Legal drinking age explained

Laws about the legal drinking age cover a wide range of issues and behaviours, addressing when and where alcohol can be consumed. The minimum age alcohol can be legally consumed can be different to the age when it can be purchased. These laws vary among different countries and many laws have exemptions or special circumstances. Most laws apply only to drinking alcohol in a public places, with alcohol consumption in the home being mostly unregulated. Some countries also have different age limits for different types of alcoholic drinks.

The United Kingdom is the only country that has a minimum legal age for drinking alcohol in a home. Some Islamic nations prohibit Muslims, or both Muslims and non-Muslims, from drinking alcohol at any age. In some countries, it is not illegal for minors to drink alcohol but the alcohol can be seized without compensation. In some cases, it is illegal to sell or give alcohol to minors. The following list indicates the age of the person to whom it is legal to consume and purchase alcohol.

Africa

rowspan=2 width=30%Country/regioncolspan=2 width=30%De jurerowspan=2 width=40%Notes
width=15%Drinking agewidth=15%Purchase age
Algeriacolspan=2 align=center18
Angolacolspan=2 align=centerNone
Botswanacolspan=2 align=center18
Burundicolspan=2 align=center18No limit if accompanied by parents.
Cameroon182118 on the premises, 21 off the premises
Cape Verdecolspan=2 align=center18
Central African Republiccolspan=2 align=center18
Comoroscolspan=2 align=centerNone
Egyptcolspan=2 align=center18 (beer), 21 (wine/spirits)[1]
Equatorial Guineacolspan=2 align=centerNone
Eritreacolspan=2 align=center18
Ethiopiacolspan=2 align=center18
Gaboncolspan=2 align=center18Illegal for Muslims
Gambiaalign=center colspan=218Illegal for Muslims
Ghanacolspan=2 align=center18[2]
Guinea-Bissaucolspan=2 align=centerNone
Kenyacolspan=2 align=center18
Lesothocolspan=2 align=center18
Libyacolspan=2 align=centerIllegal
Malawicolspan=2 align=center18
Mauritiuscolspan=2 align=center18
MoroccoNone[3] 16
Mozambiquecolspan=2 align=center18
Namibiaalign=center colspan=218
Nigeralign=center colspan=218
Nigeriaalign=center colspan=218
colspan=2 align=center18
Rwandaalign=center colspan=218
Seychellescolspan=2 align=center18
South Africacolspan=2 align=center18
colspan=2 align=center?
SwazilandNone18
Sudancolspan=2 align=center16Illegal for Muslims
colspan=2 align=center18[4]
Togocolspan=2 align=centerNone
Ugandacolspan=2 align=center18
Tunisiacolspan=2 align=center18
Zambiaalign=center colspan=218
Zimbabwealign=center colspan=218

North America and South America

rowspan=2 width=30%Country / regioncolspan=2 width=30%De jurerowspan=2 width=40%Notes
width=15%Drinking agewidth=15%Purchase age
Argentinacolspan=2 align=center18[5]
Bahamascolspan=2 align=center18
Belizecolspan=2 align=center18
Bermudacolspan=2 align=center18
colspan=2 align=center18[6]
Brazilcolspan=2 align=center18
rowspan=2 Canadacolspan=2 align=center18[7] In Alberta, Manitoba, and Quebec, the legal drinking age is 18. Underage drinking by 16-17 year olds under parental supervision is permitted in Manitoba [8] and under parental supervision in a residence or a temporary residence in Alberta[9]
colspan=2 align=center19In Ontario, Saskatchewan, British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Northwest Territories, Yukon, and Nunavut, the legal drinking age is 19. Underage drinking under parental supervision is permitted, with some restrictions, on one's own property in the provinces of New Brunswick[10] and Ontario[11] and at home in the provinces of Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan.[12] In British Columbia, only children of the supervising parents, not any other minors such as guests, are allowed underage drinking. Consumption of alcohol in another person's home is subject to other laws.[13]
Chilecolspan=2 align=center18The minimum age is 18 for buying and consuming alcohol. Selling alcohol to a minor may attract a fine. One must provide identification upon request. Residents of Chile over the age of 18 must carry their Chilean identification card issued by the Civil Registry and Identification Service at all times.
Colombiacolspan=2 align=center18
Costa Ricacolspan=2 align=center18
CubaNone18
Dominican Republiccolspan=2 align=center18
Ecuadorcolspan=2 align=center18
El Salvadorcolspan=2 align=center18
Guatemalacolspan=2 align=center18
Guyanacolspan=2 align=center18
Haiticolspan=2 align=center16
Hondurascolspan=2 align=center18[14]
JamaicaNone16
Mexicocolspan=2 align=center18
Nicaraguacolspan=2 align=center19
Panamacolspan=2 align=center18
Paraguaycolspan=2 align=center20
Perucolspan=2 align=center18
Puerto Ricocolspan=2 align=center18[15]
Trinidad and Tobagocolspan=2 align=center18
United States
(50 states and integral territories)
colspan=2 align=center21The National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 withholds revenue from states that allow the purchase of alcohol by anyone under the age of 21. Prior to the effective date of that Act, the drinking age varied from state to state. Some states do not allow those under the legal drinking age to be present in liquor stores or in bars (usually, the difference between a bar and a restaurant is that food is served only in the latter). Contrary to popular belief, since the act went into law, only a few states prohibit minors and young adults from consuming alcohol in private settings. As of January 1, 2010, 15 states and the District of Columbia ban underage consumption outright, 17 states do not ban underage consumption, and the remaining 18 states have family member and/or location exceptions to their underage consumption laws.

Federal law explicitly provides for religious, medical, employment and private club possession exceptions; as of 2005, 31 states have family member and/or location exceptions to their underage possession laws. However, non-alcoholic beer in many (but not all) states, such as Idaho, Texas, and Maryland, is considered legal for minors (those under the age of 21).[16]

By a judge's ruling, South Carolina appears to allow the possession and consumption of alcohol by those 18 to 20 years of age, but a circuit court judge said otherwise.[17]

Some U.S. States have legislation that make providing to and possession of alcohol by minors (persons under 21) a gross misdemeanor with a potential of $5,000 and a year in jail (or more) [18]

See also: Minor in Possession

colspan=2 align=center18[19]
UruguayNone18Alcohol sales are forbidden after 00.00 a.m. ID can be required.
colspan=2 align=center18

Asia

rowspan=2 width=30%Country / regioncolspan=2 width=30%De jurerowspan=2 width=40%Notes
width=15%Drinking agewidth=15%Purchase age
Afghanistanalign=center colspan=2Illegal[20]
Armeniacolspan=2 align=centerNone
Azerbaijanalign=center colspan=216
align=center colspan=2IllegalAlthough it is illegal to purchase alcohol, it is legal for foreigners aged 17 and above to bring limited amounts of alcohol into the country every 48 h if it is consumed in their home.
Bangladeshcolspan=2 align=centerIllegal[21]
Cambodiacolspan=2 align=centerNone[22]
Chinacolspan=2 align=center18Introduced in January 2006.[23]
Georgiacolspan=2 align=center16
Hong Kongalign=center colspan=218
Indiacolspan=2 align=center18–25 (varies between states).

See main article: Alcohol laws of India.
Consumption of alcohol is prohibited in the states of Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Gujarat.[24]

Indonesiacolspan=2 align=center21
colspan=2 align=centerIllegalThere has a ban on alcohol, but religious minorities may purchase small amounts from shops owned by the same religious minority.[25]
Iraqcolspan=2 align=center18Forbidden to Muslims
Israelcolspan=2 align=center18It is illegal to sell alcohol between 11:00 p.m and 6:00 a.m, outside of pubs and restaurants. It is also illegal to drink outdoors after 9:00 p.m.
Jordancolspan=2 align=center18[26]
Japancolspan=2 align=center20
Kazakhstancolspan=2 align=center21[27]
Kuwaitcolspan=2 align=centerIllegalForbidden by Sharia.
Kyrgyzstancolspan=2 align=center18
Lebanonalign=center colspan=218
NoneNone[28]
MalaysiaNone18In areas with more than 50% of Muslim population, sale of alcohol is restricted to selected places. It is illegal to sell alcohol to Muslims and to persons under 18, but there are no restrictions on drinking age.
Maldivesalign=center colspan=218Sale of alcohol is limited to tourist resorts. It is illegal to sell alcohol to Muslims.
Mongoliaalign=center colspan=218[29]
Nepal18None
colspan=2 align=center18Alcoholic beverages are served on Saturdays.
Omancolspan=2 align=center21
Pakistancolspan=2 align=center21Illegal for Muslims
Philippinescolspan=2 align=center18[30]
Saudi Arabiacolspan=2 align=centerIllegalForbidden by Sharia. Offenders are typically punished with lashes.
Singaporecolspan=2 align=center18
colspan=2 align=center19If a person is at least 20 according to Korean age reckoning, that person may drink alcohol.
Sri Lankacolspan=2 align=center21
colspan=2 align=center18
colspan=2 align=center18[31]
  • It is illegal for anyone under the age of 18 to consume alcohol.[32]
  • Parents, guardians, and others taking care of people under 18 shall prohibit underage drinking,[33] or risk administrative fines of 10000 to 50000 new Taiwan dollars when the situations are serious.[34]
  • One shall not supply alcohol to anyone under the age of 6.[35] A violator shall be administratively fined 3000 to 15000 new Taiwan dollars.[36]
Tajikistancolspan=2 align=center21Off-limits to the Muslim majority
Thailandcolspan=2 align=center20 The Alcoholic Beverage Control Act of 2008 increased the drinking age in Thailand from 18 to 20. Alcohol sale is banned between 2pm to 5pm and between midnight to 11am and also on election days and some religious holidays. [37]
Turkmenistancolspan=2 align=center18
Turkeycolspan=2 align=center18The government has been steadily restricting alcohol in Turkey, with proposals to create alcohol-free zones,[38] bars on alcohol sold in new packaging,[39] bans on sports advertising, restricting sales, and making it harder to have alcohol at public events.[40] Only those over 24 may participate in events that distribute alcohol.[41]
United Arab Emiratesalign=center colspan=218Expatriate non-Muslim residents may request a liquor permit to purchase alcoholic beverages, but it is illegal for such holders to provide drinks to others.[42]
align=center colspan=2None
Yemenalign=center colspan=2Illegal

Europe

rowspan=2 width=30%Country / regioncolspan=2 width=30%De jurerowspan=2 width=40%Notes
width=15%Drinking agewidth=15%Purchase age
Albaniacolspan=2 align=centerNone
Austriacolspan=2 align=center16, 18 for distilled beverages in some areas.Upper Austria, Salzburg and Tirol prohibit the consumption of distilled beverages below the age of 18, while Carinthia and Styria prohibit drinks containing more than 12% or 14% of alcohol respectively in this age bracket. Carinthia also requires adolescents to maintain a blood alcohol level below 0.05%, Upper Austria prohibits "excessive consumption", and Salzburg prohibits consumption that would result in a state of intoxication. Prohibitions in Vienna, Burgenland, Lower Austria and Vorarlberg apply only to alcohol consumption in public. Vienna also prohibits the consumption of alcohol in schools by those under the age of 18.[43]
Belaruscolspan=2 align=center18
Belgiumcolspan=2 align=center16 for beer and wine, 18 for spiritsSince 10 January 2010, it is illegal to "sell, serve, or offer" any form of distilled alcohol to those under the age of 18 or any alcoholic drink to those under 16. So fermented drinks like beer or wine are permitted above 16.[44] Previously, it was illegal to sell alcoholic drinks to under-16s, but accompanying adults could buy drinks for them.
Bosnia and Herzegovina1818
Bulgariacolspan=2 align=center18The Health Act prohibits the sale of alcoholic beverages to persons under 18 years of age, but not their consumption.[45]
Croatiacolspan=2 align=center18
Cypruscolspan=2 align=center17
Czech Republiccolspan=2 align=center18
Denmark1816To buy alcohol (above 1.2% and bellow 16.5% ABV) in stores, one must be 16; but to be served alcohol at bars, restaurants and discos, the minimum is 18. For alcohol above 16.5%, the age is 18.[46] [47] There is no drinking age, only a purchase age, and an adult may buy alcohol for a minor. By tradition, youths are privately allowed to drink alcohol after their confirmation.[48] If a shop or bar fails to ask for an ID card and is identified having sold alcohol to an underage, it is subject to fine. A national ID card, obtained in the local town hall, can serve as age verification.[49] This card is rarely used though since a passport or moped-licence can sometimes be used.[50]
Estoniacolspan=2 align=center18Drinking in public is prohibited for everyone. Stores may sell alcohol only between 10 a.m. and 10 p.m.
Finlandcolspan=2 align=center18 for possession and purchase of < 22% ABV
20 for possession and purchase of ≥ 22% ABV
18 for all in bars and restaurants
Age limits apply to purchase and possession. Police may search minors in public places and confiscate or destroy alcoholic beverages. Adults are responsible for alcohol use by minors in private.[51] Stores may sell alcohol only between 9 a.m. and 9 p.m.
Francecolspan=2 align=center18Buying alcohol is illegal below the age of 18[52] Selling alcohol to a minor can be fined 7500 euros.[53] The legal drinking age was raised from 16 in 2006.[54] Drinking alcohol is allowed to minors in private, but supplying them with alcohol that results in intoxication is forbidden.[55]
Germanycolspan=2 align=center16 for beer and wine; 18 for spiritsPossession or consumption of alcohol by minors is allowed, but it is illegal to sell minors alcohol or to let them drink in public below the respective drinking age. Fermented alcoholic beverages may be consumed by minors in public in presence of a legal guardian; drinking in private is allowed. The restrictions on distilled beverages apply also to mixed drinks containing them.[56]
Gibraltar1818[57]
Greece18none
Hungarycolspan=2 align=center18
Icelandcolspan=2 align=center20[58] Possession or consumption of alcohol by minors is not an offence, but supplying them with alcohol is. However, law allows alcohol possessed by a minor to be confiscated.
Irelandcolspan=2 align=center18It is illegal for minors to buy alcohol, to attempt to buy it for minors or to consume alcohol in a public space in Ireland. Those under 18 may consume alcohol in a private residence when permission is given from a parent or guardian. It is illegal to purchase alcohol for anybody under the age of consent without permission from their guardians. Alcohol can be sold in stores only between 10:30 and 22:00 on weekdays and Saturdays or 12:30 and 22:00 on Sundays. [59]
Italycolspan=2 align=center16South Tyrol prohibits both getting served or purchasing for those under 18; everybody is forbidden from being in a state of inebriation.[60]
Latviacolspan=2 align=center18
Liechtensteincolspan=2 align=center16 for wine, beer and cider
18 for spirits and spirit-based beverages. e.g. alcopops
Wine, beer and ciders as well as some other party drinks sometimes without spirits may be purchased by the age of 16. Spirits as well as alcopops may be sold only to people at least 18.[61]
Lithuaniacolspan=2 align=center18In the Republic of Lithuania drinking in public is prohibited. Selling alcoholic beverages in stores is prohibited between 10 p.m. and 8 a.m and on 1st September of every year. Minors under the age of 18 are prohibited from consuming alcoholic beverages or from having them.
Luxembourgcolspan=2 align=center16 [62]
colspan=2 align=centerNone
Maltacolspan=2 align=center16Must provide identification upon request.
colspan=2 align=center18
MontenegroNone18
Netherlandscolspan=2 align=center16 (under 15% ABV); 18 (15% ABV and over)If the person is under the age of 20, an identity card has to be shown before buying. Drinking in public is banned by local ordinance in most municipalities. Selling alcohol to underage customers carries a fine of €900–3,600.
NorwayNone[63] 18; 20 (≥22% ABV)Selling alcohol to buying alcohol for minors is illegal. Minors are defined as under 18 for beer and wine, under 20 for drinks that contain 22% ABV or more. Minors who buy alcohol are not held criminally responsible; instead, the crime lies with those who sold it or obtained it for them.

Alcohol possessed by minors may be confiscated as evidence. Drinking in public is prohibited, though this is rarely enforced in recreational areas. [64]

Poland1818[65] Section 15.1 Clearly states that buyers must be at least 18 and prove it with ID if they look like they may not be at least that age.
Portugalcolspan=2 align=center16
RomaniaNone[66] 18 [67] According to law 61/1991 updated in 2008, paragraphs 21-25, it is illegal to serve or sell alcohol to minors. The law also imposes restrictions on serving or selling alcohol in some public locations (parks, hospitals, schools, stadiums, airports, public transport, etc.) or during certain events (strikes, public meetings, sport events, etc.)
colspan=2 align=center18[68] There is no law or regulation in Russia that prohibits minors from consuming alcohol, but selling alcohol to minors is prohibited by federal and additional regional laws.
Serbiacolspan=2 align=center18Sale of alcoholic beverages to minors is prohibited.
Slovakiacolspan=2 align=center18
Sloveniacolspan=2 align=center18There is no law regulating the possession and consumption, but it is illegal to sell or offer alcohol of any kind to minors. Also, it is illegal to sell alcohol in stores from 9 p.m. to 7 a.m., 10 a.m. in bars and restaurants. The law also prohibits serving alcohol to obviously intoxicated customers as well as less than 1 h before and during sport events.
Spaincolspan=2 align=center1816 in Asturias. It is illegal to sell alcohol to people under 18, the fine being between €30,000 and €600,000.[69] Stores are not allowed to sell alcohol between 10 p.m. and 9 a.m after a recent law was passed.[70]
Swedencolspan=2 align=centerNone (less than 2.25% ABV)
18 (bars and restaurants)
18 (2.25%–3.5% ABV in normal shops),
20 (Systembolaget shops[71] stores),
See also alcohol in Sweden. Many clubs choose to have higher age limits than 18, commonly 20 or 23. It is legal to drink below 18, but it is illegal to sell, lend or give alcohol to someone under that age,[72] and the police can seize alcohol from them. The reason for lower limit in bars than in Systembolaget shops is that bartenders have a legal responsibility for how drunk a guest gets.
Switzerlandcolspan=2 align=center16/18 for beer, wine and cider; 18 for spiritsAge for non-spirits varies by canton.
Ukrainecolspan=2 align=center18
United Kingdomcolspan=2 align=center18Children under 5 must not be given alcohol unless under medical supervision or in an emergency (Children and Young Persons Act 1933, Children and Young Persons (Scotland) Act 1937).[73] [74]

Between the ages of 5 and 17, it is legally permissible for children to drink alcohol at home or at a friend's house with the permission of a parent or legal guardian.[75]

The minimum age for the purchase of alcohol is 18. People aged 16 or 17 may consume wine, beer or cider on licensed premises when ordered with a meal. In England and Wales, it must be an adult who orders,[76] however an adult doesn't have to be present to order alcohol with a meal in Scotland. The legal age for the purchase of alcohol from an off-licence (store/supermarket) is 18. (The legal age to buy liqueur chocolates is 16, but this is rarely enforced.)

Under the BBPA's Challenge 21 scheme, customers attempting to buy alcoholic beverages are asked to prove their age if in the retailer's opinion they look under 21 even though the law states they must be a minimum of 18. Many supermarket and off-licence chains display Challenge 21 notices stating that they will not serve persons who look under 21 without ID.

Supermarkets or off-licence chains that are found to have violated the law and have repeatedly sold alcohol to underage persons are then required to adopt the Challenge 25 scheme. Failing to adhere to this will result in revocation of the licence to sell alcohol.

Purchasing alcohol on behalf of a minor is illegal in all of the United Kingdom. This means acting as the young person's agent.[77] [78]

Oceania

rowspan=2 width=30%Country / regioncolspan=2 width=30%De jurerowspan=2 width=40%Notes
width=15%Drinking agewidth=15%Purchase age
American Samoacolspan=2 align=center21
Australiacolspan=2 align=center18[79]

See main article: Alcohol laws of Australia.
Minors may consume alcohol in a private residence with parental supervision.[80] However, in Western Australia, it is illegal for minors to consume alcohol anywhere.

Fiji18[81] 21The drinking age was 21 from 2006 to 2009 but was lowered to 18 in 2009.
Guamcolspan=2 align=center21Raised to 21 on July 8, 2010.[82]
Micronesia, Federated States ofcolspan=2 align=center21
New Zealandcolspan=2 align=center18Minimum age applies for beverages with 1.15% ABV or over; no restrictions on beverages less than 1.15% ABV.[83]
Persons under 18 may not drink outside private residences or private functions unless accompanied by their parent or legal guardian. Alcohol may be supplied to minors only by their parent or legal guardian, but adult hosts of private functions may supply alcohol if no money changes hands. A bill is currently in Parliament proposing to raise the age for off-licence purchases to 20.[84]
Northern Mariana Islandscolspan=2 align=center21
Palaucolspan=2 align=center21
Papua New Guineacolspan=2 align=center18
Samoacolspan=2 align=center18
Solomon Islands21None
Tonga18None
Tokelaucolspan=2 align=center16
Vanuatucolspan=2 align=center18

See also

External links

Notes and References

  1. http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/policy_egypt.pdf Global Status Report: Alcohol Policy, Egypt
  2. Web site: Global Status Report: Alcohol Policy - Country Profiles. World Health Organization.
  3. Web site: Minimum Legal Ages for Alcohol Purchase or Consumption Around the World. World Health Organization.
  4. News: Ugandans ‘drink like fish’. Nkwame. Valentine Marc. The Arusha Times. 24 January 2009. 1 December 2011.
  5. Web site: Ley Nacional De Lucha Contra El Alcoholismo. 31 March 1997. 15 August 2011.
  6. Web site: Minimum Age Limits Worldwide. International Center for Alcohol Policies. January 2010. 15 August 2011.
  7. News: Drinking Age in Canada. 4 July 2011. January 2010. YourLaws.ca.
  8. http://yourlaws.ca/node/2096 Manitoba Drinking Laws
  9. http://www.qp.gov.ab.ca/Documents/acts/G01.CFM Alberta Gaming and Liquor Act
  10. http://www.gnb.ca/0062/acts/acts/l-10.htm Liquor Control Act (L-10), Section 137
  11. http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/html/statutes/english/elaws_statutes_90l19_e.htm#BK33 Ontario Liquor Law Section 30.13
  12. http://www.grsproadsafety.org/themes/default/pdfs/Drinking%20Age%20Limits.pdf Drinking Age Limits
  13. http://yourlaws.ca/node/2087 British Columbia Drinking Laws
  14. http://www.grsproadsafety.org/themes/default/pdfs/Drinking%20Age%20Limits.pdf.
  15. http://www.experience-puertorico.com/pr.html?secc=before
  16. http://alcoholpolicy.niaaa.nih.gov/Underage_Possession_Consumption_Internal_Possession_of_Alcohol.html?tab=Maps Exceptions to Minimum Age of 21 for Possession of Alcohol as of January 1, 2009
  17. http://www.wmbfnews.com/Global/story.asp?S=10726099 Judge: State law barring underage drinking is unconstitutional
  18. Web site: RCW 66.44.270; Furnishing liquor to minors. 13-NOVEMBER-2011. State of Washington. Washington State Legislature.
  19. http://www.vinow.com/general_usvi/faq/#drinking
  20. Web site: Drinkers Dismissive of Latest Alcohol Ban. 2010-02-28. ARR No. 322. 2009-06-17. Institute for War and Peace Reporting.
  21. Web site: Bangladesh. 2004. Global Status Report on Alcohol 2004. World Health Organization. 2009-03-28.
  22. Web site: Global Status Report: Alcohol Policy, Cambodia. PDF. 2009-06-20.
  23. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2006-01/06/content_510002.htm China bans under-age drinking
  24. Web site: Alcohol Prohibition and Addictive Consumption in India. 2008-03-11. PDF. http://web.archive.org/web/20070917040706/http://www.eudnet.net/workshops/workshop10-2002/rahman.pdf . 2007-09-17.
  25. http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/policy_iran.pdf
  26. Web site: Global Status Report: Alcohol Policy, Jordan. PDF. 2009-06-20.
  27. Web site: Kazakhstan to ban public smoking & raise drinking age, KazakhstanLive. PDF. 2011-01-30.
  28. Web site: Food and Drink. World travel guide. 2009-06-20.
  29. http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/policy_mongolia.pdf Global Status Report: Alcohol Policy, Mongolia
  30. http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/policy_philippines.pdf Global Status Report: Alcohol Policy, Philippines
  31. Article 2 of the Children and Youth Welfare Law (zh:兒童及少年福利法) of the Republic of China, effective since 2003-05-28 in Taiwan Area, defines children and youth as people under the age of 18.
  32. Clause 1 of Section 1 of Article 26 of the Children and Youth Welfare Law (zh:兒童及少年福利法) of the Republic of China, effective since 2003-05-28 in Taiwan Area
  33. Section 2 of Article 26 of the Children and Youth Welfare Law of the Republic of China
  34. Section 1 of Article 55 of the Children and Youth Welfare Law of the Republic of China
  35. Section 3 of Article 26 of the Children and Youth Welfare Law of the Republic of China
  36. Section 2 of Article 55 of the Children and Youth Welfare Law of the Republic of China
  37. Web site: Patin. Jennifer. Thailand Tourist Information: A Guide to Laws in Thailand. Thailand Law Forum. 15 March 2012.
  38. News: Secular Turkey is angered by spectre of alcohol-free zones. London. The Independent. Elizabeth. Davies. 2005-12-15.
  39. News: New alcohol law prompts fears for Turkish bar trade. London. The Guardian. Robert. Tait. 2008-05-16.
  40. News: Turkey alcohol curbs raise secular fears. BBC News. 2011-01-12.
  41. News: Erdogan Defends Revised Alcohol Curbs in Turkey, Hurriyet Says. Bloomberg. Benjamin. Harvey. 2011-01-27.
  42. Web site: International Drinking Guidelines. International Center for Alcohol Policies. 2009-02-17.
  43. information based on the respective state Youth Protection Laws, available at http://www.ris.bka.gv.at, as of December 11, 2007
  44. http://www.vad.be/alcohol-en-andere-drugs/wetgeving/alcohol.aspx
  45. http://www.mh.government.bg/Articles.aspx?lang=bg-BG&pageid=380&currentPage=3&categoryid=1058 Bulgaria's Health Act (Закон за здравето)
  46. http://politiken.dk/tjek/sundhedogmotion/ECE1217122/butikker-har-styr-paa-nye-alkohol-regler/
  47. Web site: [https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=121328 Current law regarding alcohol in Denmark]. Ministry of Health. 2010-06-24.
  48. Web site: Alcohol culture in Denmark. Alcoholcultureindenmark.webbyen.dk. 2009-06-20.
  49. Web site: [https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=9878 Lov om forbud mod salg af tobak og alkohol til personer under 16 år]. dk.
  50. http://www.dr.dk/Nyheder/Indland/2006/07/01/.htm Få unge har købt legitimationskort
  51. Alcoholic beverages act http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1994/19941143?search[type]=pika&search[pika]=alkoholi
  52. http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCodeArticle.do;jsessionid=18ED9AC9EF67D77F5A2C0373B8E6B783.tpdjo08v_1?idArticle=LEGIARTI000020895233&cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006072665&dateTexte=20090920 French Public Health Code, Art L3342-1
  53. http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCodeArticle.do;jsessionid=18ED9AC9EF67D77F5A2C0373B8E6B783.tpdjo08v_1?cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006072665&idArticle=LEGIARTI000020895230&dateTexte= French Public Health Code, Art L3353-3
  54. http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexteArticle.do;jsessionid=18ED9AC9EF67D77F5A2C0373B8E6B783.tpdjo08v_1?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000020879475&idArticle=LEGIARTI000020881176&dateTexte=20090920&categorieLien=id Law passed on 23 July 2009
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