List of amendments to the United States Constitution explained

This is a complete full list of all ratified and unratified amendments to the United States Constitution which have received the approval of the Congress. The procedure for amending the Constitution is governed by Article V of the original text. There have been many other proposals for amendments to the United States Constitution introduced in Congress, but not submitted to the states.

The first ten amendments to the United States Constitution are known as the Bill of Rights.

AmendmentsProposal dateEnactment dateFull text
1stFreedom of religion, of speech, of the press, to petition, and to assembleSeptember 29, 1789December 15, 1791Full text
2ndThe right to keep and bear armsSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 1791Full text
3rdNo quartering of soldiers in private houses during times of peace or warSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 1791Full text
4thInterdiction of unreasonable Searches and seizures; warrantsSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 1791Full text
5thIndictments; Due process; Self-incrimination; Double jeopardy, and rules for Eminent Domain.September 25, 1789December 15, 1791Full text
6thRight to a fair and speedy public trial, Notice of accusations, Confronting one's accuser, Subpoenas, Right to counselSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 1791Full text
7thRight to trial by jury in civil casesSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 1791Full text
8thNo excessive bail & fines or cruel & unusual punishmentSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 1791Full text
9thUnenumerated rightsSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 1791Full text
10thlimits the power of the Federal governmentSeptember 25, 1789December 15, 1791Full text
11thImmunity of states from suits from out-of-state citizens and foreigners not living within the state borders. Lays the foundation for sovereign immunity.March 4, 1794February 7, 1795Full text
12thRevision of presidential election proceduresDecember 9, 1803June 15, 1804Full text
13thAbolition of slavery, except as punishment for a crime.January 31, 1865December 6, 1865Full text
14thCitizenship, state due process, applies Bill of Rights to the states, revision to apportionment of Representatives, Denies public office to anyone who has rebelled against the United StatesJune 13, 1866July 9, 1868Full text
15thSuffrage no longer restricted by raceFebruary 26, 1869February 3, 1870Full text
16thAllows federal income taxJuly 12, 1909February 3, 1913Full text
17thDirect election to the United States SenateMay 13, 1912April 8, 1913Full text
18thProhibition of alcohol (Repealed by 21st amendment)December 18, 1917January 16, 1919Full text
19thWomen's suffrageJune 4, 1919August 18, 1920Full text
20thTerm Commencement for congress (January 3) and president (January 20.) (This amendment is also known as the "lame duck amendment".)March 2, 1932January 23, 1933Full text
21stRepeal of Eighteenth Amendment; state and local prohibition no longer required by law.February 20, 1933December 5, 1933Full text
22ndLimits the president to two termsMarch 24, 1947February 27, 1951Full text
23rdRepresentation of Washington, D.C. in the Electoral CollegeJune 16, 1960March 29, 1961Full text
24thProhibition of the restriction of voting rights due to the non-payment of poll taxesSeptember 14, 1962January 23, 1964Full text
25thPresidential SuccessionJuly 6, 1965February 10, 1967Full text
26thVoting age nationally established as age 18 (see suffrage)March 23, 1971July 1, 1971Full text
27thVariance of congressional compensationSeptember 25, 1789<--1789 is correct. See note 1.-->May 7, 1992Full text

Unratified proposed amendments

Before an amendment can take effect, it must be proposed to the states by a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress, and ratified by three-quarters of the states. Six amendments proposed by Congress have failed to be ratified by the appropriate number of states' legislatures. Four of these amendments are still technically pending before state lawmakers—the other two have expired by their own terms.

AmendmentDate ProposedStatusSubject
Congressional Apportionment AmendmentSeptember 25, 1789Still pending before state lawmakersApportionment of U.S. Representatives
Titles of Nobility AmendmentMay 1, 1810Still pending before state lawmakersProhibition of titles of nobility
Corwin AmendmentMarch 2, 1861Technically still pending before state lawmakers, but rendered moot by the 13th AmendmentPreservation of slavery
Child Labor AmendmentJune 2, 1924Still pending before state lawmakersCongressional power to regulate child labor
Equal Rights AmendmentMarch 22, 1972Expired 1979 or 1982 (some scholars disagree -- see main article).Prohibition of inequality of men and women
District of Columbia Voting Rights AmendmentAugust 22, 1978Expired 1986D.C. voting rights

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