of the Iberomaurusian industry from Morocco with later northwest African populations suggested by the dental evidence should be considered. Current scientific debate is concerned with determining the relative contributions of different periods of gene flow to the current gene pool of North Africans. Anatomically modern humans are known to have been present in North Africa during the Upper Paleolithic 175,000 years ago as attested by the Aterian culture. With apparent continuity, 22,000 years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. The Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the The Bell-Beaker culture in Morocco.

Additionally, recent studies have discovered a close mitochondrial link between Berbers and the Saami of Scandinavia which confirms that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area of southwestern Europe was the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers that repopulated northern Europe after the Last Glacial Maximum and reveals a direct maternal link between those European hunter-gatherer populations and the Berbers.

A Jewish community historically lived in Morocco. In any case, over the centuries, nearly all Berbers were Islamicized. Still, a large Jewish community remained in Morocco especially after the arrival of Sephardi Jews following the Alhambra decree. In the early 20th century, numerous Moroccan Jews emigrated to the United States and Italy, after Italian Jews established study centers and schools to bring the Enlightenment to Moroccan Jews.

In 1948, before the creation of Israel, Jews numbered approximately 265,000. The hostilities and disruption of the war of independence and other wars in the Mideast caused more Jews to leave for Palestine, Europe and the United States. Seven thousand live there now (mostly in a few major cities). In relation to the commemoration of Christopher Columbus' voyage to the New World, numerous academic studies were undertaken about the Moroccan Jews of Morocco. The late king Hassan II reached out internationally to descendants of Jews who had lived in the country and encouraged returns and visits, with recognition of their contributions to the nation, but there has not been markedly increased immigration.

Romans and Morocco

North Africa and Morocco were slowly drawn into the wider emerging Mediterranean world by Phoenician trading colonies and settlements in the early Classical period. Major early substantial settlements of the Phoenicians were at Chellah, Lixus and Mogador,[16] with Mogador being a Phoenician colony as early as the early 6th century BC.[17] The arrival of Phoenicians heralded a long engagement with the wider Mediterranean, as this strategic region formed part of the Roman Empire, as Mauretania Tingitana. In the 5th century, as the Roman Empire declined, the region fell to the Vandals, Visigoths, and then the Byzantine Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire, in rapid succession. During this time, however, the high mountains of most of modern Morocco remained unsubdued, and stayed in the hands of their Berber inhabitants. Christianity was introduced in the 2nd century and gained converts in the towns and among slaves and Berber farmers.

Islamic era

Islamic expansion began in the 7th century. In 670 AD, the first Islamic conquest of the North African coastal plain took place under Uqba ibn Nafi, a general serving under the Umayyads of Damascus. Mercenaries of The Ummayyad armies brought their language and Islam, to which most of the Berbers converted. After the outbreak of the Great Berber Revolt in 739, the region's Berber population asserted its independence, forming states and kingdoms such as the Miknasa of Sijilmasa and the Barghawata. Under Idris ibn Abdallah, who was appointed by the Awraba Berbers of Volubilis to be their representative, the country soon cut ties and broke away from the control of the distant Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad and the Umayyad rule in Al-Andalus. The Idrisids established Fes as their capital and Morocco became a centre of Jewish learning and a major regional power.

Morocco would reach its height under a series of Berber dynasties that replaced the Idrisids after the 11th century.[18] From the 13th century onwards the country saw a massive migration of Banu Hilal Arab tribes. Their arrival was to have a critical effect on the nation: due to them nomadism returned, urban civilization fell and the country's inhabitants were quickly becoming Arabized. The Maghrawa, the Almoravids, the Almohads, the Marinids, the Wattasids and finally the Saadi dynasty would see Morocco rule most of Northwest Africa, as well as large sections of Islamic Iberia, or Al-Andalus. Following the Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula, large numbers of Muslims and Jews were forced to flee to Morocco.[19] After the Saadi, the Alaouite Dynasty eventually gained control. Morocco was facing aggression from Spain and the Ottoman Empire that was sweeping westward. The Alaouites succeeded in stabilizing their position, and while the kingdom was smaller than previous ones in the region, it remained quite wealthy. In 1684, they annexed Tangier. The organization of the kingdom developed under Ismail Ibn Sharif (1672–1727), who, against the opposition of local tribes began to create a unified state.[20] According to Elizabeth Allo Isichei, "In 1520, there was a famine in Morocco so terrible that for a long time other events were dated by it. It has been suggested that the population of Morocco fell from 5 to under 3 million between the early sixteenth and nineteenth centuries."[21]

Morocco was the first nation to recognize the fledgling United States as an independent nation in 1777.[22] In the beginning of the American Revolution, American merchant ships were subject to attack by the Barbary Pirates while sailing the Atlantic Ocean. On December 20, 1777, Morocco's Sultan Mohammed III declared that the American merchant ships would be under the protection of the sultanate and could thus enjoy safe passage. The Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship stands as the U.S.'s oldest non-broken friendship treaty.[23] [24]

European influence

See main article: Portuguese Empire, French colonial empire and Spanish Protectorate of Morocco. Successful Portuguese efforts to invade and control the Atlantic coast in the 15th century did not profoundly affect the Mediterranean heart of Morocco. After the Napoleonic Wars, Egypt and the North African Maghreb became increasingly ungovernable from Istanbul, the resort of pirates under local beys, and as Europe industrialized, an increasingly prized potential for colonization. The Maghreb had far greater proven wealth than the unknown rest of Africa and a location of strategic importance affecting the exit from the Mediterranean. For the first time, Morocco became a state of some interest in itself to the European powers.

France showed a strong interest in Morocco as early as 1830.[25] Recognition by the United Kingdom in 1904 of France's sphere of influence in Morocco provoked a reaction from the German Empire; the crisis of June 1905 was resolved at the Algeciras Conference in Spain in 1906, which formalized France's "special position" and entrusted policing of Morocco jointly to France and Spain. The Agadir Crisis provoked by the Germans, increased tensions between European powers. The Treaty of Fez (signed on March 30, 1912) made Morocco a protectorate of France. By the same treaty, Spain assumed the role of protecting power over the northern and southern Saharan zones on November 27 that year.[26]

Many Moroccan soldiers (Goumieres) served in the French army in both World War I and World War II, and in the Spanish Nationalist Army in the Spanish Civil War and after (Regulares).

Resistance

Under the French protectorate, Moroccan natives were denied their basic human rights such as freedom of speech, the right of gathering and travel in their own country. French settlers built for themselves modern European-like cities called "villages" or "villes" next to poor old Arab cities called "Medinas". The French colonial system forbade native Moroccans from living, working, and traveling into the French quarters. The French education system taught a minority of noble native Moroccan families about French history, art and culture, while disregarding their native language and culture. Colonial authorities exerted tighter control on religious schools and universities, namely "madrassas" and Quaraouaine university. The rise of a young Moroccan intellectual class gave birth to nationalist movements whose main goals were to restore the governance of the country to its own people.[27] Nationalist political parties, which subsequently arose under the French protectorate, based their arguments for Moroccan independence on such World War II declarations as the Atlantic Charter (a joint U.S.-British statement that set forth, among other things, the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live). A manifesto of the Istiqlal Party (Independence party in English) in 1944 was one of the earliest public demands for independence. That party subsequently provided most of the leadership for the nationalist movement.

France's exile of Sultan Mohammed V in 1953 to Madagascar and his replacement by the unpopular Mohammed Ben Aarafa, whose reign was perceived as illegitimate, sparked active opposition to the French and Spanish protectorates. The most notable violence occurred in Oujda where Moroccans attacked French and other European residents in the streets. Operations by the newly created "Jaish al-tahrir" (Liberation Army), were launched on October 1, 1955. Jaish al-tahrir was created by "Comité de Libération du Maghreb Arabe" (Arab Maghreb Liberation Committee) in Cairo, Egypt to constitute a resistance movement against occupation. Its goal was the return of King Mohammed V and the liberation of Algeria and Tunisia as well. France allowed Mohammed V to return in 1955, and the negotiations that led to Moroccan independence began the following year.[28]

All those events helped increase the degree of solidarity between the people and the newly returned king. For this reason, the revolution that Morocco knew was called "Taourat al-malik wa shaab" (The revolution of the King and the People) and it is celebrated every August 20.

Contemporary Morocco

On November 18, 2006, Morocco celebrated the 50th anniversary of its independence. Morocco recovered its political independence from France on March 2, 1956, and on April 7, France officially relinquished its protectorate. Through agreements with Spain in 1956 and 1958, Moroccan control over certain Spanish-ruled areas was restored, though attempts to claim other Spanish colonial possessions through military action were less successful. The internationalized city of Tangier was reintegrated with the signing of the Tangier Protocol on October 29, 1956 (see Tangier Crisis). Hassan II became King of Morocco on March 3, 1961. His early years of rule were marked by political unrest. The Spanish enclave of Ifni in the south was reintegrated to the country in 1969. Morocco annexed the Western Sahara during the 1970s ("Marcha Verde", Green March) after demanding its reintegration from Spain since independence, but final resolution on the status of the territory remains unresolved. (See History of Western Sahara.)[19]

Political reforms in the 1990s resulted in the establishment of a bicameral legislature in 1997. Morocco was granted Major non-NATO ally status by the United States in June 2004 and has signed free trade agreements with the United States and the European Union.

Morocco has always been known for its islamic liberalism and openness towards the Western world. King Mohammed VI of Morocco with his ruling elite are democratically minded, showing tolerance within the limits of territorial integrity and traditional laws and customs.[29]

Geography

See main article: Geography of Morocco. Morocco has a coast on the Atlantic Ocean that reaches past the Strait of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean Sea. It is bordered by Spain to the north (a water border through the Strait and land borders with three small Spanish-controlled exclaves, Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera), Algeria to the east, and Western Sahara to the south. Since Morocco controls most of Western Sahara, its de facto southern boundary is with Mauritania.

The internationally recognized borders of the country lie between latitudes 27° and 36°N, and longitudes 1° and 14°W. Adding Western Sahara, Morocco lies mostly between 21° and 36°N, and and 17°W (the Ras Nouadhibou peninsula is slightly south of 21° and west of 17°).

The geography of Morocco spans from the Atlantic Ocean, to mountainous areas, to the Sahara (desert). Morocco is a Northern African country, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and the annexed Western Sahara.

A large part of Morocco is mountainous. The Atlas Mountains are located mainly in the center and the south of the country. The Rif Mountains are located in the north of the country. Both ranges are mainly inhabited by the Berber people.At 1724020NaN0, Morocco is the fifty-seventh largest country in the world (after Uzbekistan).Algeria borders Morocco to the east and southeast though the border between the two countries has been closed since 1994.

Spanish territory in Morocco comprises five enclaves on the Mediterranean coast: Ceuta, Melilla, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, Peñón de Alhucemas, the Chafarinas islands, and the disputed islet Perejil. Off the Atlantic coast the Canary Islands belong to Spain, whereas Madeira to the north is Portuguese. To the north, Morocco is bordered by and controls part of the Strait of Gibraltar, giving it power over the waterways in and out of the Mediterranean sea.

The Rif mountains occupy the region bordering the Mediterranean from the north-west to the north-east. The Atlas Mountains run down the backbone of the country, from the south west to the north east. Most of the south east portion of the country is in the Sahara Desert and as such is generally sparsely populated and unproductive economically. Most of the population lives to the north of these mountains, while to the south is the desert.

To the south, lies the Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony that was annexed by Morocco in 1975 (see Green March).[30] Morocco claims that the Western Sahara is part of its territory and refers to that as its Southern Provinces.

Morocco's capital city is Rabat; its largest city is its main port, Casablanca. Other cities include Agadir, Essaouira, Fes, Marrakech, Meknes, Mohammadia, Oujda, Ouarzazat, Safi, Salé, Tangier and Tétouan.

Morocco is represented in the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 geographical encoding standard by the symbol MA.[31] This code was used as the basis for Morocco's internet domain, .ma.[31]

Climate

The climate is Mediterranean in the North and in some mountains (West of Atlas), which becomes more extreme towards the interior regions. The terrain is such that the coastal plains are rich and accordingly, they comprise the backbone for agriculture, especially in the North. Forests cover about 12% of the land while arable land accounts for 18%; 5% is irrigated. In the Atlas (Middle Atlas), there are several different climates: Mediterranean (with some more humid and fresher variants), Maritime Temperate (with some humid and fresher variants too) that allow different species of oaks, moss carpets, junipers, atlantic cedars and many other plants, to form extensive and very rich humid cloud forests. In the highest peaks a different climate may occur. On the other side of Atlas mountains (East Atlas), the climate changes, due to the barrier/shelter effect of these mountainous system, turning it very dry and extremely warm during the summer (that can last several months), especially on the lowlands and on the valleys faced to the Sahara. Here it starts the big Desert Sahara and it is perfectly visible, for example, on the Draa Valley, on which it is possible to find oases, sand dunes and rocky desert landscapes. So the climate in this region is desert.

Biodiversity

Morocco is known for its wildlife biodiversity. Birds represent the most important fauna.[32] The avifauna of Morocco includes a total of 454 species, five of which have been introduced by humans, and 156 are rarely or accidentally seen.[33]

The last known Barbary lion in the wild was shot in the Atlas Mountains in 1922. The two other primary predators of northern Africa, the Atlas bear and Barbary leopard, are now also extinct and critically endangered, respectively.

Demographics

See main article: Demographics of Morocco, Religion in Morocco and Moroccan people.

Population of Morocco [34]
YearMillion
197115.7
199024.8
200932.0
Source: OECD/World Bank
Most Moroccans practice Sunni Islam and are of either Arabized Berbers or Berber ethnic. Arabized-Berber make up about 99.1% of the Moroccan population.[35]

Morocco has been inhabited for at least the last 200,000 years. The Muslims conquered the territory that would become Morocco in the 7th and 11th centuries, at the time under the rule of various late Byzantine Roman leaders and indigenous Berber and Romano-Berber principalities, laying the foundation for the emergence of an Arab-Berber culture. A sizeable portion of the population is identified as Haratin and Gnawa (or Gnaoua), black or mixed race. Morocco's Jewish minority (265,000 in 1948) has decreased significantly and numbers about 5,500 (See History of the Jews in Morocco).[36] Most of the 100,000 foreign residents are French or Spanish. Some of them are colonists' descendants, who primarily work for European multinational companies, others are married to Moroccans and preferred to settle in Morocco. Prior to independence, Morocco was home to half a million Europeans.[37]

According to The Medieval Legends, In the 12th and 13th centuries there was an invasion of Arab nomads from The Fatimid Empire located in North Eastern Africa, known as Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym tribes who were a bunch of Arabized Libyan Tribes founded in the Fayum Oasis in Egypt and Cyrenaica of Libya, swept the Eastern Maghreb,[38] but recent studies make clear no significant genetic differences exist between Arabic and non-Arabic speaking populations, highlighting that in common with most of the Arab World, Arabization was mainly via acculturation of indigenous populations over time. The Moorish refugees from Spain settled in the coast-towns. According to the European Journal of Human Genetics, Moroccans from North-Western Africa were genetically closer to Iberians than to Black Sub-Saharan Africans and Middle Easterners.The largest concentration of Moroccans outside Morocco is in France, which has reportedly over one million Moroccans. The Netherlands (370,000) and Belgium have 1 million Moroccans from the Riff (Al Hoceima, Nador). There are also large Moroccan communities in Spain (about 700,000 Moroccans), the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Israel and the United States.[39] Moroccan Jews are the second biggest Jewish ethnic group in Israel.

Most people live west of the Atlas Mountains, a range that insulates the country from the Sahara Desert. Casablanca is the center of commerce and industry and the leading port; Rabat is the seat of government; Tangier is the gateway to Morocco from Spain and also a major port; Fes is the cultural and religious center; and Marrakech is a major tourist center.

There is a European expatriate population of 100,000, especially in Morocco's main economic center Casablanca, mainly of French or Spanish descent; many are teachers or technicians or retirees.

Languages

In Morocco, there are 15 to 18 million Berber speakers, about 50 to 65% of the population[40] or 28.07% of the total population according to the 2004 population census,[4] that speak the Tachelhit in the High Atlas, the Anti-Atlas and Souss, the Tamazight in the Middle Atlas and Tarifit in the region of Rif. In the 20th century many Berbers have also moved from rural areas to the major cities.

See main article: Languages of Morocco.

Morocco's official languages are Arabic and the Amazigh language.[41] [42] The country's distinctive group of Moroccan Arabic dialects is referred to as Darija. Approximately 89.84%[4] of the whole population speak Moroccan Arabic. The Berber languages can be found in three different dialects (Tarifit, Tashelhit and Central Atlas Tamazight).[43] Much like other Magreb countries, French is Morocco's unofficial second language and is taught universally, serving as Morocco's primary language of commerce and economics. It also is widely used in government and as a medium of education (to get a master's degree or doctorate in Morocco in any subject other than Arabic language, law or theology, one must study the curriculum in French).

Spanish is also popular, especially in the northern part of the country, but the number of speakers is difficult to estimate. According to the 2004 census, 2.19 million Moroccans spoke a foreign language other than French.[4] English, while still far behind French and Spanish in terms of number of speakers, is rapidly becoming the second foreign language of choice, after French, among educated youth. As a result of national education reforms entering into force in late 2002, English is taught in all public schools from the fourth year on. French is still taught nationally from the earliest grades.

Below is the number of speakers of each Berber language, according to the 2004 census:[4]

RegionTashlhytTamazightTarifitTotal pop% of Berber Languages speakers
Souss-Massa-Draa1,717,139313,2843,8732,775,953align=Right73.28%
Oriental48,07685,916741,9131,739,440align=Right50.36%
Guelmim-Es Semara182,6956,670766382,029align=Right49.77%
Meknes-Tafilalet37,533843,59533,9661,926,247align=Right47.51%
Tadla-Azilal199,092409,4461,4361,299,536align=Right46.94%
Marrakech-Tensift-El Haouz969,56114,1702,3722,765,908align=Right35.65%
Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate18,923111,731338,0831,613,315align=Right29.05%
Rabat-Sale-Zemmour-Zaer166,658268,68714,9652,136,636align=Right21.08%
Fès-Boulemane23,138217,84515,2751,418,475align=Right18.07%
Laayoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra28,3526,569891219,505align=Right16.31%
Oued Ed-Dahab-Lagouira6,9103,21429664,163align=Right16.24%
Grand Casablanca367,55825,0679,0363,306,334align=Right12.15%
Tangier-Tetouan26,78311,96398,7802,205,457align=Right6.24%
Gharb-Chrarda-Beni Hssen37,16213,8166,1051,655,852align=Right3.45%
Chaouia-Ouardigha40,8588,3081,4351,478,605align=Right3.42%
Doukkala-Abda24,3673,6561,7941,768,150align=Right1.69%
Morocco3,894,8052,343,9371,270,98626,755,605align=Right28.07%

The number of Tamazight-Tarifit speakers was estimated at around 3 million in 1990.[44] There are also 2 million Riff-speakers in Europe. The Riffians represent over 96% of the Morrocans in The Netherlands and Belgium. and 45% of the Morroccans in France are Riffian.The High Atlas Region Tamazight dialect is the most widely spoken variety of Berber, as it covers the whole of the Region High Atlas Mountains, including greater external Mountains referred to as Jbel Atlas Saghru or Little Atlas. Studies done in 1990 show around 3 million people, concentrated in the central south of Morocco, speak Tashelhit.[44]

Linguistically, Berber languages belong to the Afro-Asiatic languages group, and has many accents or variants. Collectively, these are known by many Moroccans as "Shelha". Classical Arabic of the Middle East still uses the word "Barbaria" (The equivalent of "Berber" in English). Although, there is an increasing tendency by Maghrebian Media to use the word "Amazighiyya" because the Arabic word "Barbari" means both "Berber" and "Barbarian". The terms "Barbar" and "Berber" are considered by some Berbers and most Berber activists to be offensive. They prefer the word Amazigh.

Moroccan DNA

Recent studies make clear no significant genetic differences exist between Arabic and non-Arabic speaking populations, HLA DNA data suggest that most Moroccans are of a Berber origin and that Arabs who invaded North Africa and Spain in the 7th century did not substantially contribute to the gene pool.[38] [45] The Moorish refugees from Spain settled in the coast-towns. According to a 2000 article in European Journal of Human Genetics, Moroccans from North-Western Africa were genetically closer to Iberians than to Sub-Saharan Africans of Bantu Ethnicity and Middle Easterners.[46]

The different loci studied revealed close similarity between the Berbers and other north African groups, mainly with Moroccan Arabic-speakers, which is in accord with the hypothesis that the current Moroccan population has a strong Berber background.[47]

The E1b1b1 clade is presently found in various forms in Morocco. Total E1b1b1 (E-M35) frequencies reached at 93.8% in Moroccans [48]

E1b1b1b1(E-M81), formerly E1b1b1b, E3b1b, and E3b2, is the most common Y chromosome haplogroup in Morocco, dominated by its sub-clade E-M18. This haplogroup reaches a mean frequency of 100% to 50% In North Africa, decreasing in frequency from approximately 85% or more in Moroccan Berber populations, including Saharawis, to approximately 25% to the east of this range in Egypt. Because of its prevalence among these groups and also others such as Mozabite, Middle Atlas, Kabyle and other Berber groups, it is sometimes referred to as a genetic "Berber marker".Average North African Moroccan Berbers have frequencies of E3b3 in the +80%. Alvarez et al.(2009) study shows a frequency of E3b1b of 28/33 or 84.8% in Berbers from Marrakesh. With the rest of the frequencies being 1/33=3% E3a*, 1/33=3% E3b*, 1/33 or 3% E3b1a, and 1/33 or 3% E3b1c.[48]

The most basal and rare E-M78* paragroup has been found at lower frequencies in Moroccan Arabs. The sub-clade: E1b1b1a1d (E-V65), is found in high levels in the Maghreb regions of far northern Africa. report levels of about 20% amongst Libyan Arab lineages, and about 30% amongst Morrocan Arabs. It appears to be less common amongst Berbers, but still present in levels of >10%. The authors suggest a North African origin for this lineage. In Europe, only a few individuals were found in Italy and Greece. studied the beta cluster in Europe. They found small amounts in Southern Italy, but also traces in Cantabria, Portugal and Galicia, with Cantabria having the highest level in Europe in their study, at 3.1% (5 out of 161 people).

Other frequencies of E1b1b1a1c (E-V22) is reported by Cruciani et al. (2007) include Moroccan Arabs (7.27%, 55 people) and Moroccan Jews (8%, 50 people).

Genetic continuity in Morocco

The population exhumed from the archaeological site of Taforalt in Morocco (12,000 years BP) is a valuable source of information toward a better knowledge of the settlement of Northern Africa region and provides a revolutionary way to specify the origin of Ibero-Maurusian populations. Ancient DNA was extracted from 31 bone remains from Taforalt.The HVS1 fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region was PCR-amplified and directly sequenced. Mitochondrial diversity in Taforalt shows the absence of sub-Saharan haplogroups suggesting that Ibero-Maurusian individuals had not originated in sub-Saharan region.Our results reveal a probable local evolution of Taforalt population and a genetic continuity in North Africa and Morocco.[49]

Genetic structure of Taforalt:

Eurasiatic Component : H, U, JT, V: 90.5%

North African component: U6: 9.5 %

42.8% (9/21) H or U
14.2% (3/21) JT
9.5% (2 individuals) U6

In modern Human population, JT is presents only in:

1.6% Berbers from the North of Morocco1.8% of Sicilians,1.6% of Italians.

Genetic Berber Heritage continuity of Moroccan Arabs

The cultural differentiation present in North Africa between Berber and Arab samples seems not to reflect genetic differences between both groups, as shown in the AMOVA analyses, and the MDS and PC analyses. If Arabs in Northern Africa were mostly descendants of Middle Eastern Arabs, the frequencies of haplogroups such as N, U1, U3, U7, and HV that are much more prevalent in the Middle East than elsewhere should be larger in N. African Arabs than in Berbers.However, the opposite is observed : these haplogroups add up to 5% in North African Arabs but to 10% in Berbers. The lack of differentiation between North African Arabs and Berbers has also been observed using other genetic markers such as classical markers (Bosch et al. 1997); autosomal STRs (Bosch et al. 2000), Alu insertion polymorphisms (Comas et al. 2000); and Y-chromosome lineages This pattern suggests that the Arabization of the area was mainly a cultural process, rather than a demographic replacement of the Berber populations that inhabited the region where the Arabic expansion took place,(Bosch et al. 2001).

Genetic influence of Moroccans on Southern Europe

Trombetta et al. (2011) felt that V257 showed a parallel with its sibling clade E-V68 in the way that both clades show signs of having migrated from North West Africa Likely Morocco to southwestern Europe across the Mediterranean sea. They found 6 "E-V257*" individuals in their samples who were E-V257, from a Moroccan Marrakesh Berber, a Corsican, a Sardinian, a southern Spaniard and a Cantabrian.

A study from Semino (published 2004) showed that Y-chromosome haplotype E1b1b1b (E-M81), is specific to Moroccan populations and almost absent in Europe except the Iberia (Spain and Portugal) and Sicily. Another 2004 study showed that E1b1b1b is found present, albeit at low levels throughout Southern Europe (ranging from 1.5% in Northern Italians, 2.2% in Central Italians, 1.6% in southern Spaniards, 3.5% in the French, 4% in the Northern Portuguese, 12.2% in the southern Portuguese and 41.2% in the genetic isolate of the Pasiegos from Cantabria).[50] The findings of this latter study contradict a more thorough analysis Y-chromosome analysis of the Iberian peninsula according to which haplogroup E1b1b1b surpasses frequencies of 10% in Southern Spain. The study points only to a very limited influence from northern Africa and the Middle East both in historic and prehistoric times.[51] The absence of microsatellite variation suggests a very recent arrival from Morocco consistent with historical exchanges across the Mediterranean during the period of Islamic expansion, namely of Berber populations. A study restricted to Portugal, concerning Y-chromosome lineages, revealed that "The mtDNA and Y data indicate that the Berber presence in that region dates prior to the Moorish expansion in 711 AD. ... Our data indicate that male Berbers, unlike sub-Saharan immigrants, constituted a long-lasting and continuous community in the country".

Haplotype V(p49/TaqI), a characteristic Moroccan haplotype, may be also found in the Iberian peninsula, and a decreasing North-South cline of frequency clearly establishes a gene flow from Morocco towards Iberia which is also consistent with Moorish presence in the peninsula. This North-South cline of frequency of halpotype V is to be observed throughout the Mediterranean region, ranging from frequencies of close to 30% in southern Portugal to around 10% in southern France. Similarly, the highest frequency in Italy is to be found in the southern island of Sicily (28%).[52]

A wide-ranging study (published 2007) using 6,501 unrelated Y-chromosome samples from 81 populations found that: "Considering both these E-M78 sub-haplogroups (E-V12, E-V22, E-V65) and the E-M81 haplogroup, the contribution of Moroccan lineages to the entire male gene pool of Iberia (barring Pasiegos), continental Italy and Sicily can be estimated as 5.6%, 3.6% and 6.6%, respectively."

A study about Sicily by Gaetano et al. 2008 found that "The Hg E3b1b-M81, widely diffused in northwestern African Moroccan populations, is estimated to contribute to the Sicilian gene pool at a rate of 6%." .

According to another recent study about Iberia by Adams et al. 2008 that analysed 1,140 unrelated Y-chromosome samples in Iberia, a much more important contribution of Moroccan lineages to the entire male gene pool of Iberia was found : "mean Moroccan admixture is 10.6%, with wide geographical variation, ranging from zero in Gascony to 21.7% in Northwest Castile".[53]

Politics

See main article: Politics of Morocco. Morocco is a de jure constitutional parliamentary monarchy with an elected parliament. With the 2011 constitutional reforms, the King of Morocco, still retains few executive powers whereas those of the prime minister have been enlarged. Opposition political parties are legal.Politics of Morocco take place in a framework of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Morocco is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives of Morocco and the Assembly of Councillors. The Moroccan Constitution provides for a monarchy with a Parliament and an independent judiciary.

The constitution grants the king honorific powers; he is both the secular political leader and the "Commander of the Faithful" as a direct descendant of the Prophet Mohammed. He presides over the Council of Ministers; appoints the Prime Minister from the political party that has won the most seats in the parliamentary elections, and on recommendations from the latter, appoints the members of the government. The previous constitution(note constitution of 1996) theoretically allows the king to terminate the tenure of any minister, and after consultation with the heads of the higher and lower Assemblies, to dissolve the Parliament, suspend the constitution, call for new elections, or rule by decree, the only time this happened was in 1965. The King is formally the chief of the military. Upon the death of his father Mohammed V, King Hassan II succeeded to the throne in 1961. He ruled Morocco for the next 38 years, until he died in 1999. His son, King Mohammed VI, assumed the throne in July 1999. Following protests in Morocco and elsewhere in the Arab world in early 2011, King Mohammed VI announced the establishment of a committee aimed at preparing the text of a new constitution, which included further limitations on the powers of the monarch.

Following the March 1998 elections, a coalition government headed by opposition socialist leader Abderrahmane Youssoufi and composed largely of ministers drawn from opposition parties, was formed. Prime Minister Youssoufi's government is the first ever government drawn primarily from opposition parties, and also represents the first opportunity for a coalition of socialists, left-of-center, and nationalist parties to be included in the government until October 2002. It was also the first time in the modern political history of the Arab world that the opposition assumed power following an election. The current government is headed by Abbas El Fassi.

Legislative branch

Since the constitutional reform of 1996, the bicameral legislature consists of two chambers. The Assembly of Representatives of Morocco (Majlis an-Nuwwâb/Assemblée des Répresentants) has 325 members elected for a five year term, 295 elected in multi-seat constituencies and 30 in national lists consisting only of women. The Assembly of Councillors (Majlis al-Mustasharin) has 270 members, elected for a nine year term, elected by local councils (162 seats), professional chambers (91 seats) and wage-earners (27 seats).The Parliament's powers, though still relatively limited, were expanded under the 1992 and 1996 and even further in the 2011 constitutional revisions and include budgetary matters, approving bills, questioning ministers, and establishing ad hoc commissions of inquiry to investigate the government's actions. The lower chamber of Parliament may dissolve the government through a vote of no confidence.

2011 Constitutional reforms

On July 1 voters approved the draft of a new constitution which entered into effect on 29 July 2011.[42]

The constitutional reforms consisted of the following:[54]

On 2 July 2011 some Moroccan protesters said they were undeterred despite a landslide victory for King Mohammed in a referendum on constitutional changes they say do nothing to ease his autocratic grip on power.[68]

The nation's interior ministry has offered the tentative date of November 11, 2011 for parliamentary elections[69]

Military

See main article: Military of Morocco. Compulsory military service in Morocco has been suppressed since September 2006, and the country’s reserve obligation lasts until age 50. The country’s military consists of the Royal Armed Forces—this includes the army (the largest branch) and a small navy and air force—the National Police Force, the Royal Gendarmerie (mainly responsible for rural security), and the Auxiliary Forces. Internal security is generally effective, and acts of political violence are rare (with one exception, the 2003 Casablanca bombings which killed 45 people[70]). The UN maintains a small observer force in Western Sahara, where a large number of Morocco’s troops are stationed. The Saharawi group Polisario maintains an active militia of an estimated 5,000 fighters in Western Sahara and has engaged in intermittent warfare with Moroccan forces since the 1980s.

The military of Morocco is composed of the following main divisions:

Foreign relations

See main article: Foreign relations of Morocco. ABEDA, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, EBRD, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Affiliations
OrganizationDates
United Nationssince November 12, 1956
Arab Leaguesince October 1, 1958
International Olympic Committeesince 1959
Organisation of African Unityco-founder May 25, 1963; withdrew November 12, 1984
Group of 77since June 15, 1964
Organisation of Islamic Cooperationsince September 22, 1969
Organisation Internationale de la Francophoniesince 1981
World Trade Organizationsince January 1, 1995
Mediterranean Dialogue groupsince February 1995
Major non-NATO ally of the United Statessince January 19, 2004
Bilateral and multilateral agreements

Administrative divisions

Morocco is divided into 16 regions,[71] and subdivided into 62 prefectures and provinces.[72]

Regions

See main article: Regions of Morocco. As part of a 1997 decentralization/regionalization law passed by the legislature, sixteen new regions were created. These regions are:

Provinces

See main article: Prefectures and provinces of Morocco. Morocco is divided into 37 provinces and 2 wilayas*: Agadir, Al Hoceima, Azilal, Beni Mellal, Ben Slimane, Boulemane, Casablanca*, Chaouen, El Jadida, El Kelaa des Sraghna, Er Rachidia, Essaouira, Fes, Figuig, Guelmim, Ifrane, Kenitra, Khemisset, Rommani, Khenifra, Khouribga, Laayoune, Larache, Marrakech, Meknes, Nador, Ouarzazate, Oujda, Rabat-Sale*, Safi, Settat, Sidi Kacem, Tangier, Tan-Tan, Taounate, Taroudannt, Tata, Taza, Tetouan, Tiznit; three additional provinces of Ad Dakhla (Oued Eddahab), Boujdour, and Es Smara as well as parts of Tan-Tan and Laayoune fall within Moroccan-claimed Western Sahara.

Cities

See also: List of cities in Morocco. This is a list of the largest metropolitan areas, each may include several towns and cities, which are in very close proximity to each other.

Western Sahara status

See main article: Western Sahara and Legal status of Western Sahara. Because of the conflict over Western Sahara, the status of both regions of "Saguia el-Hamra" and "Río de Oro" is disputed. The United Nations views Western Sahara as a non-self-governing territory, and as a case of unfinished decolonization. Morocco's rule in the territory is not internationally recognized, nor is the independent republic proposed by Polisario, a Saharawi group which fought against the Spanish colonial rule and then for Western Sahara's independence as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (today headquartered in Algeria). There is a ceasefire in effect since 1991, and a UN mission (MINURSO) is tasked with organizing a referendum on whether the territory should become independent or recognized as a part of Morocco. At the time, both parties signed an agreement to this effect, but they did not agree on who would be entitled to vote.

The territory is mostly administered as the Southern Provinces by Morocco since Spain handed over the territory to Morocco and Mauritania after the Madrid Accords in 1975–76. Part of the territory, the Free Zone, is an uninhabited area controlled by the Polisario Front as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic with Headquarters at Tindouf in Algeria. A UN-administered cease-fire has been in effect since September, 1991.

Western Sahara War

See main article: Western Sahara War. The Western Sahara War was the armed conflict which saw the Sahrawi rebel national liberation movement Polisario Front (headquarted in Algeria) battling Morocco and Mauritania for the control of the former Spanish colony of Western Sahara from 1976 to 1991. The war resulted in the Spanish retreat in 1976, the Mauritanian retreat in 1979 and a cease fire agreement with Morocco. The bigger part of the territory remained under Moroccan control.

Moroccan Autonomy Initiative

See main article: Moroccan Initiative for Western Sahara. Recently, the government of Morocco has suggested autonomous status for the region, through the Moroccan Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs (CORCAS). The project was presented to the United Nations Security Council in mid-April 2007. The proposal was encouraged by Moroccan allies such as the USA, France and Spain,[73] and the Security Council "Takes note of the Moroccan proposal presented on 11 April 2007 to the Secretary-General and welcoming serious and credible Moroccan efforts to move the process forward towards resolution;". The Security Council has called upon the parties to enter into direct and unconditional negotiations to reach a mutually accepted political solution.[74]

Economy

See main article: Economy of Morocco. Morocco's economy is considered a relatively liberal economy governed by the law of supply and demand. Since 1993, the country has followed a policy of privatization of certain economic sectors which used to be in the hands of the government.[75] Morocco is the world's biggest exporter and third producer of phosphorus. Price fluctuations of phosphates in the international market strongly influence Morocco's economy.

Government reforms and steady yearly growth in the region of 4–5% from 2000 to 2007, including 4.9% year-on-year growth in 2003–2007 helped the Moroccan economy to become much more robust compared to a few years ago. For 2012 the World Bank forecasts a rate of 4 percent growth for Morocco and 4.2 percent for following year, 2013.[76]

Economic growth is far more diversified, with new service and industrial poles, like Casablanca and Tangier, developing. The agriculture sector is being rehabilitated, which in combination with good rainfalls led to a growth of over 20% in 2009.

The services sector accounts for just over half of GDP and industry, made up of mining, construction and manufacturing, is an additional quarter. The sectors who recorded the highest growth are the tourism, telecoms, information technology, and textile sectors. Morocco, however, still depends to an inordinate degree on agriculture. The sector accounts for only around 14% of GDP but employs 40–45% of the Moroccan population. With a semi-arid climate, it is difficult to assure good rainfall and Morocco’s GDP varies depending on the weather. Fiscal prudence has allowed for consolidation, with both the budget deficit and debt falling as a percentage of GDP.

The economic system of the country presents several facets. It is characterized by a large opening towards the outside world. France remains the primary trade partner (supplier and customer) of Morocco. France is also the primary creditor and foreign investor in Morocco. In the Arab world, Morocco has the second-largest non-oil GDP, behind Egypt, as of 2005.

Since the early 1980s the Moroccan government has pursued an economic program toward accelerating real economy growth with the support of the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the Paris Club of creditors. The country's currency, the dirham, is now fully convertible for current account transactions; reforms of the financial sector have been implemented; and state enterprises are being privatized.

The major resources of the Moroccan economy are agriculture, phosphates, and tourism. Sales of fish and seafood are important as well. Industry and mining contribute about one-third of the annual GDP. Morocco is the world's third-largest producer of phosphorus (after China, which is first, and the United States which is second),[77] and the price fluctuations of phosphates on the international market greatly influence Morocco's economy. Tourism and workers' remittances have played a critical role since the Kingdom's independence. The production of textiles and clothing is part of a growing manufacturing sector that accounted for approximately 34% of total exports in 2002, employing 40% of the industrial workforce. The government wishes to increase textile and clothing exports from $1.27 billion in 2001 to $3.29 billion in 2010.

The high cost of imports, especially of petroleum imports, is a major problem. Another chronic problem is unreliable rainfall, which produces drought or sudden floods; in 1995, the country's worst drought in 30 years forced Morocco to import grain and adversely affected the economy. Another drought occurred in 1997, and one in 1999–2000. Reduced incomes due to drought caused GDP to fall by 7.6% in 1995, by 2.3% in 1997, and by 1.5% in 1999. During the years between drought, good rains brought bumper crops to market. Good rainfall in 2001 led to a 5% GDP growth rate. Morocco suffers both from unemployment (9.6% in 2008), and a large external debt estimated at around $20 billion, or half of GDP in 2002.[78]

Among the various free trade agreements that Morocco has ratified with its principal economic partners, are The Euro-Mediterranean free trade area agreement with the European Union with the objective of integrating the European Free Trade Association at the horizons of 2012; the Agadir Agreement, signed with Egypt, Jordan, and Tunisia, within the framework of the installation of the Greater Arab Free Trade Area; the US-Morocco Free Trade Agreement with United States which came into force on January 1, 2006, and lately the agreement of free exchange with Turkey.(See Economy of Morocco)

Agriculture

See main article: Agriculture in Morocco. Agriculture in Morocco employs about 40% of the nation's workforce and is the largest employer in the country. Barley, wheat, and other cereals are amongst the main products. On the Atlantic coast, where there are extensive plains, olives, citrus fruits, and grapes are grown.

Below is a table of the agricultural output of Morocco according to estimates of the UN Food & Agriculture Organisation, data is from 2009:

RankCommodityValue (Int $1000)Production (MT)Quantity world rankValue world rank
1Wheat939,1506,400,0001917
2Indigenous Chicken Meat635,889446,424NANA
3Olives616,541770,00066
4Tomatoes480,4331,300,0001717
5Indigenous Cattle Meat433,257160,384NANA
6Cow milk, whole, fresh409,5661,750,000NANA
7Barley389,7093,800,000127
8Indigenous Sheep Meat325,935119,706NANA
9Almonds, with shell307,240104,11555
10Oranges231,9101,200,0001414
11Potatoes230,0321,500,000NANA
12Hen eggs, in shell221,668267,267NANA
13String beans173,716182,18033
14Grapes171,485300,000NANA
15Apples169,166400,000NANA
16Strawberries168,627124,2391111
17Onions, dry136,521650,0002323
18Other melons (inc.cantaloupes)134,386730,00088
19Tangerines, mandarins, clem.128,945522,0001212
20Anise, badian, fennel, corian.127,12623,00077
colspan=6Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO) 2009 data:
http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx

Energy

In 2008, about 56% of the electricity source of Morocco came from coal.[79] However, a new law passed encouraging Moroccans to use more renewable resources. The Moroccan government has launched a project to build a solar thermal energy power plant.[80]

Transport

See main article: Transport in Morocco. The railway network of Morocco consists of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge and electrified with 3 kV DC. There are connections to Algeria, and consecutively Tunisia, but since the 1990s the connections are closed. The Gibraltar Tunnel is a rail tunnel link proposed between Tangier, Morocco and Spain under the Strait of Gibraltar to be in operation in 2025.

There are plans for high-speed lines: Work by ONCF could begin in 2007 from Marrakech to Tangier in the north via Marrakesh to Agadir in the south, and from Casablanca on the Atlantic to Oujda on the Algerian border. If the plans are approved, the of track may take until 2030 to complete at a cost of around 25 billion dirhams ($3.37 billion). Casablanca to Marrakesh could be cut to 1 hour and 20 minutes from over three hours, and from the capital Rabat to Tangier to 1 hour and 30 minutes from 4 hours and 30 minutes.

There are around of roads (national, regional and provincial) in Morocco.[81] In addition to kilometre of highways.[82]

The Tangier-Casablanca high-speed rail link marks the first stage of the ONCF’s high-speed rail master plan, pursuant to which over of new railway lines will be built by 2035 The high speed train -TGV- will carry 8 million passengers per year. It will have a capacity of 500 passengers. the work in the High Speed Train project has started in September 2011[83] and the infrastructure works and railway equipment will end in 2014, and the HST will be operational in December 2015.[84]

Education

See main article: Education in Morocco.

See also: Science and technology in Morocco and List of universities in Morocco. Education in Morocco is free and compulsory through primary school. The country's illiteracy rate has been stuck at around 50% for some years, with male literacy at 65.7% and female at 39.6%.[85] On September 2006, UNESCO awarded Morocco amongst other countries such as Cuba, Pakistan, India and Turkey the "UNESCO 2006 Literacy Prize".[86]

Morocco has about 230,000 students enrolled in fourteen public universities. The Mohammed V University in Rabat and Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane (public university) are highly regarded. Al-Akhawayn, founded in 1993 by King Hassan II and King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, is an English-language American-style university comprising about 1,780 students. The University of Al Karaouine, in Fez, is considered the oldest continuously operating university in the world and has been a center of learning for more than 1,000 years.

Morocco allocates approximately one fifth of its budget to education. Much of this is spent on building schools to accommodate the rapidly growing population. Education is mandatory for children between the ages of 7 and 13 years. In urban areas the majority of children in this age group attend school, though on a national scale the level of participation drops significantly. About three fourths of school age males attend school, but only about half of school age girls; these proportions drop markedly in rural areas. Slightly more than half of the children go on to secondary education, including trade and technical schools. Of these, few seek higher education. Poor school attendance, particularly in rural areas, has meant a low rate of literacy, which is about two fifths of the population.

Morocco has more than four dozen universities, institutes of higher learning, and polytechnics dispersed at urban centres throughout the country. Its leading institutions include Muḥammad V University in Rabat, the country’s largest university, with branches in Casablanca and Fès; the Hassan II Agriculture and Veterinary Institute in Rabat, which conducts leading social science research in addition to its agricultural specialties; and Al-Akhawayn University in Ifrane, the first English-language university in North Africa,[87] inaugurated in 1995 with contributions from Saudi Arabia and the United States.The University of Al-Karaouine or Al-Qarawiyyin is a university located in Fes. It is considered the oldest continuously operating academic degree-granting university in the world.

Morocco has also some of prestigious Postgraduate Schools like : L'École Mohammadia d'ingénieurs, l'Institut national de statistique et d'économie appliquée, l'École nationale d'industrie minérale, l'École Hassania des travaux publics, l'Institut supérieur de commerce et d'administration des entreprises, ENCG (écoles nationales de commerce et de gestion), EST (écoles supérieures de technologie).[88]

Culture

See main article: Culture of Morocco. Morocco is an ethnically diverse country with a rich culture and civilization. Through Moroccan history, it has hosted many people coming from East (Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Jews and Arabs), South (Sub-Saharan Africans) and North (Romans, Vandals, Andalusians (including Moors and Jews). All those civilizations have had an impact on the social structure of Morocco. It conceived various forms of beliefs, from paganism, Judaism, and Christianity to Islam.

The production of Moroccan literature has continued to grow and diversify. To the traditional genres—poetry, essays, and historiography—have been added forms inspired by Middle Eastern and Western literary models. French is often used in publishing research in the social and natural sciences, and in the fields of literature and literary studies, works are published in both Arabic and French. Moroccan writers, such as Mohammed Choukri, Driss Chraïbi, Abdallah Laroui, Abdelfattah Kilito, and Fatima Mernissi, publish their works in both French and English. Expatriate writers such as Pierre Loti, William S. Burroughs, and Paul Bowles have drawn attention to Moroccan writers as well as to the country itself.

Since independence a veritable blossoming has taken place in painting and sculpture, popular music, amateur theatre, and filmmaking. The Moroccan National Theatre (founded 1956) offers regular productions of Moroccan and French dramatic works. Art and music festivals take place throughout the country during the summer months, among them the World Sacred Music Festival at Fès.

Moroccan music, influenced by Arab, Amazigh, African, and Andalusian traditions, makes use of a number of traditional instruments, such as the flute (nāy), shawm (ghaita), zither (qanūn), and various short necked lutes (including the ʿūd and gimbrī). These are often backed by explosive percussion on the darbūkka (terra-cotta drum). Among the most popular traditional Moroccan artists internationally are the Master Musicians of Jajouka, an all-male guild trained from childhood, and Hassan Hakmoun, a master of gnāwa trance music, a popular spiritual style that traces its roots to sub-Saharan Africa. Younger Moroccans enjoy raï, a style of plain-speaking Algerian music that incorporates traditional sounds with those of Western rock, Jamaican reggae, and Egyptian and Moroccan popular music.

Each region possesses its own specificities, thus contributing to the national culture and to the legacy of civilization. Morocco has set among its top priorities the protection of its diverse legacy and the preservation of its cultural heritage.

Culturally speaking, Morocco has always been successful in combining its Berber, Jewish and Arabic cultural heritage with external influences such as the French and the Spanish and, during the last decades, the Anglo-American lifestyles.

Cuisine

See main article: Cuisine of Morocco.

Moroccan cuisine has long been considered as one of the most diversified cuisines in the world. This is a result of the centuries-long interaction of Morocco with the outside world. The cuisine of Morocco is mainly Berber-Moorish, European, Mediterranean cuisines. The cuisine of Morocco is essentially Berber cuisine(sometimes referred to as the Moorish cuisine). It is also Influenced by Sephardic cuisine and by the Moriscos when they took refuge in Morocco after the Reconquista.

Spices are used extensively in Moroccan food. While spices have been imported to Morocco for thousands of years, many ingredients, like saffron from Tiliouine, mint and olives from Meknes, and oranges and lemons from Fez, are home-grown. Chicken is the most widely eaten meat in Morocco. The most commonly eaten red meat in Morocco is beef; lamb is preferred but is relatively expensive. Couscous is the most famous Moroccan dish along with pastilla, tajine, and harira. The most popular drink is green tea with mint.

Literature

See main article: Literature of Morocco. Moroccan literature is written in Arabic, Berber and French. It also contains literature produced in Al-Andalus. Under the Almohad dynasty Morocco experienced a period of prosperity and brilliance of learning. The Almohad built the Marrakech Koutoubia Mosque, which accommodated no fewer than 25,000 people, but was also famed for its books, manuscripts, libraries and book shops, which gave it its name; the first book bazaar in history. The Almohad Caliph Abu Yakub had a great love for collecting books. He founded a great library, which was eventually carried to the Casbah and turned into a public library.

Modern Moroccan literature began in the 1930s. Two main factors gave Morocco a pulse toward witnessing the birth of a modern literature. Morocco, as a French and Spanish protectorate left Moroccan intellectuals the opportunity to exchange and to produce literary works freely enjoying the contact of other Arabic literature and Europe.

During the 1950s and 1960s, Morocco was a refuge and artistic centre and attracted writers as Paul Bowles, Tennessee Williams and William S. Burroughs. Moroccan literature flourished with novelists such as Mohamed Zafzaf and Mohamed Choukri, who wrote in Arabic, and Driss Chraïbi and Tahar Ben Jelloun who wrote in French. Other important Moroccan authors include, Abdellatif Laabi, Abdelkarim Ghellab, Fouad Laroui, Mohammed Berrada and Leila Abouzeid. It should be noted also, that orature (oral literature) is an integral part of Moroccan culture, be it in Moroccan Arabic or Amazigh.

Music

See main article: Music of Morocco. Moroccan music is of Amazigh, Arab and sub-Saharan origins. Rock-influenced chaabi bands are widespread, as is trance music with historical origins in Muslim music.

Morocco is home to Andalusian classical music that is found throughout North Africa. It probably evolved under the Moors in Cordoba, and the Persian-born musician Ziryab is usually credited with its invention. A genre known as Contemporary Andalusian music and art is the brainchild of Morisco visual artist/composer/ oudist Tarik Banzi founder of the Al-Andalus Ensemble

Chaabi (popular) is a music consisting of numerous varieties which are descended from the multifarious forms of Moroccan folk music. Chaabi was originally performed in markets, but is now found at any celebration or meeting.

Popular Western forms of music are becoming increasingly popular in Morocco, such as fusion, rock, country, metal and particularly hip hop.

Morocco participated in 1980's Eurovision Song Contest, being in penultimate position.

Sport

See main article: Sport in Morocco. Spectator sports in Morocco traditionally centred on the art of horsemanship until European sports—football (soccer), polo, swimming, and tennis—were introduced at the end of the 19th century. Football is the country’s premier sport, popular among the urban youth in particular, and in 1986 Morocco became the first Arab and African country to qualify to the second round in World Cup competition. At the 1984 Olympic Games, two Moroccans won gold medals in track and field events, one of whom—Nawal El Moutawakel in the 400 metre hurdles—was the first woman from an Arab or Islamic country to win an Olympic gold medal. Another was Hicham El Guerrouj. Tennis and golf have also become popular. Several Moroccan professional players have competed in international competition, and the country fielded its first Davis Cup team in 1999.

As of 2007, Moroccan society participated in many sports, including handball, association football, golf, tennis, basketball, and athletics. Hicham El Guerrouj, a retired middle distance runner for Morocco, won 2 gold medals for Morocco at the athletics at the 2004 Summer Olympics and holds the 1.609km world record, along with other notable performances. Also kickboxing is a sport that is very popular in Morocco. Badr Hari, heavyweight kickboxer and martial artist, is a former K-1 heavyweight champion and K-1 World Grand Prix 2008 and 2009 finalist.

Morocco will be hosting the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations. The host cities will include Tangier, Casablanca, Rabat, and Marrakech.[89]

See also

External links

Notes and References

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  2. News: BBC News – Morocco's King Mohammed unveils constitutional reforms. 2011-06-18.
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  8. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mo.html#Govt Conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco – Conventional short form: Morocco – Local long form: al-Mamlakah al-Maġribiyya – Local short form: al-Maġrib
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  55. Article 5 of the 2011 Moroccan constitution
  56. Article 47 of the 2011 Moroccan constitution
  57. Article 46 of the 2011 Moroccan constitution
  58. Article 91 of the 2011 Moroccan constitution
  59. Article 49 of the 2011 Moroccan constitution
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