Louis Riel Explained

Louis David Riel
Riding:Provencher
Predecessor:George-Étienne Cartier
Successor:Andrew Bannatyne
Birth Date:1844 10, df=yes
Birth Place:Red River Colony, Rupert's Land
Death Place:Regina, District of Assiniboia
Spouse:Marguerite Monet dit Bellehumeur (1881–1885)
Parents:Louis Riel Sr.
Julie Lagimodière
Children:Jean-Louis,
Marie-Angélique

Louis David Riel (22 October 1844  - 16 November 1885, in English) was a Canadian politician, a founder of the province of Manitoba, and leader of the Métis people of the Canadian prairies.[1] He led two resistance movements against the Canadian government and its first post-Confederation Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald. Riel sought to preserve Métis rights and culture as their homelands in the Northwest came progressively under the Canadian sphere of influence. He is regarded by many as a Canadian folk hero today.

The first resistance was the Red River Rebellion of 1869–1870.[2] The provisional government established by Riel ultimately negotiated the terms under which the modern province of Manitoba entered the Canadian Confederation.[3] Riel was forced into exile in the United States as a result of the controversial execution of Thomas Scott during the rebellion.[4] Despite this, he is frequently referred to as the "Father of Manitoba".[5] While a fugitive, he was elected three times to the Canadian House of Commons, although he never assumed his seat. During these years, he was frustrated by having to remain in exile despite his growing belief that he was a divinely chosen leader and prophet, a belief which would later resurface and influence his actions. He married in 1881 while in exile in Montana, and fathered two children.

Riel returned to what is now the province of Saskatchewan to represent Métis grievances to the Canadian government. This resistance escalated into a military confrontation known as the North-West Rebellion of 1885. It ended in his arrest, trial, and execution on a charge of high treason. Riel was viewed sympathetically in francophone regions of Canada, and his execution had a lasting influence on relations between the province of Quebec and English-speaking Canada. Whether seen as a Father of Confederation or a traitor, he remains one of the most complex, controversial, and ultimately tragic figures in the history of Canada.[6]

Early life

The Red River Settlement was a community in Rupert's Land nominally administered by the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC), and largely inhabited by First Nations tribes and the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed Cree, Ojibwa, Saulteaux, French Canadian, Scottish, and English descent.[7] Louis Riel was born there in 1844, near modern Winnipeg, Manitoba, to Louis Riel Sr. and Julie Lagimodière.

Riel was the eldest of eleven children in a locally well-respected French Canadian-Métis family.Web site: Archives & Special Collections. University of Manitoba. University of Manitoba : Archives & Special Collections. Canadian Wartime Experiences. Riel's Parents and Childhood.. 1998–2004. 2007-09-23. His father had gained prominence in this community by organizing a group that supported Guillaume Sayer, a Métis imprisoned for challenging the HBC's historical trade monopoly.[8] Sayer's eventual release as a result of agitations by Louis Sr.'s group effectively ended the monopoly, and the name Riel was therefore well known in the Red River area. His mother was the daughter of Jean-Baptiste Lagimodière and Marie-Anne Gaboury, one of the earliest white families to settle in the Red River Settlement in 1812. The Riels were noted for their devout Catholicism and strong family ties.[9]

Riel was first educated by Roman Catholic priests at St. Boniface. At age 13 he came to the attention of Alexandre Taché, the suffragan Bishop of St. Boniface, who was eagerly promoting the priesthood for talented young Métis. In 1858 Taché arranged for Riel to attend the Petit Séminaire of the Collège de Montréal in Montreal, Quebec under the direction of the Sulpician order.[10] Descriptions of him at the time indicate that he was a fine scholar of languages, science, and philosophy, but exhibited a frequent and unpredictable moodiness.[11]

Following news of his father's premature death in 1864, Riel lost interest in the priesthood and he withdrew from the college in March 1865. For a time he continued his studies as a day student in the convent of the Grey Nuns, but was soon asked to leave following breaches of discipline. He remained in Montreal over a year, living at the home of his aunt, Lucie Riel. Impoverished by the death of his father, Riel took employment as a law clerk in the Montreal office of Rodolphe Laflamme.[12] During this time he was involved in a failed romance with a young woman named Marie-Julie Guernon.[13] This progressed to the point of Riel having signed a contract of marriage, but his fiancée's family opposed her involvement with a Métis, and the engagement was soon broken. Compounding this disappointment, Riel found legal work unpleasant, and by early 1866 he had resolved to leave Quebec.[14] Some of his friends said later that he worked odd jobs in Chicago, Illinois while staying with poet Louis-Honoré Fréchette, and wrote poems himself in the manner of Lamartine; also that he was then for a time employed as a clerk in St. Paul, Minnesota prior to returning to the Red River Settlement on 26 July 1868.[15]

Red River Rebellion

See main article: Red River Rebellion. The majority population of the Red River had historically been Métis and First Nation people. But upon his return, Riel found that religious, nationalistic, and racial tensions were exacerbated by an influx of Anglophone Protestant settlers from Ontario. The political situation was also uncertain, as ongoing negotiations for the transfer of Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company to Canada had not addressed the political terms of transfer. Finally, despite warnings to the Macdonald government from Bishop Taché[16] and the HBC governor William Mactavish that any such activity would precipitate unrest, the Canadian minister of public works, William McDougall, ordered a survey of the area. The arrival on 20 August 1869 of a survey party headed by Colonel John Stoughton Dennis[17] increased anxiety among the Métis. The Métis did not possess title to their land, which was in any case laid out according to the seigneurial system rather than in English-style square lots.[18]

Riel emerges as a leader

In late August, Riel denounced the survey in a speech, and on 11 October 1869, the survey's work was disrupted by a group of Métis that included Riel. This group organized itself as the "Métis National Committee" on 16 October, with Riel as secretary and John Bruce as president.[19] When summoned by the HBC-controlled Council of Assiniboia to explain his actions, Riel declared that any attempt by Canada to assume authority would be contested unless Ottawa had first negotiated terms with the Métis. Nevertheless, the non-bilingual McDougall was appointed the lieutenant governor-designate, and attempted to enter the settlement on 2 November. McDougall's party was turned back near the American border, and on the same day, Métis led by Riel seized Fort Garry.[20]

On 6 November, Riel invited Anglophones to attend a convention alongside Métis representatives to discuss a course of action, and on 1 December he proposed to this convention a list of rights to be demanded as a condition of union. Much of the settlement came to accept the Métis point of view, but a passionately pro-Canadian minority began organizing in opposition. Loosely constituted as the Canadian Party, this group was led by John Christian Schultz,Web site: [? John Christian Schultz]. Virtual American Biographies. Evisum Inc.. 2000. 2007-09-25. Charles Mair,[21] Colonel John Stoughton Dennis,[22] and a more reticent Major Charles Boulton.Web site: Mitchell. Ross. Manitoba Pageant, January 1960, Volume 5, Number 2. Manitoba Historical Society.. Manitoba Pageant: John Christian Schultz, M.D. – 1840–1896. 2002–2007. 2007-09-23. McDougall attempted to assert his authority by authorizing Dennis to raise a contingent of armed men, but the Anglophone settlers largely ignored this call to arms. Schultz, however, attracted approximately fifty recruits and fortified his house and store. Riel ordered Schultz's home surrounded, and the outnumbered Canadians soon surrendered and were imprisoned in Upper Fort Garry.

Provisional government

Hearing of the unrest, Ottawa sent three emissaries to the Red River, including HBC representative Donald Alexander Smith.[23] While they were en route, the Métis National Committee declared a provisional government on 8 December, with Riel becoming its president on 27 December.[24] Meetings between Riel and the Ottawa delegation took place on January 5 and 6, 1870, but when these proved fruitless, Smith chose to present his case in a public forum. Smith assured large audiences of the Government's goodwill in meetings on 19 January and 20 January, leading Riel to propose the formation of a new convention split evenly between French and English settlers to consider Smith's instructions. On 7 February, a new list of rights was presented to the Ottawa delegation, and Smith and Riel agreed to send representatives to Ottawa to engage in direct negotiations on that basis. The provisional government established by Louis Riel published its own newspaper titled New Nation and established the Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia to pass laws.[25]

Canadian resistance and the execution of Scott

Despite the apparent progress on the political front, the Canadian party continued to plot against the provisional government. However, they suffered a setback on 17 February, when forty eight men, including Boulton and Thomas Scott, were arrested near Fort Garry.

Boulton was tried by a tribunal headed by Ambroise-Dydime Lépine and sentenced to death for his interference with the provisional government.[26] He was pardoned, but Scott interpreted this as weakness on the part of the Métis, whom he regarded with open contempt. After Scott repeatedly quarreled with his guards, they insisted that he be tried for insubordination. At his trial, he was found guilty of defying the authority of the provisional government and was sentenced to death. Riel was repeatedly entreated to commute the sentence, but Donald Smith reported that Riel responded to his pleas by saying:

Scott was executed by firing squad on 4 March.[27] Riel's motivations for allowing the execution have been the cause of much speculation, but his own justification was that he felt it necessary to demonstrate to the Canadians that the Métis must be taken seriously.

Creation of Manitoba and the Wolseley expedition

The delegates representing the provisional government departed for Ottawa in March. Although they initially met with legal difficulties arising from the execution of Scott, they were soon able to enter into direct talks with Macdonald and George-Étienne Cartier.[28] An agreement enshrining the demands in the list of rights was quickly reached, and this formed the basis for the Manitoba Act[29] of 12 May 1870, which formally admitted Manitoba into the Canadian confederation. However, the negotiators were unable to secure a general amnesty for the provisional government.

As a means of exercising Canadian authority in the settlement and dissuading American expansionists, a Canadian military expedition under Colonel Garnet Wolseley was dispatched to the Red River.[30] Although the government described it as an "errand of peace", Riel learned that Canadian militia elements in the expedition meant to lynch him, and he fled as the expedition approached the Red River. The arrival of the expedition on 20 August marked the effective end of the Red River Rebellion.

Intervening years

Amnesty question

It was not until 2 September 1870 that the new lieutenant-governor Adams George Archibald arrived and set about the establishment of civil government.Web site: Bowles. Richard S. MHS Transactions Series 3, Number 25, 1968–69 season. Manitoba Historical Society. MHS Transactions: Adams George Archibald, First Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba. 2002–2007. 2007-09-23. In the absence of an amnesty, and with the Canadian militia beating and intimidating his sympathisers, Riel fled to the safety of the St. Joseph's mission across the border in the Dakota Territory. However the results of the first provincial election in December 1870 were promising for Riel, as many of his supporters came to power. Nevertheless, stress and financial troubles precipitated a serious illness—perhaps a harbinger of his future mental afflictions—that prevented his return to Manitoba until May 1871. The settlement now faced another threat, this time from cross-border Fenian raids coordinated by his former associate William Bernard O'Donoghue.[31] While the threat proved overstated, Archibald proclaimed a general call to arms on 4 October. Companies of armed horsemen were raised, including one led by Riel. When Archibald reviewed the troops in St. Boniface, he made the significant gesture of publicly shaking Riel's hand, signaling that a rapprochement had been effected. But this was not to be—when this news reached Ontario, Mair and members of the Canada First movement whipped up a significant resurgence of anti-Riel (and anti-Archibald) sentiment. With Federal elections coming in 1872, Macdonald could ill afford further rift in Quebec-Ontario relations. He therefore quietly arranged for Taché to offer Riel what amounted to a bribe of $1,000 to enter voluntary exile. This was supplemented by an additional £600 from Smith for the care of Riel's family. Riel accepted, arriving in St. Paul on 2 March 1872. However, by late June Riel was back in Manitoba and was soon convinced to run as a member of parliament for the electoral district of Provencher. However, following the early September defeat of Cartier in his home riding in Quebec, Riel stood aside so that Cartier—on record as being in favour of amnesty for Riel—might secure a seat. Cartier won by acclamation, but Riel's hopes for a swift resolution to the amnesty question were dashed following Cartier's death on 20 May 1873. In the ensuing by-election in October 1873, Riel ran unopposed as an Independent, although he had once again fled, a warrant having been issued for his arrest in September. Lépine was not so lucky; he was captured and faced trial. Riel made his way to Montreal and, fearing arrest or assassination, vacillated as to whether he should attempt to take up his seat in the House of CommonsEdward Blake, the Premier of Ontario, had announced a bounty of $5,000 for his arrest.[32] Famously, Riel was the only Member of Parliament who was not present for the great Pacific Scandal debate of 1873 that led to the resignation of the Macdonald government in November. Liberal leader Alexander Mackenzie became the interim prime minister, and a general election was held in January 1874. Although the Liberals under Mackenzie formed the new government, Riel easily retained his seat. Formally, Riel had to sign a register book at least once upon being elected, and he did so under disguise in late January. He was nevertheless stricken from the rolls following a motion supported by Schultz, who had become the member for the electoral district of Lisgar.[33] Undeterred, Riel prevailed once again in the resulting by-election, and although once again expelled, his symbolic point had been made and public opinion in Quebec was strongly tipped in his favour.

Exile and mental illness

During this period, Riel had been staying with priests of the Oblate order in Plattsburgh, New York who introduced him to Father Fabien Martin dit Barnabé in the nearby village of Keeseville. It was here that he received news of Lépine's fate: following his trial for the murder of Scott, which had begun on 13 October 1874, Lépine was found guilty and sentenced to death. This sparked outrage in the sympathetic Quebec press, and calls for amnesty for both Lépine and Riel were renewed. This presented a severe political difficulty for Mackenzie, who was hopelessly caught between the demands of Quebec and Ontario. However, a solution was forthcoming when, acting on his own initiative, the Governor General Lord Dufferin commuted Lépine's sentence in January 1875. This opened the door for Mackenzie to secure from parliament an amnesty for Riel, on that the condition that he remain in exile for five years.[6]

During his time of exile, he was primarily concerned with religious rather than political matters. Spurred on by a sympathetic Roman Catholic priest in Quebec, he was increasingly influenced by his belief that he was a divinely chosen leader of the Métis. Modern biographers have speculated that he may have suffered from the psychological condition megalomania.[34] His mental state deteriorated, and following a violent outburst he was taken to Montreal, where he was under the care of his uncle, John Lee, for a few months. But after Riel disrupted a religious service, Lee arranged to have him committed in an asylum in Longue-Pointe on 6 March 1876 under the assumed name "Louis R. David".[35] While he suffered from sporadic irrational outbursts, he continued his religious writing, composing theological tracts with an admixture of Christian and Judaic ideas. He consequently began calling himself Louis "David" Riel, prophet of the new world, and he would pray (standing) for hours, having servants help him to hold his arms in the shape of a cross. Nevertheless, he slowly recovered, and was released from the asylum on 23 January 1878[36] with an admonition to lead a quiet life. He returned for a time to Keeseville, where he became involved in a passionate romance with Evelina Martin dit Barnabé,[37] sister of his friend, the oblate father Fabien Barnabé. But with insufficient means to propose marriage, Riel returned to the west, hoping that she might follow. However, she decided that she would be unsuited to prairie life, and their correspondence soon ended.

Montana and family life

In the fall of 1878, Riel returned to St. Paul, and briefly visited his friends and family. This was a time of rapid change for the Métis of the Red River—the buffalo on which they depended were becoming increasingly scarce, the influx of settlers was ever-increasing, and lots of land were sold to unscrupulous land speculators. Like other Red River Métis who had left Manitoba, Riel headed further west in order to start a new life. Travelling to the Montana Territory, he became a trader and interpreter in the area surrounding Fort Benton. Observing rampant alcoholism and its detrimental impact on the Native American and Métis people, he engaged in an unsuccessful attempt to curtail the whisky trade. In 1881, he married Marguerite Monet dit Bellehumeur (1861–1886),[38] a young Métis, "in the fashion of the country" on 28 April, an arrangement that was solemnized on 9 March 1882. They were to have three children: Jean-Louis (1882–1908); Marie-Angélique (1883–1897); and a boy who was born and died on 21 October 1885, less than one month before Riel was hanged.

Riel soon became involved in the politics of Montana, and in 1882, actively campaigned on behalf of the Republican Party. He brought a suit against a Democrat for rigging a vote, but was then himself accused of fraudulently inducing British subjects to take part in the election. In response, Riel applied for United States citizenship and was naturalized on 16 March 1883.[39] With two young children, he had by 1884 settled down and was teaching school at the St. Peter's Jesuit mission in the Sun River district of Montana.

The North-West Rebellion

See main article: North-West Rebellion.

Grievances in the Saskatchewan territory

Following the Red River Rebellion, Métis travelled west and settled in the Saskatchewan Valley, especially along the south branch of the river in the country surrounding the Saint-Laurent mission (near modern St. Laurent de Grandin, Saskatchewan). But by the 1880s, it had become clear that westward migration was no panacea for the troubles of the Métis and the plains Indians. The rapid collapse of the buffalo herd was causing near starvation among the Plains Cree and Blackfoot First Nations. This was exacerbated by a reduction in government assistance in 1883, and by a general failure of Ottawa to live up to its treaty obligations. The Métis were likewise obliged to give up the hunt and take up agriculture—but this transition was accompanied by complex issues surrounding land claims similar to those that had previously arisen in Manitoba. Moreover, settlers from Europe and the eastern provinces were also moving into the Saskatchewan territories, and they too had complaints related to the administration of the territories. Virtually all parties therefore had grievances, and by 1884 English settlers, Anglo-Métis and Métis communities were holding meetings and petitioning a largely unresponsive government for redress. In the electoral district of Lorne, a meeting of the south branch Métis was held in the village of Batoche on 24 March, and thirty representatives voted to ask Riel to return and represent their cause. On 6 May a joint "Settler's Union" meeting was attended by both the Métis and English-speaking representatives from Prince Albert, including William Henry Jackson,Web site: Bushong. Mary Lynn. The Northwest Rebellion. edHelper. 2007. 2007-09-24. an Ontario settler sympathetic to the Métis and known to them as Honoré Jackson, and James Isbister of the Anglo-Métis.Web site: Flanagan. Thomas. Manitoba History: Louis Riel's Land Claims. Louis Riel's Land Claims. Manitoba Historical Society. 2002–2007. 2007-09-24. It was here resolved to send a delegation to ask Riel's assistance in presenting their grievances to the Canadian government.

Return of the Riel

The head of the delegation to Riel was Gabriel Dumont, a respected buffalo hunter and leader of the Saint-Laurent Métis who had known Riel in Manitoba. James Isbister was the lone Anglo-Métis delegate. Riel was easily swayed to support their cause—which was perhaps not surprising in view of Riel's continuing conviction that he was the divinely selected leader of the Métis and the prophet of a new form of Christianity. Riel also intended to use the new position of influence to pursue his own land claims in Manitoba. The party departed 4 June, and arrived back at Batoche on 5 July. Upon his arrival Métis and English settlers alike formed an initially favourable impression of Riel following a series of speeches in which he advocated moderation and a reasoned approach. During June 1884, the Plains Cree leaders Big Bear and PoundmakerWeb site: Virtual Saskatchewan – Cree Chief Poundmaker. Virtual Saskatchewan. 1997–2007). 2007-09-24. were independently formulating their complaints, and subsequently held meetings with Riel. However, the Indians' grievances were quite different from those of the settlers, and nothing was then resolved. Inspired by Riel,[40] Honoré Jackson and representatives of other communities set about drafting a petition,[41] and Jackson on 28 July released a manifesto detailing grievances and the settler's objectives. A joint English-Métis central committee with Jackson acting as secretary worked to reconcile proposals from different communities. In the interim, Riel's support began to waver. As Riel's religious pronouncements became increasingly removed from Roman Catholicism, the clergy began to distance themselves, and father Alexis André cautioned Riel against mixing religion and politics. Also, in response to bribes by territorial lieutenant-governor and Indian commissioner Edgar Dewdney,[42] local English-language newspapers adopted an editorial stance critical of Riel.[37] Nevertheless, the work continued, and on 16 December Riel forwarded the committee's petition to the government, along with the suggestion that delegates be sent to Ottawa to engage in direct negotiation. Receipt of the petition was acknowledged by Joseph-Adolphe Chapleau, Macdonald's Secretary of State, although Macdonald himself would later deny having ever seen it.[37]

Break with the church

While Riel awaited news from Ottawa he considered returning to Montana, but had by February resolved to stay. In the absence of a productive course of action, Riel began to engage in obsessive prayer, and was, in fact, experiencing a significant relapse of his mental agitations. This led to a deterioration in his relationship with the Catholic hierarchy, as he publicly espoused an increasingly heretical doctrine. On 11 February 1885, a response to the petition was received. The government proposed to take a census of the North-West Territories, and to form a commission to investigate grievances. This angered the Métis, who interpreted this as a mere delaying tactic—a faction emerged that favoured taking up arms at once. This was not supported by the Church, the majority of the English-speaking community, or, indeed, by the Métis faction supporting local leader Charles Nolin. But Riel, undoubtedly influenced by his messianic delusions, became increasingly supportive of this course of action. In the church at Saint-Laurent on 15 March, Riel disrupted a sermon to argue for this position, following which he was barred from receiving the sacraments, and increasingly frequently discussed his "divine revelations". But disenchanted with the status quo, and swayed by Riel's charisma and eloquent rhetoric, Métis remained loyal to Riel, despite his proclamations that Bishop Ignace Bourget[43] should be accepted as pope, and that "Rome has fallen".

Open rebellion

On 18 March it became known that the North-West Mounted Police garrison at Battleford was being reinforced. Although only 100 men had been sent in response to warnings from father Alexis André and NWMP superintendent L.N.F. Crozier, a rumour soon began to circulate that 500 heavily armed troops were advancing on the territory. Métis patience was exhausted, and Riel's followers seized arms, took hostages, and cut the telegraph lines between Batoche and Battleford. The Provisional Government of Saskatchewan was declared at Batoche on 19 March, with Riel[44] as the political and spiritual leader and with Dumont assuming responsibility for military affairs. Riel formed a council called the Exovedate[45] (a neologism meaning "those who have left the flock"), and sent representatives to court Poundmaker and Big Bear. On 21 March, Riel's emissaries demanded that Crozier surrender Fort Carlton, but this was refused. The situation was becoming critical, and on 23 March Dewdney sent a telegraph to Macdonald indicating that military intervention might be necessary. Scouting near Duck Lake on 26 March, a force led by Gabriel Dumont unexpectedly chanced upon a party from Fort Carlton. In the ensuing Battle of Duck Lake, the police were routed, and the Indians also rose up once the news became known. The die was cast for a violent outcome, and the North-West Rebellion was begun in earnest.

Riel had counted on the Canadian government being unable to effectively respond to another uprising in the distant North-West Territories, thereby forcing them to accept political negotiation. This was essentially the same strategy that had worked to such great effect during the 1870 rebellion. But in that instance, the first troops did not arrive until three months after Riel seized control. However, Riel had completely overlooked the significance of the nascent Canadian Pacific Railway. Despite major gaps in railway construction, the first Canadian regular and militia units, under the command of Major-General Frederick Dobson Middleton, arrived in Duck Lake less than two weeks after Riel had made his demands.Knowing that he could not defeat the Canadians in direct confrontation, Dumont had hoped to force the Canadians to negotiate by engaging in a long-drawn out campaign of guerrilla warfare; Dumont realised a modest success along these lines at the Battle of Fish Creek on 24 April 1885.[46] Riel, however, insisted on concentrating forces at Batoche in order to defend his "city of God". The outcome of the ensuing Battle of Batoche which took place from 9 May – 12 MayWeb site: North-West Rebellion. Historica Foundation of Canada.. The Canadian Encyclopedia. 2007. 2007-09-24. was never in doubt, and on 15 May a disheveled Riel surrendered to Canadian forces. Although Big Bear's forces managed to hold out until the Battle of Loon Lake on 3 June,[47] the rebellion was a dismal failure for Métis and Indian alike, with most surrendering or fleeing.

Trial for treason

See main article: Trial of Louis Riel. Several individuals closely tied to the government requested that the trial be held in Winnipeg in July 1885. There are historians who contend that the trials was moved to Regina due to concerns with the possibility of an ethnically mixed and sympathetic jury. Tom Flanagan states that an amendment of the North-West Territories Act (which dropped the provision that trials with crimes punishable by death should be tried in Manitoba) meant that the trial could be convened within the North-West Territories and did not have to be held in Winnipeg. Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald ordered the trial to be convened in Regina, where Riel was tried before a jury of six English and Scottish Protestants, all from the area surrounding the city. The trial began on 28 July 1885, and lasted only five days.[2]

Riel delivered two long speeches during his trial, defending his own actions and affirming the rights of the Métis people. He rejected his lawyer's attempt to argue that he was not guilty by reason of insanity, asserting,

The jury found him guilty but recommended mercy; nonetheless, Judge Hugh Richardson sentenced him to death, with the date of his execution initially set for 18 September 1885.[34] Fifty years later one of the jurors, Edwin Brooks, said that Riel was tried for treason but hanged for the execution of Thomas Scott.

Execution

Boulton writes in his memoirs that, as the date of his execution approached, Riel regretted his opposition to the defence of insanity and vainly attempted to provide evidence that he was not sane. Requests for a retrial and an appeal to the Privy Council in England were denied. Sir John A. Macdonald, who was instrumental in upholding Riel's sentence, is famously quoted as saying:

Prior to his execution, Riel was reconciled with the Catholic Church, and assigned Father André as his spiritual advisor. He was also given writing materials so that he could employ his time in prison to write a book. Louis Riel was hanged for treason on 16 November 1885.[48]

Boulton writes of Riel's final moments,

Following the execution, Riel's body was returned to his mother's home in St. Vital, where it lay in state. On 12 December 1885, his remains were laid in the churchyard of the Saint-Boniface Cathedral following the celebration of a requiem mass.

Legacy

Political

The Saskatchewan Métis' requested land grants were all provided by the government by the end of 1887, and the government resurveyed the Métis river lots in accordance with their wishes. The Métis did not understand the long term value of their new land, however, and it was soon bought by speculators who later turned huge profits from it. Riel's worst fears were realised—following the failed rebellion, the French language and Roman Catholic religion faced increasing marginalisation in both Saskatchewan and Manitoba, as exemplified by the controversy surrounding the Manitoba Schools Question. The Métis themselves were increasingly forced to live on undesirable land or in the shadow of Indian reserves (as they did not themselves have treaty status). Saskatchewan did not attain provincehood until 1905.

Riel's execution and Macdonald's refusal to commute his sentence caused lasting upset in Quebec, and led to a fundamental alteration in the Canadian political order. In Quebec, Honoré MercierWeb site: Lindsay. Lionel. Louis-Honore Mercier. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York. 2007-09-24. exploited discontent over Riel's execution to reconstitute the Parti National. This party, which promoted Quebec nationalism, won a majority in the 1886 Quebec election by winning a number of seats formerly controlled by the Quebec Conservative Party. The federal election of 1887 likewise saw significant gains by the federal Liberals, again at the expense of the Conservatives. This led to the victory of the Liberal party under Sir Wilfrid Laurier in the federal election of 1896, which in turn set the stage for the domination of Canadian federal politics by the Liberal party in the 20th century. That Riel's name still has resonance in Canadian politics was evidenced on 16 November 1994, when Suzanne Tremblay, a Bloc Québécois member of parliament, introduced private members' bill C-228, "An Act to revoke the conviction of Louis David Riel".[49] The unsuccessful bill was widely perceived in English Canada as an attempt to arouse support for Quebec nationalism prior to the 1995 referendum on Quebec sovereignty.[50]

Riel reconsidered

The formerly widespread perception of Louis Riel as an insane traitor, especially outside of the Métis and French Canadian community, weakened considerably since the late 20th century. Riel is regarded by some as a heroic freedom fighter who stood up for his people in the face of a racist government, and those who question his sanity still view him as an essentially honourable figure. Riel nevertheless presents an enigma, although as historian J.M.S. Careless has observed, it is possible that Riel was both a murderer and a hero. It is also possible that his rash decision to execute Scott drastically altered the history of his people. For example, shortly after the Red River Rebellion the Canadian government began a programme that speculators and other non-Métis exploited to dispossess the Métis of their land; had Scott not been executed, the government might well have supervised the program more rigorously, given the prior good relations between Canada and the Métis. Métis scholars have noted that Riel is a more important figure to non-Métis than to Métis, perhaps because he is often the only Métis figure most non-Métis are aware of. Political scientists such as Thomas Flanagan have pointed out certain parallels between Riel's following during the North-West Rebellion and millenarian cults. Others have embraced his image as a revolutionary—in the 1960s, the Quebec terrorist group, the Front de libération du Québec, went so far as to adopt the name "Louis Riel" for one of its terrorist cells.

Bill C-213 or Louis Riel Day Act and Bill C-417 Louis Riel Act are the more notable acts which have gone through parliament.[51] Bill C-297 to revoke the conviction of Louis Riel was introduced to the House of Commons October 21 and November 22, 1996, however the motion lacked unanimous consent from the House and was dropped.[52] Bill C-213[53] or the Louis Riel Day Act of 1997 attempted to revoke the conviction of Louis Riel for high treason and establish a National Day in his honour on November 16.[54] Bill C-417[55] or the Louis Riel Act which also had a first reading in parliament to revoke the conviction of Louis Riel, and establish July 15 as Louis Riel Day was tabled.[56]

Bills pertaining to Louis Riel[57]
BillParliamentSessionFirst ReadingYear
C-216381Oct2004
C-411371January2001
C-324372Sept2002
S-35371January2001
C-324373Feb2004
C-297Nov2006
C-258May2006
C-288March1995
C-417June1998
C-380352March1997
C-2583611997
C-2573621999

On 18 February 2008, the province of Manitoba officially recognized the first Louis Riel Day as a general provincial holiday. It will now fall on the third Monday of February each year in the Province of Manitoba.[58]

Commemorations

A resolution was passed by Parliament on 10 March 1992 citing that Louis Riel was the founder of Manitoba.[59] Two statues of Riel are located in Winnipeg.[60] One of the Winnipeg statues, the work of architect Étienne Gaboury and sculptor Marcien Lemay, depicts Riel as a naked and tortured figure. It was unveiled in 1970 and stood in the grounds of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba for 23 years. After much outcry (especially from the Métis community) that the statue was an undignified misrepresentation, the statue was removed and placed at the Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface. It was replaced in 1994 with a statue designed by Miguel Joyal depicting Riel as a dignified statesman. The unveiling ceremony was on 16 May 1996, in Winnipeg.[59]

A statue of Riel on the grounds of the Saskatchewan legislative building in Regina was installed and later removed for similar reasons.

In numerous communities in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and even in Ontario, Riel is commemorated in the names of streets, schools, and other buildings (such as the Louis Riel School Division in Winnipeg). The student centre and campus pub at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon are named after Riel.[61] Highway 11, stretching from Regina to just south of Prince Albert, has been named Louis Riel Trail by the province; the roadway passes near locations of the 1885 rebellion.[62] One of the student residences at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia is named Louis Riel House.

On 26 September 2007, Manitoba legislature passed a bill establishing a statutory holiday on the third Monday in February as Louis Riel Day, the same day some other provinces celebrate Family Day, beginning in 2008.[63] The first Louis Riel Day was celebrated on 18 February 2008. This new statutory holiday coincides with the celebration, on 15-24 February of the Festival du Voyageur.

Arts, literature and popular culture

In 1925, the French writer Maurice Constantin-Weyer who lived 10 years in Manitoba published in French a fictionalized biography of Louis Riel titled La Bourrasque. An English translation/adaptation was published in 1930 : A Martyr's Folly (Toronto, The Macmillan Company), and a new version in 1954, The Half-Breed (New York, The Macaulay Compagny) http://services.banq.qc.ca/sdx/dalfan/document.xsp?app=ca.bnquebec.sdx.dalfan&db=DALFAN&id=0392&qid=sdx_q0&n=115&q= and http://services.banq.qc.ca/sdx/dalfan/document.xsp?app=ca.bnquebec.sdx.dalfan&db=DALFAN&id=0392&qid=sdx_q0&n=115&q=.

Portrayals of Riel's role in the Red River Rebellion include the 1979 CBC television film Riel and Canadian cartoonist Chester Brown's acclaimed 2003 graphic novel .Web site: Biography of Louis Riel: Excerpts from a comic-strip biography. The Trial of Louis Riel Homepage. University of Missouri Kansas City School of Law. 2007-09-24.

An opera about Riel entitled Louis Riel was commissioned for Canada's centennial celebrations in 1967. It was an opera in three acts, written by Harry Somers, with an English and French libretto by Mavor Moore and Jacques Languirand. The Canadian Opera Company produced and performed the first run of the opera in September and October, 1967.[64]

From the late 1960s until the early 1990s, the city of Saskatoon hosted "Louis Riel Day", a summer celebration that included a relay race that combined running, backpack carrying, canoeing, hill climbing, and horseback riding along the South Saskatchewan River in the city's downtown core. Traditionally, the event also included a cabbage roll eating contest and tug-of-war competition, as well as live musical performances. Although not affiliated with the Saskatoon Exhibition, for years Louis Riel Day was scheduled for the day prior to the start of the fair, and as such came to be considered the Exhibition's unofficial kick-off (the scheduling of the two events was separated in later years). The event was discontinued when major sponsors pulled out.

Billy Childish wrote a song entitled "Louis Riel", which was performed by Thee Headcoats. Texas musician Doug Sahm wrote a song entitled "Louis Riel," which appeared on the album S.D.Q. '98.[65] In the song, Sahm likens the lore surrounding Riel to Davey Crockett's legend in his home state, spinning an abridged tale of Riel's life as a revolutionary: "...but you gotta respect him for what he thought was right... And all around Regina they talk about him still – why did they have to kill Louis Riel?"[66]

On 22 October 2003, the Canadian news channel CBC Newsworld and its French-language equivalent, Réseau de l'information, staged a simulated retrial of Riel.[67] Viewers were invited to enter a verdict on the trial over the internet, and more than 10,000 votes were received—87% of which were "not guilty".[68] The results of this straw poll led to renewed calls for Riel's posthumous pardon. Also on the basis of a public poll, the CBC's Greatest Canadian project ranked Riel as the 11th "Greatest Canadian".[69]

An episode of the TV-series How the West Was Won from 1979 was named L'Affaire Riel, featuring Louis Riel while in exile in the United States.[70]

In 2001, Canadian sketch comedy troupe Royal Canadian Air Farce featured Riel in its send-up of the CBC documentary series Canada: A People's History. Significant parallels were drawn between Riel's actions and those of modern-day Québécois separatists, and the comedian who portrayed Riel was made up to look like then-Premier Lucien Bouchard.

References

External links

Notes and References

  1. Web site: A database of materials held by the University of Saskatchewan Libraries and the University Archives. Louis Riel. 2007-09-23.
  2. Web site: Ricketts. Bruce. Louis Riel – Martyr, hero or traitor?. 1998–2007. 2007-09-23.
  3. Web site: The Heritage Centre. Louis Riel The Provisional Government. 2007-09-23.
  4. Web site: The Heritage Centre. Louis Riel: Riel flees to the U.S.A.. 2007-09-23.
  5. Web site: Ross. Brenda. "Spike by Spike: The Building of the Canadian-Pacific Railroad". The Kudzu Monthly ezine with a distinctive southern perspective. 2007. 2007-11-15.
  6. Web site: The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Foundation of Canada.. Riel, Louis. 2007. 2007-09-23.
  7. Web site: The Canadian Encyclopedia©. Historica Foundation of Canada.. Red River Colony. 2007. 2007-09-23.
  8. Web site: Parks Canada – Riel House National Historic Site of Canada .... Parks Canada. 2007-01-05.
  9. Stanley (1963), pp. 13–20
  10. Web site: Government of Canada. Parks Canada: Riel House National Historic Site of Canada Historic Themes. 5 January 2007. 2007-09-23.
  11. Stanley (1963), pp. 26–28
  12. Web site: Historica Foundation of Canada.. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Riel, Louis. 2007. 2007-09-23.
  13. Web site: Métis Nation of Ontario. The MNO. 2006. 2007-09-23.
  14. Stanley (1963), pg. 33
  15. for this section, see Stanley, Louis Riel, pp. 13–34.
  16. Web site: Manitoba History: Bishop Taché and the Confederation of Manitoba, 1969–1970. Dorge. Lionel. 2007-11-13.
  17. Web site: Manitoba History: The Red River Rebellion and J. S. Dennis .... Read. Colin. 2007-11-13.
  18. Web site: Canadiana.org 2001–2005 (Formerly Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions). Canada in the Making: The Riel Rebellions. 2007-10-06.
  19. Web site: Dumont Technical Institute (DTI) Métis Studies Adult 10 course > Module 5: Métis Resistance > Metis Studies 10. Reading #9: National Committee of the Métis. 2003. 2007-09-23.
  20. Web site: CBC. From Sea to Sea. The Métis Resistance The Execution of Thomas Scott. 2001. 2007-09-23.
  21. Web site: Louis Riel. Virtual American Biographies. Evisum Inc.. 2000. 2007-09-25.
  22. Web site: Metis culture 1869. The infamous John A. MacDonald, an avid Orangeman of a foreign country, makes plans to annex the independent Metis Nation of the North West.. METIS HISTORY. 2007-09-25.
  23. Web site: University of Toronto. Library and Archives Canada. Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online SMITH, DONALD ALEXANDER, 1st Baron STRATHCONA and MOUNT ROYAL. 2 May 2005. 2000. 2007-09-23.
  24. Web site: The Canadian Encyclopedia. Red River Rebellion. 2007. 2007-09-23.
  25. News: Local Laws. New Nation. April 15, 1870. 3. Vol I No. 18.
  26. Web site: Bélanger, Claude. Marianopolis College. The Murder of Thomas Scott. 2007. 2007-09-23.
  27. Web site: The Heritage Centre. Louis Riel: Thomas Scott. 2007-09-23.
  28. Web site: Maton. William F. Appendix 5C: Métis Nation Land and Resource Rights*. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. 2006-02-08. 2007-11-14.
  29. Web site: Maton. William F. Manitoba Act, 1870. The Solon Law Archive. 2007-09-23.
  30. Web site: Government of Manitoba. PL-1553 Wolseley Expedition—Province of Manitoba. 2007-09-23.
  31. Web site: Swan. Ruth. Manitoba History, Number 39, Spring / Summer 2000. Manitoba Historical Society. Manitoba History: "The Storehouses of the Good God:" "Unequal justice:" The Metis in O'Donoghue's Raid of 1871. 2002–2007. 2007-09-23.
  32. Web site: Louis Riel (1844–1885): Biography Louis Riel, Métis leader. PDF. 2007-09-23.
  33. Web site: Marleau. Robert. Montpetit. Camille. Parliament of Canada. House of Commons Procedure and Practice The House of Commons and Its Members – Notes 351–373. 2000. 2007-09-23.
  34. Web site: A Biography of Louis Riel. The Trial of Louis Riel Homepage. University of Missouri Kansas City School Of law. 2007-09-24.
  35. Fearing discovery, his doctors soon transferred him to the Beauport Asylum near Quebec City under the name "Louis Larochelle".Web site: Was Riel mentally ill? – Rethinking Riel – CBC Archives. CBC. 2006. 2007-09-24.
  36. Web site: St. Simon's Anglican Church. Hird. The Reverend Ed. March 2004 Deep Cove Crier. The Passion of Louis Riel. 2007-11-15.
  37. Web site: Thomas, Lewis H.. University of Toronto/Université Laval. Library and Archives Canada. Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online RIEL, LOUIS,. 2 May 2005. 2000. 2007-09-23.
  38. Web site: Musée McCord Museum – Fonds – Louis Riel Collection. McCord Museum of Canadian History. 2007-09-24.
  39. Web site: Louis Riel – Canadian Confederation. Library and Archives Canada. 2001-12-14. 2007-11-15.
  40. Web site: Louis Riel to W. Jackson 22 September 1884.: Call No. MSS C555/2/13.7d. Northwest Resistance Database. University of Saskatchewan. 2006. 2007-11-15.
  41. Web site: Jackson, William Henry to Friend? 21 Jan. 1885.: Call No. MSS C555/2/13.9e. Northwest Resistance Database. University of Saskatchewan. 2006. 2007-11-15.
  42. Web site: The Dewdney Trail – Biography. Biography of Edgar Dewdney. Nelson & District Museum, Archives, Art Gallery & Historical Society. All Rights Reserved.. 2006. 2007-09-24.
  43. Web site: Was Riel mentally ill? – Rethinking Riel – CBC Archives. CBC. 2006. 2007-09-24.
  44. Web site: Louis Riel: A Brief Chronology. PDF. 2007-09-24.
  45. Web site: Why did the 1885 Resistance Happen? The 1885 Resistance did not .... Virtual Museum. PDF. 2007-09-24.
  46. Web site: The Battle of Fish Creek (April 23, 1885) The Battle at Fish Creek .... Virtual Museum. PDF. 2007-09-24.
  47. Web site: The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Canadian Plains Research Center. University of Regina. 2006. 2007-09-24.
  48. Web site: Louis Riel – Canadian Confederation. Library and Archives Canada. Government of Canada. 2005-05-02. 2007-09-24.
  49. Web site: BILL C-288 (First Reading). House Publications. Parliament Government of Canada. 1994. 2007-09-24.
  50. Web site: Act to Revoke the Conviction of Louis Riel BILL C-288 (First Reading). Debates of the House of Commons of Canada 35th Parliament – 1st and 2nd Sessions. University of Missouri Kansas City School of Law Famous Trials. 1994. 2007-11-14.
  51. Web site: Bill Re-Introduced. LEGISINFO – The Library of Parliament's research tool for finding information on legislation. The House of Commons of Canada. 2007-11-15.
  52. Web site: Act to revoke the conviction of Louis Riel.
  53. Web site: BILL C-213. Parliament Canada. The House of Commons of Canada. 2007-11-15.
  54. Web site: BILL C-213 first reading. Parliament Canada. The House of Commons of Canada. 2007-11-15.
  55. Web site: BILL C-417 first reading. Parliament Canada. The House of Commons of Canada. 2007-11-15.
  56. Web site: Riel, Louis "David" (1844–85). Préfontaine. Darren R.. Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina. 2006. 2007-11-15.
  57. Web site: Bills Re-Introduced. LEGISINFO – The Library of Parliament's research tool for finding information on legislation. The House of Commons of Canada. 2007-11-15.
  58. Web site: Employment Standards (Louis Riel Day). Manitoba Labor Board – Employee Standards – Louis Riel Day Factsheet. The Government of Manitoba. 2008-02-17.
  59. Web site: Friday, November 22, 1996 (105). PRIVATE MEMBERS' BUSINESS AN ACT TO REVOKE THE CONVICTION OF LOUIS DAVID RIEL. House Publications Parliament of Canada. 2007-11-15.
  60. Web site: Bower. Shannon. Manitoba History: "Practical Results": The Riel Statue Controversy at the Manitoba Legislative Building. Manitoba History, Number 42, Autumn / Winter 2001–2002. Manitoba Historical Society. 2002–2007. 2007-09-24.
  61. Web site: Deo et Patriae: Events in the History of the University of Saskatchewan 1980: Place Riel opens. University of Saskatchewan. 2007-09-24.
  62. Web site: Scenic Routes – The Louis Riel Trail. Tourism Saskatchewan. Government of Saskatchewan. 2007-09-24.
  63. News: Manitoba's new holiday: Louis Riel Day Day. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2007-09-25. 2007-11-16.
  64. Web site: Music Division Archival Guide—Somers, Harry, 1925–1999. Collections Canada. Library Archives Canada. 2003-08-11. 2007-09-24.
  65. http://www.gourds.org/sahm2.html Discography
  66. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:gzfexqt0ldse Album review
  67. Web site: Crime, Media, Culture. Hybrid history and the retrial of the painful past. Strange. Carolyn. Sage Publications Australian National University. 2006. PDF. 2007-11-14.
  68. Web site: CSHC: Celebratory Opening FOOTNOTES 2. Media and Public History: Canada: A People's History. Centre for the Study of Historical Consciousness. 2002. 2007-11-14.
  69. Web site: CBC.ca – The Greatest Canadian – Top 100 – 11 to 100. Meet Some Great Canadians. CBC. 2007. 2007-11-14.
  70. Web site: How the West Was Won, Affaire Riel, L. Internet Movie Database. 2008-07-18.