Minneapolis Explained

City of Minneapolis
Nickname:Mini-Apple, Mill City, Twin Cities (with St. Paul), City of Lakes
Motto:En Avant (French: 'Forward')
Subdivision Type:Country
Subdivision Type1:State
Subdivision Type2:County
Subdivision Name:United States
Subdivision Name1:Minnesota
Subdivision Name2:Hennepin
Leader Title:Mayor
Leader Name:R. T. Rybak (DFL)
Established Title:Incorporated
Established Date:1867
Area Magnitude:1 E8
Area Total Sq Mi:58.4
Area Land Sq Mi:54.9
Area Water Sq Mi:3.5
Area Total Km2:151.3
Area Land Km2:142.2
Area Water Km2:9.1
Population As Of:2006
Population Footnotes:[1] [2]
Population Total:372,833
Population Metro:3,175,041
Population Density Km2:2595
Population Density Sq Mi:6722
Population Blank1 Title:Demonym
Population Blank1:Minneapolitan
Utc Offset:-6
Timezone Dst:CDT
Utc Offset Dst:-5
Postal Code Type:ZIP codes
Postal Code:55401 – 55487
Area Code:612
Elevation M:264
Elevation Ft:830
Blank Name:FIPS code
Blank Info:27-43000Web site: States Census Bureau] American FactFinder]. 2008-01-31.
Blank1 Name:GNIS feature ID
Blank1 Info:0655030Web site: Board on Geographic Names. United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25.
Twin1:Saint Paul, Minnesota
Twin1 Country:United States
Founder:John H. Stevens and Franklin Steele
Named For:Minnesota Territory with Greek word "polis" for city
Coordinates Display:44.977

Minneapolis is the largest city in the U.S. state of Minnesota and is the county seat

Web site: Find a County. 2008-01-31. National Association of Counties. of Hennepin County. The city lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the river's confluence with the Minnesota River, and adjoins Saint Paul, the state's capital. Known as the Twin Cities, these two form the core of Minneapolis-St. Paul, the sixteenth-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with 3.5 million residents.[1] The United States Census Bureau estimated the city's population at 377,392 people in 2007.[3]

The city is abundantly rich in water with over twenty lakes and wetlands, the Mississippi riverfront, creeks and waterfalls, many connected by parkways in the Chain of Lakes and the Grand Rounds Scenic Byway. Minneapolis was once the world's flour milling capital and a hub for timber, and today is the primary business center between Chicago, Illinois, and Seattle, Washington. Among America's most literate cities,[4] Minneapolis has cultural organizations that draw creative people and audiences to the city for theater, visual art, writing, and music. The community's diverse population has a long tradition of charitable support through progressive public social programs and through private and corporate philanthropy.[5]

The name Minneapolis is attributed to the city's first schoolmaster, who combined mni, the Dakota word for water, and polis, the Greek word for city.[6] [7] Minneapolis is nicknamed the "City of Lakes" and the "Mill City".[8]


See main article: History of Minneapolis.

Dakota Sioux were the region's sole residents until French explorers arrived around 1680. Nearby Fort Snelling, built in 1819 by the United States Army, spurred growth in the area. Circumstances pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, allowing people arriving from the east to settle there. The Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized present day Minneapolis as a town on the Mississippi's west bank in 1856. Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867, the year rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago, and joined with the east bank city of St. Anthony in 1872.[9]

Minneapolis grew up around Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi. Millers have used hydropower since the 1st century B.C.,[10] but the results in Minneapolis between 1880 and 1930 were so remarkable the city has been described as "the greatest direct-drive waterpower center the world has ever seen."[11] In early years, forests in northern Minnesota were the source of a lumber industry that operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, and mills for cotton, paper, sashes, and planing wood.[12] The farmers of the Great Plains grew grain that was shipped by rail to the city's thirty-four flour mills where Pillsbury and General Mills became processors. By 1905, Minneapolis delivered almost 10% of the country's flour and grist.[13] At peak production, a single mill at Washburn-Crosby made enough flour for twelve million loaves of bread each day.[14]

Minneapolis made dramatic changes to rectify discrimination as early as 1886 when Martha Ripley founded Maternity Hospital for both married and unmarried mothers.[15] When the country's fortunes turned during the Great Depression, the violent Teamsters Strike of 1934 resulted in laws acknowledging workers' rights.[16] A lifelong civil rights activist and union supporter, mayor Hubert Humphrey helped the city establish fair employment practices and a human relations council that interceded on behalf of minorities by 1946.[17] Minneapolis contended with white supremacy, participated in desegregation and the African-American civil rights movement, and in 1968 was the birthplace of the American Indian Movement.[18]

During the 1950s and 1960s as part of urban renewal, the city razed about two hundred buildings across twenty-five city blocks—roughly 40% of downtown, destroying the Gateway District and many buildings with notable architecture including the Metropolitan Building. Efforts to save the building failed but are credited with jumpstarting interest in historic preservation in the state.[19]

Geography and climate

See main article: Climate of Minnesota, Climate of the Twin Cities and Geography of Minneapolis.

The history and economic growth of Minneapolis history are tied to water, the city's defining physical characteristic, which was sent to the region during the last ice age. Fed by receding glaciers and Lake Agassiz ten thousand years ago, torrents of water from a glacial river undercut the Mississippi and Minnehaha riverbeds, creating waterfalls important to modern Minneapolis.[20] Lying on an artesian aquifer[8] and otherwise flat terrain, Minneapolis has a total area of 58.4sqmi and of this 6% is water.[21] Water is managed by watershed districts that correspond to the Mississippi and the city's three creeks.[22] Twelve lakes, three large ponds, and five unnamed wetlands are within Minneapolis.[23]

The city center is located just south of 45° N latitude.[24] The city's lowest elevation of 686 feet (209 m) is near where Minnehaha Creek meets the Mississippi River. The site of the Prospect Park Water Tower is often cited as the city's highest point[25] and a placard in Deming Heights Park denotes the highest elevation, but a spot at 974feet in or near Waite Park in Northeast Minneapolis is corroborated by Google Earth as the highest ground.

Minneapolis has a continental climate typical of the Upper Midwest. Winters can be cold and dry, while summer is comfortably warm although at times it can be hot and humid. On the Köppen climate classification, Minneapolis falls in the warm summer humid continental climate zone (Dfa); and has a USDA plant hardiness of zone 5. The city experiences a full range of precipitation and related weather events, including snow, sleet, ice, rain, thunderstorms, tornadoes, and fog. The warmest temperature ever recorded in Minneapolis was 108 °F (42.2 °C) in July 1936, and the coldest temperature ever recorded was -41 °F (-40.6 °C), in January 1888. The snowiest winter of record was 1983 - 84, when 98.4 inches (2.5 m) of snow fell.[26]

Because of its northerly location in the United States and lack of large bodies of water to moderate the air, Minneapolis is sometimes subjected to cold Arctic air masses, especially during late December through February. The average annual temperature of 45.4 °F (7 °C) gives the Minneapolis - St. Paul metropolitan area the coldest annual mean temperature of any major metropolitan area in the continental United States[27]

Location:Minneapolis, Minnesota
Jan Hi °F:21
Jan Rec Hi °F:59
Feb Hi °F:28
Feb Rec Hi °F:64
Mar Hi °F:40
Mar Rec Hi °F:83
Apr Hi °F:57
Apr Rec Hi °F:95
May Hi °F:70
May Rec Hi °F:106
Jun Hi °F:79
Jun Rec Hi °F:104
Jul Hi °F:84
Jul Rec Hi °F:108
Aug Hi °F:80
Aug Rec Hi °F:103
Sep Hi °F:71
Sep Rec Hi °F:104
Oct Hi °F:58
Oct Rec Hi °F:90
Nov Hi °F:40
Nov Rec Hi °F:77
Dec Hi °F:26
Dec Rec Hi °F:68
Year Hi °F:55
Year Rec Hi °F:108
Jan Lo °F:3
Jan Rec Lo °F:-41
Feb Lo °F:12
Feb Rec Lo °F:-40
Mar Lo °F:23
Mar Rec Lo °F:-32
Apr Lo °F:36
Apr Rec Lo °F:2
May Lo °F:48
May Rec Lo °F:18
Jun Lo °F:58
Jun Rec Lo °F:34
Jul Lo °F:63
Jul Rec Lo °F:43
Aug Lo °F:61
Aug Rec Lo °F:39
Sep Lo °F:51
Sep Rec Lo °F:26
Oct Lo °F:39
Oct Rec Lo °F:10
Nov Lo °F:25
Nov Rec Lo °F:-25
Dec Lo °F:11
Dec Rec Lo °F:-39
Year Lo °F:36
Year Rec Lo °F:-41
Jan Precip Inch:1.04
Feb Precip Inch:0.79
Mar Precip Inch:1.86
Apr Precip Inch:2.31
May Precip Inch:3.24
Jun Precip Inch:4.34
Jul Precip Inch:4.04
Aug Precip Inch:4.05
Sep Precip Inch:2.69
Oct Precip Inch:2.11
Nov Precip Inch:1.94
Dec Precip Inch:1.00
Year Precip Inch:29.41
Accessdate:October 2007


See main article: Demographics of Minneapolis. Dakota tribes, mostly the Mdewakanton, as early as the 16th century were known as permanent settlers near their sacred site of St. Anthony Falls.[9] New settlers arrived during the 1850s and 1860s in Minneapolis from New England, New York, and Canada, and during the mid-1860s, Scandinavians from Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Norway, and Denmark began to call the city home. Migrant workers from Mexico and Latin America also interspersed.[29] Later, immigrants came from Germany, Italy, Greece, Poland, and Southern and Eastern Europe. These immigrants tended to settle in the Northeast neighborhood, which still retains an ethnic flavor and is particularly known for its Polish community. Jews from Russia and Eastern Europe settled primarily on the north side of the city before moving in large numbers to the western suburbs in the 1950s and 1960s.[30] Asians came from China, the Philippines, Japan, and Korea. Two groups came for a short while during U.S. government relocations: Japanese during the 1940s, and Native Americans during the 1950s. From 1970 onward, Asians arrived from Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand. Beginning in the 1990s, a large Latino population arrived, along with immigrants from the Horn of Africa, especially Somalia.[31] Into the 21st century, Minneapolis continues its tradition of welcoming newcomers. The metropolitan area is an immigrant gateway with a 127% increase in foreign-born residents between 1990 and 2000.[32]

U.S. Census Bureau estimates in 2007 show the population of Minneapolis to be 377,392, a 1.4% drop since the 2000 census.[3] The population grew until 1950 when the census peaked at 521,718, and then declined as people moved to the suburbs until about 1990. The number of African Americans, Asians, and Hispanics is growing. Non-whites are now about one third of the city's residents. Compared to the U.S. national average in 2005, the city has fewer white, Hispanic, senior, and unemployed people, while it has more people aged over 18 and more with a college degree.[33] Among U.S. cities, Minneapolis has the fourth-highest percent of gay, lesbian, or bisexual people in the adult population, with 12.5%.[34]

Compared to a peer group of metropolitan areas in 2000, Minneapolis-Saint Paul is decentralizing, with individuals moving in and out frequently and a large young and white population and low unemployment. Racial and ethnic minorities lag behind white counterparts in education, with 15% of black and 13% of Hispanic people holding bachelor's degrees compared to 42% of the white population. The standard of living is on the rise, with incomes among the highest in the Midwest, but median household income among black people is below that of white by over $17,000. Regionally, home ownership among black and Hispanic residents is half that of white though Asian homeownership doubled. In 2000, the poverty rates included whites at 4.2%, blacks at 26.2%, Asians at 19.1%, American Indians at 23.2%, and Hispanics or Latinos at 18.1%.[32] [35] [36]

colspan=17U.S. Census Population Estimates
U.S. Rank[37] 381819181815161725323442


See also: Economy of Minnesota. The economy of Minneapolis today is based in commerce, finance, rail and trucking services, health care, and industry. Smaller components are in publishing, milling, food processing, graphic arts, insurance, and high technology. Industry produces metal and automotive products, chemical and agricultural products, electronics, computers, precision medical instruments and devices, plastics, and machinery.[38]

Five Fortune 500 headquarters are in Minneapolis proper: Target Corporation, U.S. Bancorp, Xcel Energy, Ameriprise Financial, and Thrivent Financial for Lutherans. Fortune 1000 companies in Minneapolis include PepsiAmericas, Valspar and Donaldson Company.[39] Apart from government, the city's largest employers are Target, Wells Fargo, Ameriprise, Star Tribune, U.S. Bancorp, Xcel Energy, IBM, Piper Jaffray, RBC Dain Rauscher, ING Group, and Qwest.[40]

Availability of Wi-Fi, transportation solutions, medical trials, university research and development expenditures, advanced degrees held by the work force, and energy conservation are so far above the national average that in 2005, Popular Science named Minneapolis the "Top Tech City" in the U.S.[41] The Twin Cities ranked the country's second best city in a 2006 Kiplinger's poll of Smart Places to Live and Minneapolis was one of the Seven Cool Cities for young professionals.[42]

The Twin Cities contribute 63.8% of the gross state product of Minnesota. The area's $145.8 billion gross metropolitan product and its per capita personal income rank fourteenth in the U.S. Recovering from the nation's recession in 2000, personal income grew 3.8% in 2005, though it was behind the national average of 5%. The city returned to peak employment during the fourth quarter of that year.[43]

The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, with one branch in Helena, Montana, serves Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, and parts of Wisconsin and Michigan. The smallest of the twelve regional banks in the Federal Reserve System, it operates a nationwide payments system, oversees member banks and bank holding companies, and serves as a banker for the U.S. Treasury.[44] The Minneapolis Grain Exchange founded in 1881 is still located near the riverfront and is the only exchange for hard red spring wheat futures and options.[45]


See main article: Arts in Minneapolis. The region is second only to New York City in live theater per capita and is the third-largest theater market in the U.S., supporting the Illusion, Jungle, Mixed Blood, Penumbra, Bedlam Theatre, the Brave New Workshop, the Minnesota Dance Theatre, Skewed Visions, Theater Latté Da, In the Heart of the Beast Puppet and Mask Theatre, and the Children's Theatre Company.[46] The city is home to Minnesota Fringe Festival, the United States' largest nonjuried performing arts festival.[47] French architect Jean Nouvel designed a new three stage complex for the Guthrie Theater, the prototype alternative to Broadway founded in Minneapolis in 1965.[48] Minneapolis purchased and renovated the Orpheum, State, and Pantages Theatre vaudeville and film houses on Hennepin Avenue now used for concerts and plays.[49] Eventually, a fourth renovated theater will join the Hennepin Center for the Arts to become the Minnesota Shubert Performing Arts and Education Center, a home to twenty performing arts groups and a provider of Web-based art education.[50]

The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, built in 1915 in south central Minneapolis is the largest art museum in the city with 100,000 pieces in its permanent collection. A new wing designed by Michael Graves was completed in 2006 for contemporary and modern works and more gallery space.[51] The Walker Art Center sits atop Lowry Hill, near downtown, and doubled its size with an addition in 2005 by Herzog & de Meuron and is continuing its expansion to 15acres with a park designed by Michel Desvigne across the street from the Minneapolis Sculpture Garden.[52] The Weisman Art Museum, designed by Frank Gehry for the University of Minnesota, opened in 1993. An addition, also designed by Gehry, is expected to open in 2009.[53]

The son of a jazz musician and a singer, Prince is Minneapolis' most famous musical progeny.[54] With fellow local musicians, many of whom recorded at Twin/Tone Records,[55] he helped make First Avenue and the 7th Street Entry venues of choice for both artists and audiences.[56] The Minnesota Orchestra plays classical and popular music at Orchestra Hall under music director Osmo Vänskä who has set about making it the best in the country.[57] In 2008, the century-old MacPhail Center for Music opened a new facility designed by James Dayton.[58]

Tom Waits released two songs about the city, Christmas Card from a Hooker in Minneapolis (Blue Valentine 1978) and 9th & Hennepin (Rain Dogs 1985) and Lucinda Williams recorded Minneapolis (World Without Tears 2003). Home to the MN Spoken Word Association and independent hip-hop label Rhymesayers Entertainment, the city has garnered notice for rap and hip hop and its spoken word community.[59] The underground hip-hop group Atmosphere (natives of Minnesota) frequently comments in song lyrics on the city and Minnesota.[60]

Minneapolis and Seattle are tied as America's most literate city.[61] A center for printing and publishing, Minneapolis was a natural place for artists to build Open Book, the largest literary and book arts center in the U.S., made up of the Loft Literary Center, the Minnesota Center for Book Arts and Milkweed Editions, sometimes called the country's largest independent nonprofit literary publisher.[62] The center exhibits and teaches both contemporary art and traditional crafts of writing, papermaking, letterpress printing and bookbinding.[62]


See main article: Sports in Minnesota.

Professional sports are well-established in Minneapolis. First playing in 1884, the Minneapolis Millers baseball team produced the best won-lost record in their league at the time and contributed fifteen players to the Baseball Hall of Fame. During the 1940s and 1950s the Minneapolis Lakers basketball team, the city's first in the major leagues in any sport, won six basketball championships in three leagues before moving to Los Angeles. The American Wrestling Association, formerly the NWA Minneapolis Boxing & Wrestling Club, operated in Minneapolis from 1960 until the 1990s.[63]

The Minnesota Vikings and the Minnesota Twins arrived in the state in 1961. The Vikings were an NFL expansion team and the Twins were formed when the Washington Senators relocated to Minnesota. Both teams played outdoors in the open air Metropolitan Stadium in the suburb of Bloomington for twenty years before moving to the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome, where the Twins won the World Series in 1987 and 1991. The Minnesota Timberwolves brought NBA basketball back to Minneapolis in 1989, followed by the Minnesota Lynx WNBA team in 1999. They play in the Target Center. The NHL ice hockey team Minnesota Wild and the National Lacrosse League team Minnesota Swarm play at the Xcel Energy Center. The USL-1 soccer team Minnesota Thunder plays in Blaine, a suburb of Minneapolis.

The downtown Metrodome, opened in 1982, is the largest sports stadium in Minnesota. The three major tenants are the Vikings, the Twins, and the university's Golden Gophers football and baseball teams. The Metrodome is the only stadium in the country to have hosted a Major League Baseball All-Star Game, the Super Bowl, the World Series, and NCAA Basketball Men's Final Four. Runners, walkers, inline skaters, coed volleyball teams, and touch football teams all have access to "The Dome". Events from sports to concerts, community activities, religious activities, and trade shows are held more than three hundred days per year, making the facility one of the most versatile stadiums in the world.[64]

The state of Minnesota authorized replacement of the Metrodome with three separate stadiums that estimates in 2007 totaled at about $1.7 billion. Six spectator sport stadiums will be in a 1.2-mile (2 km) radius centered downtown, counting the existing facilities at Target Center and the university's Williams Arena and Mariucci Arena. The new Target Field is funded by the Twins and 75% by Hennepin County sales tax, about $25 per year by each taxpayer. The Gopher football program's new TCF Bank Stadium is being built by the university and the state's general fund.[65] The Vikings Stadium plan for Blaine, Minnesota changed and as of 2007 was estimated at $954 million[66] for rebuilding on the Metrodome site. Feasibility studies for Dallas, Texas-based design and local construction (Mortenson Construction of Minneapolis) of a new stadium are expected in early 2009.[67]

Major sporting events hosted by the city include Super Bowl XXVI, the 1992 NCAA Men's Division I Final Four, and the 1998 World Figure Skating Championships.[68] [69] [70]

Gifted amateur athletes have played in Minneapolis schools, notably starting in the 1920s and 1930s at Central, De La Salle, and Marshall high schools. Since the 1930s, the Golden Gophers have won national championships in men's baseball, boxing, football, golf, gymnastics, ice hockey, indoor and outdoor track, swimming, and wrestling.[71] [72]

colspan=5Professional Sports in Minneapolis
Minnesota LynxBasketballWomen's National Basketball Association, Western ConferenceTarget Center
Minnesota TimberwolvesBasketballNational Basketball Association, Western Conference, Northwest DivisionTarget Center
Minnesota TwinsBaseballMajor League Baseball, American League, Central DivisionMetrodomeWorld Series 1987 and 1991
Minnesota VikingsAmerican FootballNational Football League, National Football Conference, North DivisionMetrodomeNFL Championship 1969

Parks and recreation

The Minneapolis park system has been called the best-designed, best-financed, and best-maintained in America.[73] Foresight, donations and effort by community leaders enabled Horace Cleveland to create his finest landscape architecture, preserving geographical landmarks and linking them with boulevards and parkways.[74] The city's Chain of Lakes is connected by bike, running, and walking paths and used for swimming, fishing, picnics, boating, and ice skating. A parkway for cars, a bikeway for riders, and a walkway for pedestrians runs parallel along the 52miles route of the Grand Rounds Scenic Byway.[75] Residents brave the cold weather in December to watch the nightly Holidazzle Parade.[76]

Theodore Wirth is credited with the development of the parks system.[77] Today, 16.6% of the city is parks and there are 770square feet of parkland for each resident, ranked in 2008 as the most parkland per resident within cities of similar population densities.[78] [79]

Parks are interlinked in many places and the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area connects regional parks and visitor centers. The country's oldest public wildflower garden, the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden and Bird Sanctuary located within Theodore Wirth Park which is shared with Golden Valley and is about 60% the size of Central Park in New York City.[80] Site of the 53-foot (16 m) Minnehaha Falls, Minnehaha Park is one of the city's oldest and most popular parks, receiving over 500,000 visitors each year.[81] Henry Wadsworth Longfellow named Hiawatha's wife Minnehaha for the Minneapolis waterfall in The Song of Hiawatha, a bestselling and often-parodied 19th century poem.[82]

Runner's World ranks the Twin Cities as America's sixth best city for runners.[83] The Twin Cities Marathon run in Minneapolis and St. Paul every October draws 250,000 spectators. The 26.2miles race is a Boston and USA Olympic Trials qualifier. The organizers sponsor three more races: a Kids Marathon, a 1miles, and a 10miles.[84] Minneapolis is home to more golfers per capita than any major U.S. city.[85] Five golf courses are located within the city, with nationally ranked Hazeltine National Golf Club, and Interlachen Country Club in nearby suburbs.[86] The state of Minnesota has the nation's highest number of bicyclists, sport fishermen, and snow skiers per capita. Hennepin County has the second-highest number of horses per capita in the U.S.[87] While living in Minneapolis, Scott and Brennan Olson founded (and later sold) Rollerblade, the company that popularized the sport of inline skating.[88]


See main article: Minneapolis City Council, Neighborhoods of Minneapolis and Law and government of Minneapolis.

Minneapolis is a stronghold for the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (DFL), an affiliate of the Democratic Party. The Minneapolis City Council holds the most power and represents the city's thirteen districts called wards. The council has twelve DFL members and one from the Green Party. R. T. Rybak also of the DFL is the current mayor of Minneapolis. The office of mayor is relatively weak but has some power to appoint individuals such as the chief of police. Parks, taxation, and public housing are semi-independent boards and levy their own taxes and fees subject to Board of Estimate and Taxation limits.[89]

Citizens have a unique and powerful influence in neighborhood government. Neighborhoods coordinate activities under the Neighborhood Revitalization Program (NRP), funded in the 1990s by the city and state who appropriated $400 million for it over twenty years.[90] Minneapolis is divided into communities, each containing neighborhoods. In some cases two or more neighborhoods act together under one organization. Some areas are commonly known by nicknames of business associations.[91]

The organizers of Earth Day scored Minneapolis ninth best overall and second among mid-sized cities in their 2007 Urban Environment Report, a study based on indicators of environmental health and their effect on people.[92]

Early Minneapolis experienced a period of corruption in local government and crime was common until an economic downturn in the mid 1900s. Since 1950 the population decreased and much of downtown was lost to urban renewal and highway construction. The result was a "moribund and peaceful" environment until the 1990s.[93] Along with economic recovery the murder rate climbed. The Minneapolis Police Department imported a computer system from New York City that sent officers to high crime areas despite accusations of racial profiling; the result was a drop in major crime. Since 1999 the number of homicides increased during four years, and to its highest in recent history in 2006.[94] Politicians debate the causes and solutions, including increasing the number of police officers, providing youths with alternatives to gangs and drugs, and helping families in poverty. For 2007, the city invested in public safety infrastructure, hired over forty new officers, and has a new police chief, Tim Dolan.[95]


See main article: Minneapolis Public Library, Minneapolis Public Schools, Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System and University of Minnesota. Minneapolis Public Schools enroll 36,370 students in public primary and secondary schools. The district administers about one hundred public schools including forty-five elementary schools, seven middle schools, seven high schools, eight special education schools, eight alternative schools, nineteen contract alternative schools, and five charter schools. With authority granted by the state legislature, the school board makes policy, selects the superintendent, and oversees the district's budget, curriculum, personnel, and facilities. Students speak ninety different languages at home and most school communications are printed in English, Hmong, Spanish, and Somali.[96] About 44% of students in the Minneapolis Public School system graduate, which ranks the city the 6th worst out of the nation's 50 largest cities.[97] Besides public schools, the city is home to more than twenty private schools and academies and about twenty additional charter schools.[98]

Minneapolis' collegiate scene is dominated by the main campus of the University of Minnesota where more than 50,000 undergraduate, graduate, and professional students attend twenty colleges, schools, and institutes.[99] The graduate school programs ranked highest in 2007 were counseling and personnel services, chemical engineering, psychology, macroeconomics, applied mathematics and non-profit management.[100] A Big Ten school and home of the Golden Gophers, the U of M is the fourth largest campus in the U.S. in terms of enrollment.[101]

Minneapolis Community and Technical College, the private Dunwoody College of Technology, Globe University/Minnesota School of Business, and Art Institutes International Minnesota provide career training. Augsburg College, Minneapolis College of Art and Design, and North Central University are private four-year colleges. Capella University, Minnesota School of Professional Psychology, and Walden University are headquartered in Minneapolis and some others including the public four-year Metropolitan State University and the private four-year University of St. Thomas have campuses there.[102]

The Hennepin County Library system operates the city's public libraries.[103] The Minneapolis Public Library faced a severe budget shortfall for 2007, and was forced to close three of its neighborhood libraries.[104] The new downtown Central Library designed by César Pelli opened in 2006.[105] Ten special collections hold over 25,000 books and resources for researchers, including the Minneapolis Collection and the Minneapolis Photo Collection.[106] At recent count 1,696,453 items in the system are used annually and the library answers over 500,000 research and fact-finding questions each year.[107]

In 2007, Minneapolis was named America's most literate city. The study, conducted by Live Science, surveyed 69 U.S. cities with a population over 250,000. They focused on six key factors: Number of book stores, newspaper circulation, library resources, periodical publishing resources, educational attainment and Internet resources. In second place was Seattle, Washington and third was Minneapolis' neighbor, St. Paul, followed by Denver, Colorado and Washington, D.C.[108]


See main article: Transportation in Minnesota and I-35W Mississippi River bridge.

Half of Minneapolis-Saint Paul residents work in the city where they live.[109] Most residents drive cars but 60% of the 160,000 people working downtown commute by means other than a single person per auto.[110] Alternative transportation is encouraged. The Metropolitan Council's Metro Transit, which operates the light rail system and most of the city's buses, provides free travel vouchers through the Guaranteed Ride Home program to allay fears that commuters might otherwise be occasionally stranded if, for example, they work late hours.[111] The Hiawatha Line LRT serves 34,000 riders daily and connects the Minneapolis-St. Paul International airport and Mall of America to downtown. Most of the line runs at surface level, although parts of the line run on elevated tracks (including the Franklin Ave. and Lake St./Midtown stations) and approximately 2miles of the line runs underground, including the Lindbergh terminal subway station at the airport. By the end of 2009, the line will be extended a quarter mile west, with the new terminus at Target Field, the upcoming home of the Minnesota Twins.[112] The planned Central Corridor LRT will connect downtown with the University of Minnesota and downtown St. Paul via University Avenue. Expected completion is in 2014. The 40-mile Northstar Commuter rail line, which will run from Big Lake through the northern suburbs and terminate at the multi-modal transit station at Target Field will open in December 2009. [113]

Seven miles (11 km) of enclosed pedestrian bridges called skyways, the Minneapolis Skyway System, link eighty city blocks downtown. Second floor restaurants and retailers connected to these passageways are open on weekdays.[114]

The taxicab ordinance requires 10% wheelchair accessibility by 2009 and some use of alternative fuel or fuel efficient vehicles. Starting in 2011 the city's limit of 343 taxis will be lifted.[115]

Minneapolis ranks second in the nation for the highest percentage of commuter by bicycle.[116] Ten thousand cyclists use the bike lanes in the city each day, and many ride in the winter. The Public Works Department expanded the bicycle trail system from the Grand Rounds to 56 miles (90 km) of off-street commuter trails including the Midtown Greenway, the Light Rail Trail, Kenilworth Trail, Cedar Lake Trail and the West River Parkway Trail along the Mississippi. Minneapolis also has 34 miles (54 km) of dedicated bike lanes on city streets and encourages cycling by equipping transit buses with bike racks and by providing online bicycle maps.[117] Many of these trails and bridges, such as the Stone Arch Bridge, were former railroad lines that have now been converted for bicycles and pedestrians.[118] In 2007 citing the city's bicycle lanes, buses and LRT, Forbes identified Minneapolis the world's fifth cleanest city.[119]

Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport (MSP) sits on 3400acres[120] southeast of the city between Minnesota State Highway 5, Interstate 494, Minnesota State Highway 77, and Minnesota State Highway 62. The airport serves three international, twelve domestic, seven charter and four regional carriers[121] and is a hub and home base for Northwest Airlines, Mesaba Airlines, and Sun Country Airlines.[122]

Amtrak's Empire Builder between Chicago and Seattle stops once daily in each direction at nearby Midway Station in St. Paul.[123] Expected to open in 2009, a commuter rail line, the Northstar Corridor between downtown and Big Lake, Minnesota has been funded. It will utilize existing railroad tracks and will serve a projected 5,000 daily commuters.[124]


See main article: Media in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota. Five major newspapers are published in Minneapolis: Star Tribune, Finance and Commerce, Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder, the university's The Minnesota Daily and MinnPost.com. Other publications are the City Pages weekly, the Mpls.St.Paul and Minnesota Monthly monthlies, and Utne magazine.[125] In 2008 readers of online news also used Minnesota Independent, Twin Cities Daily Planet, Downtown Journal, Cursor, MNSpeak and about fifteen other sites.[126] The New York Times said in 1996, "Now there are T-shirts that read, 'Murderapolis,'" a name for the city that members of the local media have mistakenly attributed to the paper.[127]

Minneapolis has a mix of radio stations and healthy listener support for public radio but in the commercial market, a single organization Clear Channel Communications operates seven stations. Listeners support three Minnesota Public Radio non-profit stations, the Minneapolis Public Schools and the University of Minnesota each operate a station, the networks broadcast on affiliate stations, and religious organizations run two stations.[128]

The city's first television was broadcast by the St. Paul station and ABC affiliate KSTP-TV. The first to broadcast in color was WCCO-TV, the CBS affiliate which is located in downtown Minneapolis.[125] The city also receives FOX, NBC, PBS, MyNetworkTV, and The CW through their affiliates and one independent station.[129] Twins Brandon and Brenda Walsh were from Minneapolis on the TV series Beverly Hills, 90210.[130] American Idol held auditions for its sixth season in Minneapolis in 2006[131] and Last Comic Standing held auditions for its fifth season in Minneapolis in 2007.[132]

A statue of Mary Tyler Moore downtown on the Nicollet Mall commemorates the legendary 1970s CBS television situation comedy fictionally based in Minneapolis, The Mary Tyler Moore Show. It marks the site where part of the series' iconic opening sequence was shot.

The show was awarded three Golden Globes and thirty-one Emmy Awards.[133]

Religion and charity

The Dakota people, the original inhabitants of the area where Minneapolis now stands, believed in the Great Spirit and were surprised that not all European settlers were religious.[134] Over fifty denominations and religions and some well known churches have since been established in Minneapolis. Those who arrived from New England were for the most part Christian Protestants, Quakers, and Universalists.[134] The oldest continuously used church in the city, Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church in the Nicollet Island/East Bank neighborhood was built in 1856 by Universalists and soon afterward was acquired by a French Catholic congregation.[135] Formed in 1878 as Shaarai Tov, in 1902 the first Jewish congregation in Minneapolis built the synagogue in East Isles known since 1920 as Temple Israel.[30] St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral was founded in 1887, opened a missionary school in 1897 and in 1905 created the first Russian Orthodox seminary in the U.S.[136] The first basilica in the U.S., the Roman Catholic Basilica of Saint Mary near Loring Park was named by Pope Pius XI.[134]

The Billy Graham Evangelistic Association, Decision magazine, and World Wide Pictures film and television distribution were headquartered in Minneapolis for about forty of the years between the late 1940s into the 2000s.[137] Jim Bakker and Tammy Faye met while attending the Pentecostal North Central University and began a television ministry that by the 1980s reached 13.5 million households.[138] Today, Mount Olivet Lutheran Church in southwest Minneapolis has 6,000 active members and is the world's largest Lutheran congregation.[139] Christ Church Lutheran in the Longfellow neighborhood is among the finest work by architect Eliel Saarinen. The congregation later added an education building designed by his son Eero Saarinen.[140]

Philanthropy and charitable giving are part of the community.[141] More than 40% of adults in Minneapolis-St. Paul give time to volunteer work, the highest percent in the U.S.[142] Catholic Charities is one of the largest providers of social services locally.[143] The American Refugee Committee helps one million refugees and displaced persons in ten countries in Africa, the Balkans and Asia each year.[144] Although no Minneapolis businesses are top corporate citizens, Business Ethics was based in Minneapolis and was the predecessor of CRO magazine for corporate responsibility officers.[145] The oldest foundation in Minnesota, the Minneapolis Foundation invests and administers over nine hundred charitable funds and connects donors to nonprofit organizations.[146] The metropolitan area gives 13% of its total charitable donations to the arts and culture. The majority of the estimated $1 billion recent expansion of arts facilities was contributed privately.[147]

Health and utilities

Minneapolis has six hospitals, three ranked among America's best by U.S. News & World ReportAbbott Northwestern Hospital (part of Allina), Hennepin County Medical Center (HCMC) and the University of Minnesota Medical Center.[148] All three were founded under other names during the 1800s and early 1900s.[149] The Britton Center for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Children's Hospitals and Clinics also serve the city. North Memorial Medical Center is the home of a Level one Trauma center, and The Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota is a 75-minute drive away.[150]

Cardiac surgery was developed at the university's Variety Club Hospital, where by 1957, more than two hundred patients had survived open-heart operations, many of them children. Working with surgeon C. Walton Lillehei, Medtronic began to build portable and implantable cardiac pacemakers about this time.[151]

HCMC opened in 1887 as City Hospital and was also known as General Hospital.[149] A public teaching hospital and Level I trauma center, the HCMC safety net sees 350,000 patient visits and 95,000 emergency room visits each year and in 2006 provided about 18% of the uncompensated care given in Minnesota.[152]

Utility providers are regulated monopolies: Xcel Energy supplies electricity, CenterPoint Energy supplies gas, Qwest is the landline telephone provider, and Comcast is the cable service. In 2007 city-wide wireless internet coverage began, provided for 10 years by US Internet of Minnetonka to residents for about $20 per month and to businesses for $30.[153] Minneapolis is one of the first cities to implement city-wide, public Wi-Fi, and as of July, 2008, much of the city was covered, although spots lacking coveage persisted on the East- and West-Central sections of the city.[153] [154] The city treats and distributes water and requires payment of a monthly solid waste fee for trash removal, recycling, and drop off for large items. Residents who recycle receive a credit. Hazardous waste is handled by Hennepin County drop off sites.[155] After each significant snowfall, called a snow emergency, the Minneapolis Public Works Street Division plows over one thousand miles (1609 km) of streets and four hundred miles (643.7 km) of alleys—counting both sides, the distance between Minneapolis and Seattle and back. Ordinances govern parking on the plowing routes during these emergencies as well as snow shoveling throughout the city.[156]

Sister cities

Citizens maintain international connections with eight sister cities:[157]

And informal connections with:

See also

Further reading

External links


Notes and References

  1. Web site: Table 2: Minneapolis (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau. U.S. Census Bureau. 2008-07-25. 2008-09-20.
  2. Web site: Table 2: Population Estimates for the 100 Most Populous Metropolitan Statistical Areas Based on July 1, 2006 Population Estimates: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006. U.S. Census Bureau. PDF. 2007-04-05. 2007-04-16.
  3. Web site: Minneapolis city, Minnesota. U.S. Census Bureau Population Estimates Program. 2007. 2009-01-19.
  4. Web site: Central Connecticut State University. American's Most Literate Cities. 2007. 2008-02-04.
  5. News: Nocera, Joe. The capital of corporate philanthropy. December 22, 2007. International Herald Tribune. The New York Times Company. 2008-01-11. and Web site: A History of Minneapolis: Social Services. 2001. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us). 2008-01-11.
  6. Web site: Dakota Dictionary Online. University of Minnesota Department of American Indian Studies. 2009-01-21.
  7. Book: Bright, William. Native American Placenames of the United States. 2007. University of Oklahoma Press. 2009-01-21. Norman, Okla.. 0806135980. 286.
  8. Web site: Minneapolis. Emporis Buildings (emporis.com). 2007-03-18.
  9. Web site: Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us). 2001. A History of Minneapolis: Mdewakanton Band of the Dakota Nation, Parts I and II. and Web site: A History of Minneapolis: Minneapolis Becomes Part of the United States., and Web site: A History of Minneapolis: Governance and Infrastructure. and Web site: A History of Minneapolis: Railways. 2007-04-30. .
  10. Web site: HistoryWorld (historyworld.net). History of Technology. 2007-04-04.
  11. Anfinson, Scott F.. Part 2: Archaeological Explorations and Interpretive Potentials: Chapter 4 Interpretive Potentials. 1989. The Minnesota Archaeologist. The Institute for Minnesota Archaeology. 49. 2007-04-03.
  12. Web site: Frame, Robert M. III, Jeffrey Hess. West Side Milling District, Historic American Engineering Record MN-16. U.S. National Park Service (via U.S. Library of Congress). 2. January. 1990. 2007-04-16.
  13. Book: Salisbury, Rollin D., Harlan Harland Barrows, Walter Sheldon Tower. The Elements of Geography. 1912. University of Michigan, reprinted by H. Holt and company. 2007-06-27. 441.
  14. Web site: History. Mill City Museum. 2007-04-04.
  15. Book: Atwater, Isaac. Munsell (via Google Books). History of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota. 257–262. 1893. 2007-04-23.
  16. Web site: Minnesota Historical Society. 1934 Truckers' Strike (Minneapolis). 2007-05-05.
  17. Reichard, Gary W.. Summer 1998. Mayor Hubert H. Humphrey. Minnesota History. Minnesota Historical Society. 56. 2. 50–67. 2007-05-06.
  18. Twin Cities Public Television. Harry Davis. Almanac. RealVideo. February 21, 2003. and Web site: Encyclopaedia Britannica. American Indian Movement. 2007. 2007-04-26.
  19. Hart. Joseph. Room at the Bottom. City Pages. Village Voice Media. 19. 909. 1998-05-06. 2007-04-01.
  20. Web site: Mississippi: River Facts. U.S. National Park Service. 2006-08-14. and Web site: City of Minneapolis. Police Recruiting: About Minneapolis. 2006. 2007-04-29.
  21. Encyclopedia: Minneapolis. Encarta. 1993–2007. and Web site: U.S. Census Bureau. Minnesota—Place and County Subdivision. 2000. 2007-03-24.
  22. Web site: Minneapolis Planning Division. State of the City: Physical Environment. PDF. 2003. 2007-04-27.
  23. Web site: State of the City. 2003. PDF. Planning Division of the Minneapolis Department of Community Planning and Economic Development. 2007-08-07.
  24. Web site: Wurlington Bros. Press. The 45th Parallel. 2007-01-18.
  25. Web site: Minnesota Historical Society. Minnesota Preservation Planner IX (2). Spring 1998. PDF. 2007-03-21. and Web site: email. June 10, 2001. Bonham, Tim. 2007-01-12. and Web site: U.S. Department of the Interior — U.S. Geological Survey. Elevations and Distances in the United States. April 29, 2005. 2007-04-11.
  26. Web site: Fisk, Charles. Links to Some of the More Interesting Years With Accompanying Notes. March 3, 2007. 2007-03-25.
  27. 45.4 °F for 1971 through 2000 per U.S. Census who cites Web site: National Climatic Data Center. Normals 1971–2000. 2007-03-25. or 44.6°F per Web site: Fisk, Charles. Minneapolis-St. Paul Area Daily Climatological History of Temperature, Precipitation, and Snowfall, A Year-by-Year Graphical Portrayal (1820–Present). March 3, 2007. 2007-03-25.
  28. Web site: Monthly Averages for Minneapolis, MN. mdy. October 27 2007. The Weather Channel.
  29. Web site: Living in America. GR Anderson Jr. City Pages. October 1, 2003. 2008-04-29.
  30. Web site: Nathanson. Iric. Jews in Minnesota. Jewish Community Relations Council. PDF. 2007-04-14.
  31. Web site: A History of Minneapolis: Residents of the City. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us). 2001. 2007-02-12.
  32. Web site: Metropolitan Policy Program, The Brookings Institution. Minneapolis/St. Paul in Focus: A Profile from Census 2000. November. 2003. 2008-04-29.
  33. Web site: U.S. Census Bureau. American Fact Finder. 2005. 2007-01-08.
  34. Web site: Gates, Gary J.. Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey. PDF. October. 2006. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law, University of California, Los Angeles. 2008-02-26.
  35. Web site: Minneapolis--St. Paul, MN--WI: Summary Profile. Harvard University. 2007. 2008-04-29.
  36. Web site: Key Facts - Trouble at the Core Update. 2007-11-07. Metropolitan Council. 2008-04-29.
  37. Web site: Gibson, Campbell. Table 1. Rank by Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places, Listed Alphabetically by State: 1790-1990. U.S. Census Bureau. June. 1998. 2007-05-01.
  38. Encyclopedia: Encyclopaedia Britannica. Minneapolis: The contemporary city. 2007. 2007-03-24.
  39. Web site: Fortune 500: Minnesota. Cable News Network, Time Warner. 2008. 2008-06-28.
  40. News: Black, Sam. Top employer in downtown Minneapolis: Target. Minneapolis / St. Paul Business Journal. American City Business Journals, Inc. 2006-01-26. 2007-09-19.
  41. News: Pacella, Rena Marie. Popular Science. Top Tech City: Minneapolis, MN. 2005. 2007-01-18.
  42. News: Jane Bennett Clark. Seven Cool Cities. Kiplinger's Personal Finance. The Kiplinger Washington Editors, Inc. October 2005. 2007-02-11. and Web site: The Kiplinger Washington Editors, Inc. (Kiplinger.com). 50 Smart Places to Live: #2 Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn.. June 1, 2006. 2007-02-11.
  43. Web site: Global Insight. The Role of Metro Areas in the U.S. Economy. 2006. PDF. 2007-02-12. and Web site: Bureau of Economic Analysis. Personal Income and Per Capita Personal Income by Metropolitan Area, 2003–2005. September 6, 2006. 2007-02-12.
  44. Web site: Levy, David. The Region. Interview with Paul Volcker. December. 1992. and Web site: Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. 2007-04-30.
  45. Web site: Buyers & Processors. North Dakota Wheat Commission. 2007-04-02.
  46. News: Minnesota Public Radio. Horwich, Jeff. Council moves closer to theater deal, but concerns remain. April 6, 2005. 2007-03-21. and Web site: City of Minneapolis. Music & Theater. 2007-02-12.
  47. Web site: Minnesota Fringe Festivl. PDF. Minnesota Fringe Festival. 2008-07-20.
  48. Web site: Minnesota Historical Society. Guthrie Theater. and Web site: Guthrie Theater. Theater History. 2007-04-23.
  49. Web site: Hennepin Theatre Trust. Theatre History. 2007-03-17.
  50. Web site: Minnesota Shubert Performing Arts and Education Center. PDF. Artspace Projects, Inc. 2007-07-29.
  51. Web site: Joubert, Claire. Boom Town. Mpls.St.Paul (via Meet Minneapolis). May. 2006. PDF. 2007-03-21.
  52. Web site: Minneapolis Sculpture Garden. 2007-03-18.
  53. News: Abbe, Mary. A twist in the tinfoil—Gehry doing Weisman addition. Star Tribune. Avista Capital Partners. March 8, 2007. 2007-03-18.
  54. Book: Matos, Michaelangelo in Brackett, Nathan. The New Rolling Stone Album Guide. 2004-11-02. 4. Fireside. 64. 0-74320-169-8. 2007-04-30.
  55. Web site: Twin/Tone Records. The Twin/Tone catalog. 1978–1998. 2007-01-15.
  56. Web site: Minnesota Historical Society. First Avenue & 7th Street Entry Band Files. 1999–2004. 2007-02-12.
  57. News: Oestreich, James R.. The New York Times. The New York Times Company. MUSIC; A Most Audacious Dare Reverberates. December 17, 2006. 2008-04-06.
  58. News: Mack, Linda. MacPhail: a new note for the Minneapolis riverfront. MinnPost. January 10, 2008. 2008-01-10.
  59. Web site: Minnesota Spoken Word Association. 2007-03-18.
  60. Atmosphere (January 4, 2005). "I Wish Those Cats @ Fobia Would Give Me Some Free Shoes" and "Sep Seven Game Show Them" and "7th St. Entry" on remastered. Rhymesayers, ASIN: B0006SSRXS [Explicit lyrics].
  61. News: Minneapolis and Seattle tie for nation’s most literate city. December 24, 2008. Minneapolis / St. Paul Business Journal. 2008-12-28.
  62. News: Chamberlain, Lisa. With Books as a Catalyst, Minneapolis Neighborhood Revives. April 30, 2008. The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 2008-04-30.
  63. Web site: AWA Wrestling Entertainment. About The AWA. 2006. 2007-03-16.
  64. Web site: Metropolitan Sports Facilities Commission. History of the Metrodome. 2006. and Web site: Hubert H. Humphrey MetroDome. Ticket King. 2007-03-31.
  65. Web site: Schill, Katherine, Cynthia Templin, Doug Berg (fiscal analysts). Sports Stadium Funding: A Summary of Actions by the 2006 Legislature. PDF. Minnesota House of Representatives. July. 2006. 2008-04-27.
  66. News: Mador, Jessica. With no payment plan in place, Vikings push $954M stadium project. April 19, 2007. Minnesota Public Radio. 2008-04-27.
  67. News: Vomhof, John. Commission picks designers for Metrodome project. September 26, 2008. Minneapolis / St. Paul Business Journal. Advance Publications. 2008-09-28.
  68. News: Minneapolis Gets 1992 Super Bowl. George. Thomas. 1989-05-25. The New York Times. 2008-07-18.
  69. Web site: 1992 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament. 2008-07-18. 2008-04-17. HickokSports.com.
  70. News: Bourne, Kraatz saved Worlds. Brodie. Rob. Ottawa Sun. 1998-04-06. 2008-07-18.
  71. Web site: A History of Minneapolis: Amateur Sports. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us). 2001. and Web site: A History of Minneapolis: Professional Sports. Minneapolis Public Library. 2001. 2007-02-12.
  72. Web site: Summary: National Collegiate/Division I Men's. PDF. through 2005–2006. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). and Web site: Summary: National Collegiate/Division I Women's. PDF. through 2005–2006. NCAA. 2007-10-04.
  73. Book: Garvin, Alexander. The American City : What Works, What Doesn't. 2. June 19, 2002. 67. McGraw-Hill Professional. 0-07137-367-5.
  74. Book: Loring, Charles M.. History of the Parks and Public Grounds of Minneapolis. Minnesota Historical Society, University of Michigan (via Google Books). 1915, read November 11, 1912. 601–602. 2007-04-11. and Book: Nadenicek, Daniel J. and Neckar, Lance M. in Cleveland, H. W. S.. Landscape Architecture, as Applied to the Wants of the West; with an Essay on Forest Planting on the Great Plains. xli. April. 2002. University of Massachusetts Press, ASLA Centennial Reprint Series. 1-55849-330-1. true.
  75. Web site: National Scenic Byways Online (byways.org). Grand Rounds Scenic Byway.
  76. Web site: Join Us at the Macy's Holidazzle Parade. Emergency Foodshelf Network. 2007-12-24.
  77. Web site: National Recreation and Park Association. Theodore Wirth (1863–1949). 2007-04-24.
  78. Magnusson, Jemilah. The Top 10 Green Cities in the U.S. The Green Guide. National Geographic Society (TheGreenGuide.com). 107. March/April 2005. and Web site: Minneapolis Public Works & Engineering. Minneapolis Local Surface Water Management Plan. undated, refers to 2000 census. PDF. 2007-04-09.
  79. News: Minneapolis, St. Paul parks shine in national report. 2008-07-08. 2008-07-17. Walsh. Paul. Star Tribune.
  80. Web site: National Scenic Byways Online (byways.org). Theodore Wirth Park, MN. and Web site: Central Park Conservancy (centralparknyc.org). FAQs. 2006. 2007-03-25.
  81. Web site: Minneapolis Park & Recreation Board. Minnehaha Park. 2007-03-25.
  82. Encyclopedia: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2007. 2007-04-30.
  83. Web site: Adams. Lori. Gorin, Amy; Rennie, Doug; Rushlow, Amy; Sayago, Joanna. The 25 Best Running Cities in America. Runner's World. Rodale. 2007-04-14.
  84. Web site: Twin Cities Marathon. Twin Cities Marathon (mtcmarathon.org). 2007-03-29.
  85. Web site: What's Happening in the Area. Mall of America. 2007-03-30.
  86. Web site: America's 100 Greatest Golf Courses/2007-08. Golf Digest. 2007.
  87. Web site: The McClatchy Company. Newspapers: Star Tribune. 2007-02-11.
  88. Web site: Inventor of the Week Archive: Scott & Brennan Olson (spelling corrected per rowbike.com). Lemelson-MIT, MIT School of Engineering. August. 1997. 2007-02-25.
  89. Web site: City of Minneapolis. City Council. and Web site: E-Democracy (e-democracy.org). Minneapolis City Council candidates. October 26, 2005. 2007-03-24. and Anderson, G.R. Jr.. The Compulsiveness of the Long-Distance Runner. City Pages. Village Voice Media. 23. 1127. 2002-07-10. 2007-03-21. and Web site: City of Minneapolis. Board of Estimate and Taxation. 2007-06-27.
  90. Web site: Fagotto, Elena, Archon Fung. The Minneapolis Neighborhood Revitalization Program: An Experiment in Empowered Participatory Governance. Institute of Development Studies, LogoLink (ids.ac.uk). PDF. February 15, 2005. 2007-04-05.
  91. Web site: GIS Business Services, City of Minneapolis. City of Minneapolis. Neighborhoods & Communities. 2004, updated January 2006. PDF. and Web site: Minneapolis Community Planning and Economic Development (CPED) Department. City of Minneapolis Business Associations. November 17, 2005. PDF. 2007-02-10.
  92. Web site: Earth Day Network. Urban Environment Report, City Environment Data: Minneapolis, Minnesota. 2007-02-24.
  93. Moskowitz, Dara. Minneapolis Confidential. City Pages. Village Voice Media. 16. 775. 1995-10-11. 2007-03-21.
  94. Web site: Minneapolis Police Department, CODEFOR Unit. Uniform Crime Reports. 2007-02-10.
  95. News: Williams, Brandt. Minnesota Public Radio. Homicide problem awaits Minneapolis' new police chief. January 9, 2007. and News: Scheck, Tom. Minnesota Public Radio. Sparks fly at Minneapolis mayoral debate. August 25, 2005. 2007-03-21.
  96. Web site: MPS Facts 2006–2007. Minneapolis Public Schools. and Web site: About MPS. and Web site: Board of Education. 2007-03-24.
  97. News: Diaz, Kevin. Minneapolis schools get failing grade on dropouts. March 31, 2008. Star Tribune. Avista Capital Partners. 2008-04-03.
  98. Web site: Minnesota Department of Education. Alphabetical List of Nonpublic Schools. 2005. and Web site: Charter Schools. 2005. 2007-03-24.
  99. Encyclopedia: Encyclopaedia Britannica. Minnesota, University of. 2007. 2007-03-24.
  100. Web site: University of Minnesota Rankings. U.S. News and World Report via Regents of the University of Minnesota. 2008-02-04.
  101. Web site: NCES Digest of Education Statistics. 2005. 2007-03-24.
  102. Web site: Minnesota Department of Education. Post-Secondary Schools. 2005. 2007-03-24.
  103. Web site: Guiding Principles for the Consolidation of Library Services in Hennepin County. PDF. Hennepin County Library. 2008-11-23.
  104. Web site: Frequently Asked Questions: Library Board Decisions and Libraries Closing. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us). 2006-10-26. 2007-02-12.
  105. Web site: Arts at MPL: Cesar Pelli. February 2, 2007. 2007-03-24.
  106. Web site: Unique Collections. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us). March 15, 2007. 2007-02-12.
  107. Web site: MPL Annual Report. 2004. PDF. 2007-03-24.
  108. http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/2007-12-26-literate-cities_N.htm
  109. Web site: Brookings Institution, Living Cities Census Series. Minneapolis/St. Paul in Focus: A Profile from Census 2000. PDF. 2003. 2007-04-08.
  110. Web site: Cati Vanden Breul. Downtown Minneapolis named one of 17 best commuting districts. The Minnesota Daily. September 28, 2005. 2007-03-16.
  111. Web site: Metro Transit. Guaranteed Ride Home. 2007-06-26.
  112. Web site: APTA Transit Ridership Report. American Public Transportation Association. Third Quarter, 2006. PDF. and Web site: Metro Transit. Hiawatha Line. 2006. 2007-02-03.
  113. Web site: Metropolitan Council. Central Corridor next steps and timeline. April 2, 2007. 2007-04-11.
  114. Web site: Meet Minneapolis. Skyways. 2007-03-21. and Web site: Gill, N.S.. About, Inc., The New York Times Company. About.com. Skyways: Downtown Minneapolis and St. Paul Skyways. 2007-03-15.
  115. Web site: Minneapolis City Council,City of Minneapolis. Amending ordinance relating to Taxicabs. 2006. PDF. 2007-03-16.
  116. Web site: Minneapolis Closes the Gap with #1 Portland. U.S. Census Bureau via City of Minneapolis. 2009-03-07.
  117. Web site: City of Minneapolis. Where to Ride in Minneapolis. 1997–2004. 2007-04-16.
  118. Web site: Minneapolis Park & Recreation Board. Stone Arch Bridge. 2007-03-16.
  119. Web site: Malone, Robert. Which Are The World's Cleanest Cities?. Forbes. 2007-04-16. 2007-04-28.
  120. Web site: Metropolitan Airports Commission. History and Mission. 2007-06-27.
  121. Web site: A History of Minneapolis: Air Transportation. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us). 2001. 2007-02-12.
  122. Web site: Air Line Pilots Association. Pilot Groups. 2007-03-15.
  123. Web site: Amtrak. St. Paul-Minneapolis, MN (MSP). 2007-04-26.
  124. Web site: Minnesota Department of Transportation and Northstar Corridor Development Authority. Facts and Figures. 2007-03-16.
  125. Web site: A History of Minneapolis: News, Media and Publishing. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us). 2001. 2007-02-12.
  126. News: Córdova, Cristina. All the News That Fits—and Then Some. February 19, 2008. The Rake. Rake Publishing. 2008-03-02.
  127. Anderson, G.R. Jr.. The Human Shield. City Pages. Village Voice Media. 28. 1372. 2007-03-21. and News: Shortal, Jana. Gang violence on the rise? Some veteran officers say Yes.. KARE-11. April 6, 2007. and News: Johnson, Dirk. Nice City's Nasty Distinction: Murders Soar in Minneapolis. The New York Times. The New York Times Company. June 30, 1996. 2008-04-06.
  128. Web site: December, John. Media - Radio - Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. March 1, 2007. and Web site: iBiquity Digital Corporation. HD Radio: Minneapolis-St. Paul. 2007-03-18.
  129. Web site: Weeks, John. Minneapolis / St. Paul: Minnesota Twin Cities Area: Digital TV & HDTV Cheat Sheet. 2003. 2007-03-18.
  130. Web site: Sparling, David A., Internet Movie Database. Plot summary for "Beverly Hills, 90210". 2007-03-14.
  131. News: Gary Levin. USA Today. Gannett Company, Inc. Idol tryouts begin Aug. 8. July 10, 2006. 2007-03-14.
  132. Web site: NBC's "Last Comic Standing" Live Tour. North Shore Music Theatre. 2007-05-15.
  133. Web site: Meet Minneapolis. Mary Tyler Moore statue. 2007-03-21. and Web site: Internet Movie Database. Awards for "Mary Tyler Moore" (1970). 2007-03-14.
  134. Web site: A History of Minneapolis: Religion. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us). 2007-04-30.
  135. Web site: Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church. Yahoo! Travel. 2007-04-30.
  136. Book: FitzGerald, Thomas E.. The Orthodox Church. Praeger/Greenwood. 1998. 0-27596-438-8. and Web site: St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral. About St. Mary's. 2006. 2007-03-19.
  137. Web site: Billy Graham Center. Billy Graham and the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association - Historical Background. November 11, 2004. 2007-03-19.
  138. News: Camhi, Leslie. FILM; The Fabulousness Of Tammy Faye. The New York Times. The New York Times Company. July 23, 2000. 2008-04-06.
  139. Web site: Vaughan, John N.. Church Report. Christy Media, LLC. Growth Trends. January. 2005. 2007-04-30.
  140. Encyclopedia: Eliel Saarinen. Encyclopaedia Britannica. and Web site: Koulun sijainti / School location. Finnish Language School of Minnesota. 2007-08-07.
  141. Web site: A History of Minneapolis: Social Services. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us). 2001. 2007-02-12.
  142. News: Ohlemacher, Stephen. Detroit Free Press. Detroit area has volunteer spirit. July 9, 2007. 2007-07-17.
  143. Web site: Charity Navigator. Catholic Charities of St. Paul & Minneapolis. 2006. 2007-04-30.
  144. Web site: Charity Navigator. American Refugee Committee International. 2006. 2007-04-30.
  145. Web site: Business Ethics (business-ethics.com). History. 2005. 2007-03-19. and Web site: CRO (thecro.com). 100 Best Corporate Citizens Repeat Performers. 2006–2007. 2007-03-19.
  146. Web site: Charity Navigator. The Minneapolis Foundation. 2006. 2007-04-30.
  147. Web site: Cohen, Burt. The Spirit of Giving. Mpls.St.Paul (via Meet Minneapolis). May. 2006. PDF. 2007-03-21.
  148. News: U.S.News & World Report. U.S.News & World Report, L.P.. Best Hospitals 2006. 2007-03-22.
  149. Web site: A History of Minneapolis: Medicine. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us). 2001. 2007-02-12.
  150. Web site: Mayo Foundation. Rochester, Minnesota Campus. 2007-03-15.
  151. Book: Jeffrey, Kirk. Machines in Our Hearts: The Cardiac Pacemaker, the Implantable Defibrillator, and American Health Care. Johns Hopkins University Press. 2001. 0-80186-579-4. 59–65.
  152. Web site: American College of Surgeons. Verified Trauma Centers. March 9, 2007. 2007-03-29. and Web site: About HCMC. and Web site: Hennepin County Medical Center (HCMC). HCMC Governance. 2007-06-26.
  153. Web site: City of Minneapolis. Wireless Minneapolis Frequently Asked Questions. 2007-04-07.
  154. Web site: Wireless Minneapolis Coverage Map. 2008-07-19. 2008. USI Wireless.
  155. Web site: City of Minneapolis. Utilities. 2007-04-07.
  156. Web site: City of Minneapolis. Snow and Ice Control. 2007-05-04.
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