For other uses see Latvia (disambiguation).
|Native Name:||Latvijas Republika|
|Conventional Long Name:||Republic of Latvia|
|National Motto:||"For the Fatherland and Freedom"|
(Latvian: Tēvzemei un Brīvībai)
|National Anthem:||"God bless Latvia!"|
(Latvian: Dievs, svētī Latviju!)
|Ethnic Groups:||59.2% Latvians|
6.6% others 
|Government Type:||Parliamentary republic|
|Leader Title2:||Prime Minister|
|Leader Title3:||Prime Minister-designate|
|Leader Name1:||Valdis Zatlers|
|Leader Name2:||Ivars Godmanis|
|Leader Name3:||Valdis Dombrovskis|
|Accessioneudate:||May 1, 2004|
|Area Magnitude:||1 E10|
|Area Sq Mi:||24,938|
|Population Estimate Rank:||143rd|
|Population Estimate Year:||January 2009|
|Population Census Year:||2000|
|Population Density Km2:||36|
|Population Density Sq Mi:||93|
|Population Density Rank:||166th|
|Gdp Ppp:||$40.420 billion|
|Gdp Ppp Rank:||92nd|
|Gdp Ppp Year:||2008|
|Gdp Ppp Per Capita:||$17,800 (IMF)|
|Gdp Ppp Per Capita Rank:||46th|
|Gdp Nominal:||$33.902 billion|
|Gdp Nominal Rank:||83rd|
|Gdp Nominal Year:||2008|
|Gdp Nominal Per Capita:||$14,930 (IMF)|
|Gdp Nominal Per Capita Rank:||47th|
|Sovereignty Note:||from Russia and Germany|
|Established Date1:||November 18, 1918|
|Established Date2:||January 26, 1921|
|Established Date3:||August 5, 1940|
|Established Date4:||May 4, 1990|
|Established Date5:||September 6, 1991|
|Time Zone Dst:||EEST|
|Utc Offset Dst:||+3|
|Footnotes:||1 Latvia is continuous with the first republic.|
2 Secession from Soviet Union begun.
3 Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.
Latvia (; Latvian: Latvija, officially Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republika) is a country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region. It is bordered to the north by Estonia (343 km), to the south by Lithuania (588 km), and to the east both by Belarus (141 km) and the Russian Federation (276 km). Across the Baltic Sea to the west lies Sweden. The territory of Latvia covers 64,589 km² and has a temperate seasonal climate.
The Latvians are a Baltic people culturally related to the Estonians and Lithuanians, with the Latvian language having many similarities with Lithuanian, but not with the Estonian language. Today the Latvian and Lithuanian languages are the only surviving members of the Baltic languages of the Indo-European family. The modern name of Latvia is thought to originate from the ancient Latvian name Latvji, which, like the name of Lithuania, may have originated from the river named Latva or Latuva, which may be today's Lates upe.
Latvia is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic and is divided into 26 districts. The capital and largest city is Riga. Latvia has been a member of the United Nations since 17 September 1991, of the European Union since 1 May 2004 and of NATO since 29 March 2004.
See main article: History of Latvia.
See also: List of museums in Latvia.
The territory of Latvia has been populated since 9000 BC, after the Ice Age glaciers retreated. Around the beginnng of the third millennium BC (3000 BC) the proto-Baltic ancestors of the Latvian people settled on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. The Balts established trade routes to Rome and Byzantium, trading local amber for precious metals. By 900 AD, four distinct Baltic tribes inhabited Latvia: Couronians, Latgallians, Selonians, Semigallians (in Latvian: kurši, latgaļi, sēļi and zemgaļi), as well as the Livonians (lībieši) speaking a Finno-Ugric language.
Although the Balts had previous contacts with the outside world for centuries, they were more fully integrated into European society in the 12th century. The first missionaries, sent by the Pope sailed up the Daugava river by 1180, seeking converts. The Balts, however, did not convert so readily as hoped, and strongly opposed their Christianization. German crusaders were sent into Latvia to convert the pagan population by force of arms.
In the thirteenth century, a confederation of feudal nations called Livonia developed under German rule. Livonia included today's Latvia and Southern Estonia. In 1282, Riga and later the cities of Cēsis, Limbaži, Koknese and Valmiera were included in the Hanseatic League. From this time, Riga became an important point in west-east trading. Riga, being the centre of the eastern Baltic region, formed close cultural contacts with Western Europe.
The 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries were a time of great changes for the inhabitants of Latvia, notable for the reformation, the collapse of the Livonian state, and time when the Latvian territory was carved up among foreign powers.
After the Livonian War (1558–1583), Livonia (Latvia) fell under Lithuanian and Polish rule. The southern part of Estonia and the northern part of Latvia were ceded to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and formed into the Ducatus Ultradunensis (Pārdaugavas hercogiste). Gotthard Kettler, the last Master of the Order of Livonia, formed the Duchy of Courland. Though the duchy was a vassal state to Poland, it retained a large amount of autonomy and experienced a golden age in the 17th century. Latgale, the easternmost region of Latvia, became a part of Polish Inflanty.
The seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries saw a struggle between Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Sweden and Russia for supremacy in the eastern Baltic. After the Polish-Swedish War (1600-1611) northern Livonia (including Vidzeme) came under Swedish rule. Fighting continued sporadically between Sweden and Poland until the Truce of Altmark in 1629. In Latvian, the Swedish period is remembered as labie zviedru laiki when serfdom was eased, a network of schools was established for the peasantry, and the power of the regional barons was diminished.
Several important cultural changes occurred during this time. Under Swedish and largely German rule, western Latvia adopted Lutheranism as its main religion. The ancient tribes of the kursi zemgali and western latgali assimilated to form the Latvian people speaking one Latvian language. Meanwhile, largely isolated from the rest of Lativa, eastern latgallians adopted Catholicism as a part of the Polish/Jesuit influence. The native dialect remained distinct, though it gained many Polish and Russian loanwords.
The Treaty of Nystad ending the Great Northern War in 1721 gave Vidzeme to Russia (it became part of the Riga Governorate). The Latgale region remained part of Poland as Inflanty Voivodeship until 1772, when it was joined to Russia. The Duchy of Courland became a Russian province (the Courland Governorate) in 1795, bringing all of what is now Latvia into the Russian Empire.
The promises Peter the Great made to the Baltic German nobility at the fall of Riga in 1710, confirmed by the Treaty of Nystad and known as "the Capitulations," largely reversed the Swedish reforms. The 18th century was one of the hardest for the peasantry, in which they received near-property status without rights or education. Peasants were commanded to work on the manor lands as many as six days of the week, leaving one day to look after their own farms. The peasants turned to alcohol for their problems, which the local barons faithfully provided, hoping to addict and exploit the peasantry for further economic gain. These times were known as "Šķidrās Maizes laiki" or the days of liquid bread.
The emancipation of the serfs took place in Courland in 1817 and in Vidzeme in 1819. In practice however, the emancipation was actually advantageous to the landowners and nobility. This was because it dispossessed the peasants of their land without compensation, forcing them to return to work at the estates "of their own free will".
During the 19th century, the social structure changed dramatically. A class of independent farmers established itself after reforms allowed the peasants to repurchase their land, but many landless peasants persisted. There also develeoped a growing urban proletariat and an increasingly influential Latvian bourgeoisie. The Young Latvians (Latvian: Jaunlatvieši) movement laid the groundwork for nationalism from the middle of the century, many of its leaders looking to the Slavophiles for support against the prevailing German-dominated social order. The rise in use of Latvian language in literature and society became known as the First National Awakening. Russification began in Latgale after the Polish led January Uprising in 1863 and spread to the rest of what is now Latvia by the 1880s. The Young Latvians were largely eclipsed by the New Current, a broad leftist social and political movement, in the 1890s. Popular discontent exploded in the 1905 Revolution, which took on a nationalist character in the Baltic provinces.
See also: United Baltic Duchy. World War I devastated the country. Demands for self-determination were at first confined to autonomy, but full independence was proclaimed in Riga on November 18, 1918, by the People's Council of Latvia, Kārlis Ulmanis becoming the head of the provisional government. The War of Independence that followed was a very chaotic period in Latvia's history. By the spring of 1919, there were actually three governments - Ulmanis' government; the Soviet Latvian government led by Pēteris Stučka, whose forces, supported by the Red Army, occupied almost all of the country; and the Baltic German government of "Baltic Duchy" headed by Andrievs Niedra and supported by Baltische Landeswehr and German Freikorps unit Iron Division. Estonian and Latvian forces defeated the Germans at the Battle of Cēsis in June 1919, and a massive attack by a German and Russian force under Pavel Bermondt-Avalov was repelled in November. Eastern Latvia was cleared of Red Army forces by Polish, Latvian, and German troops in early 1920.
A freely elected Constituent Assembly was convened on May 1, 1920 and adopted a liberal constitution, the Satversme, in February 1922. This was partly suspended by Ulmanis after his coup in 1934, but reaffirmed in 1990. Since then, it has been amended and is the constitution still in use in Latvia today. With most of Latvia's industrial base evacuated to the interior of Russia in 1915, radical land reform was the central political question for the young state. In 1897, 61.2% of the rural population had been landless; by 1930, that percentage had been reduced to 23.2%. The extent of cultivated land surpassed the pre-war level already in 1923. Innovation and rising productivity led to rapid growth of economy, but it soon suffered the effects of the Great Depression. Latvia showed signs of economic recovery and the electorate had steadily moved toward the centre during the parliamentary period. Ulmanis staged a bloodless coup on May 15, 1934, establishing a nationalist dictatorship that lasted until 1940. Revolt against the government was very unlikely however, because during "Ulmaņa Laiki" Latvia experienced one of the highest standards of living in the world.
Most of the Baltic Germans left Latvia by agreement between Ulmanis' government and Nazi Germany after the conclusion of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. On October 5, 1939, Latvia was forced to accept a "mutual assistance" pact with the Soviet Union, granting the Soviets the right to station 25,000 troops on Latvian territory. On June 16, 1940, Vyacheslav Molotov presented the Latvian representative in Moscow with an ultimatum accusing Latvia of violations of that pact, and on June 17 great numbers of Soviet forces occupied the country. Еlections for the "People's Saeima" were held, and a puppet government headed by Augusts Kirhenšteins led Latvia into the USSR. The annexation was formalised on August 5, 1940.
The Soviets dealt harshly with their opponents - prior to the German invasion, in less than a year, at least 27,586 persons were arrested; most were deported, and about 945 persons were shot. While under German occupation, Latvia was administered as part of Reichskommissariat Ostland. Latvian paramilitary and Auxiliary Police units established by occupation authority participated in the Holocaust as well. More than 200,000 Latvian citizens died during World War II, including approximately 70,000 Latvian Jews murdered during the Nazi occupation. Latvian soldiers fought on both sides of the conflict, including in the Latvian Legion of the Waffen-SS, most of them conscripted by the occupying Nazi and Soviet authorities. Refusal to join the occupying army resulted in imprisonment, threats to relatives, or even death.
The Soviets reoccupied the country in 1944–1945, and further mass deportations followed as the country was forcibly collectivised and Sovietised; 42,975 persons were deported in 1949. An influx of labourers, administrators, military personnel and their dependents from Russia and other Soviet republics started, and by 1959, the ethnic Latvian population had fallen to 62%. During the Khrushchev Thaw, attempts by national communists led by Eduards Berklavs to gain a degree of autonomy for the republic and protect the rapidly deteriorating position of the Latvian language were suppressed.
In 1989, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR adopted a resolution on the "Occupation of the Baltic states", in which it declared that the occupation was "not in accordance with law," and not the "will of the Soviet people". A national movement coalescing in the Popular Front of Latvia took advantage of glasnost under Mikhail Gorbachev, opposed by the Interfront. On May 4, 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the Latvian SSR adopted the Declaration of the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia, subject to a transition period that came to an end with Latvian independence on August 21, 1991, after the failure of the August Putsch. The Saeima, Latvia's parliament, was again elected in 1993, and Russia completed its military withdrawal in 1994.
The major goals of Latvia in the 1990s, to join NATO and the European Union, were achieved in 2004. Language and citizenship laws have been opposed by many Russophones, although a majority have now become citizens. (Citizenship was not automatically extended to former Soviet citizens who settled during the Soviet occupation or to their subsequent offspring. Children born to non-nationals after the reestablishment of independence are automatically entitled to citizenship.) The government denationalised private property confiscated by the Soviet rule, returning it or compensating the owners for it, and privatised most state-owned industries, reintroducing the prewar currency. Albeit having experienced a difficult transition to a liberal economy and its re-orientation toward Western Europe, its economy has one of the highest growth rates.
See main article: Geography of Latvia. Located on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, Latvia lies on the East European Plain, however in vegetation is much different than the rest of the plain and shares many similarities with the boreal biome. It consists of fertile, low-lying plains, largely covered by forest, mostly pines, the highest point being the Gaiziņkalns at 311.6 m (1,020 ft). Phytogeographically, Latvia is shared between the Central European and Northern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of Latvia belongs to the ecoregion of Sarmatic mixed forests. The major rivers include the Daugava, the Lielupe, the Gauja, the Venta, and the Salaca. An inlet of the Baltic Sea, the shallow Gulf of Riga is situated in the northwest of the country. Latvia's coastline extends for 531 kilometers.
The Latvian climate is humid, continental and temperate owing to the maritime influence of the Baltic Sea. Summers are warm, and the weather in spring and autumn fairly mild; however, the winters can be extreme due to the northern location. Precipitation is common throughout the year with the heaviest rainfall in August. During severe spells of winter weather, Latvia is dominated by cold winds from the interior of Russia, and severe snowfalls are very common.
See main article: Districts of Latvia. Latvia is divided into 26 districts (rajoni). There are also seven cities (lielpilsētas) that have a separate status. Latvia is also divided into five planning regions.
See main article: Politics of Latvia.
See main article: Parliament of Latvia.
See main article: Government of Latvia. The 100-seat unicameral Latvian parliament, the Saeima, is elected by direct popular vote every four years. The president is elected by the Saeima in a separate election, also held every four years. The president appoints a prime minister who, together with his cabinet, forms the executive branch of the government, which has to receive a confidence vote by the Saeima. This system also existed before the Second World War. Highest civil servants are sixteen Secretaries of State.
See main article: Foreign relations of Latvia. Membership in the EU and NATO were major policy goals during the 1990s. In a nation-wide referendum on September 20, 2003, 66.9% of those taking part voted in favour of joining the European Union. Latvia became a member of the European Union on May 1, 2004. Latvia has been a NATO member since March 29, 2004.
Treaty delimiting the boundary with Russia has been signed and ratified in 2007, under the treaty the Abrene district passes to Russia; ongoing talks over maritime boundary dispute with Lithuania (primary concern is oil exploration rights)
See main article: Military of Latvia. Latvia's defense concept is based upon the Swedish-Finnish model of a rapid response force composed of a mobilization base and a small group of career professionals. The armed forces consists of mobile riflemen, an air force, and a navy. Latvia cooperates with Estonia and Lithuania in the joint infantry battalion BALTBAT and naval squadron BALTRON which are available for peacekeeping operations.
As of March 29, 2004, Latvia officially joined NATO. Currently, NATO is involved in the patrolling and protection of the Latvian air space as the Latvian army does not have the means to do so effectively. For this goal a rotating force of four NATO fighters, which comes from different nations and switches at two or three month intervals, is based in Lithuania to cover all three Baltic states (see Baltic Air Policing).
See main article: Economy of Latvia.
Since the year 2000 Latvia has had one of the highest (GDP) growth rates in Europe. In 2006, annual GDP growth was 11.9% and inflation was 6.2%. Unemployment was 8.5% - almost unchanged compared to the previous two years. However, it has recently dropped to 6.1%, partly due to active economic migration, mostly to Ireland and the United Kingdom. Some believe that Latvia's flat tax is responsible for its high growth rate, but this is not universally accepted. Privatisation is mostly complete, except for some of the large state-owned utilities. Latvia is a member of the World Trade Organization (1999) and the European Union (2004). Since 2001, Latvia's chief export has been domestic livestock.
The fast growing economy is regarded as a possible economic bubble, because it is driven mainly by growth of domestic consumption, financed by a serious increase of private debt, as well as a negative foreign trade balance. The prices of real estate, which were appreciating at approximately 5% a month, are perceived to be too high for the economy, which mainly produces low valued goods and raw materials. As stated by Ober-Haus, a real estate company operating in Poland and the Baltics, the prices of some segments of the real estate market have stabilised as of summer 2006 and some experts expect serious reduction of prices in the near future.The government has recently introduced a special programme to reduce inflation and retain high growth rates. The main points of the plan are:
Latvia plans to introduce the Euro as the country's currency but, due to the inflation being above EMU's guidelines, the government's official target is now 1 January 2012. However in October 2007, with inflation above 11%, the head of the National Bank of Latvia suggested that 2013 may be a more realistic date.
Privatisation in Latvia is almost complete. Virtually all of the previously state-owned small and medium companies have been successfully privatized, leaving only a small number of politically sensitive large state companies. Latvian privatization efforts have led to the development of a dynamic and prosperous private sector, which accounted for nearly 68% of GDP in 2000.
Foreign investment in Latvia is still modest compared with the levels in north-central Europe. A law expanding the scope for selling land, including to foreigners, was passed in 1997. Representing 10.2% of Latvia's total foreign direct investment, American companies invested $127 million in 1999. In the same year, the United States exported $58.2 million of goods and services to Latvia and imported $87.9 million. Eager to join Western economic institutions like the World Trade Organization, OECD, and the European Union, Latvia signed a Europe Agreement with the EU in 1995--with a 4-year transition period. Latvia and the United States have signed treaties on investment, trade, and intellectual property protection and avoidance of double taxation.
See main article: 2008-2009 Latvian financial crisis. The Latvian economy entered a phase of fiscal contraction during the second half of 2008 after an extended period of credit-based speculation and unrealistic inflation of real estate values. The national account deficit for 2007, for example, represented more than 22% of the GDP for the year while inflation was running at 10%.
"The most acute problems are on Europe’s periphery, where many smaller economies are experiencing crises strongly reminiscent of past crises in Latin America and Asia: Latvia is the new Argentina " 
Riga International Airport is the largest airport with 3.2 million passengers in 2007.
See main article: Demographics of Latvia.
See main article: Latvian people, Latvian Russians, Latvian Germans, Latvian Jews and Latgalians. Latvia's population has been multiethnic for centuries, though the demographics shifted dramatically in the twentieth century due to the World Wars, the emigration and removal of Baltic Germans, the Holocaust, and occupation by the Soviet Union.
Latvians and Livonians, the indigenous peoples of Latvia, now form about 59.2% of the population; 28% of the inhabitants are Russians , Belorussians 3.7%, Ukrainians 2.5% , Poles 2.4%, Lithuanians 1.3%, Jews 0.5%, Roma people 0.4%, Germans 0.2%, Estonians 0.1% and others 1.7%  . Approximately 56% of the ethnic Russians living in Latvia are citizens of Latvia.
In some large cities, e.g. Riga, Daugavpils and Rēzekne, Russians and other minorities outnumber Latvians. Minorities from other countries such as Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania, etc., also live in Latvia. The share of ethnic Latvians had fallen from 77% (1,467,035) in 1935 to 52% (1,387,757) in 1989. In 2005 there were even fewer Latvians than in 1989, though their share of the population was larger - 1,357,099 (57.% of the inhabitants).
See main article: Livonian language and Latgalian language. The official language of Latvia is Latvian, which belongs to the Baltic language group of the Indo-European language family. Another notable language of Latvia is the nearly extinct Livonian language of the Baltic-Finnic subbranch of the Uralic language family, which enjoys protection by law; The Latgalian language - a dialect of Latvian - is also protected by Latvian law as a historical variation of the Latvian language. Russian which was widely spoken during the Soviet period, and also during the Russian Imperial period is by far the most widespread minority language and is also understood by the majority of older Latvians.
See main article: Culture of Latvia.
Between the thirteenth and nineteenth century, Baltic Germans, many of whom were originally of non-German ancestry but had been assimilated into German culture, formed the upper class. They developed a distinct cultural heritage, characterised by both Latvian and German influences. It has survived in German Baltic families to this day, in spite of their dispersal to Germany, the USA, Canada and other countries in the early 20th century. However, most indigenous Latvians did not participate in this particular cultural life. Thus, the mostly peasant local pagan heritage was preserved, partly merging with Christian traditions, for example in one of the most popular celebrations today which is Jāņi, a pagan celebration of the summer solstice, celebrated on the feast day of St. John the Baptist.
In the nineteenth century Latvian nationalist movements emerged promoting Latvian culture and encouraging Latvians to take part in cultural activities. The nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century is often regarded as a classical era of Latvian culture. Posters show the influence of other European cultures, for example, works of artists such as the Baltic-German artist Bernhard Borchert and the French Raoul Dufy. With the onset of World War II, many Latvian artists and other members of the cultural elite fled the country yet continued to produce their work, largely for a Latvian émigré audience.
After incorporation into the USSR, Latvian artists and writers were forced to follow the Socialist realism style of art. During the Soviet era, music became increasingly popular, with the most popular being songs from the 1980s. At this time, songs often made fun of the characteristics of Soviet life and were concerned about preserving Latvian identity. This aroused popular protests against the USSR and also gave rise to an increasing popularity of poetry. Since independence, theatre, scenography and classical music have become the most notable branches of Latvian culture.
See also: Latvian humour.
According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005, 37% of Latvian citizens responded that "they believe there is a god", whereas 49% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 10% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force". Lutheranism was much stronger before the Soviet occupation, when it was a majority religion, but since then Lutheranism in all the Baltic States has declined to a much greater extent than Roman Catholicism has. The country's Orthodox Christians belong to the Latvian Orthodox Church, a semi-autonomous body within the Russian Orthodox Church. There are 182 known Muslims living in Latvia though the total number is estimated to be much larger: from 500 to 5,000. There are also Jews (9,743 in 2006) in Latvia.
|CIA World Factbook – GDP per capita (PPP)||2008||66st||229||[https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2004rank.html]|
|CIA World Factbook – life expectancy||2008||120th||223||[https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2102rank.html]|
|World Economic Forum – Enabling Trade Index ranking||2008||43rd||118||http://www.weforum.org/en/initiatives/gcp/GlobalEnablingTradeReport/index.htm|
|Yale University / Columbia University - Environmental Performance Index||2008||8th||149||http://www.yale.edu/epi/|
|The Economist Intelligence Unit - e-readiness||2008||37th||70||http://a330.g.akamai.net/7/330/25828/20080331202303/graphics.eiu.com/upload/ibm_ereadiness_2008.pdf|
|The Economist Intelligence Unit - Global Peace Index||2008||39th||140||http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/results/rankings/2008/|
|United States Patent and Trademark Office's list of patents by country||2007||95th||172||http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/ac/ido/oeip/taf/cst_all.htm|
|Save the Children - Mother's Index Rank||2007||25th||141||http://www.savethechildren.org/publications/mothers/2007/SOWM-2007-final.pdf|
|Save the Children - Women's Index Rank||2007||20st||141||http://www.savethechildren.org/publications/mothers/2007/SOWM-2007-final.pdf|
|Save the Children - Children's Index Rank||2007||33rd||141||http://www.savethechildren.org/publications/mothers/2007/SOWM-2007-final.pdf|
|Wall Street Journal / The Heritage Foundation - Index of Economic Freedom||2007||39th||157||http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/countries.cfm|
|United Nations - Human Development Index||2008||44th||179||http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/|
|World Economic Forum - Global Competitiveness Report 2007-2008||2007||45th||131||http://www.weforum.org/pdf/Global_Competitiveness_Reports/Reports/gcr_2007/gcr2007_rankings.pdf|
|World Economic Forum - The Global Gender Gap Report 2007||2007||13th||128||http://www.weforum.org/pdf/gendergap/report2007.pdf|
|World Bank - Ease of Doing Business Index||2007-2008||29th||181||http://www.doingbusiness.org/economyrankings/|
|Reporters Without Borders - Worldwide Press Freedom Index||2007||12th||169||http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=24025|
|Transparency International - Corruption Perceptions Index||2007||49th||180||http://www.transparency.org/news_room/in_focus/2008/cpi2008/cpi_2008_table|
|The Economist Intelligence Unit - Index of Democracy||2007||43rd||167||http://www.economist.com/media/pdf/Democracy_Index_2007_v3.pdf|
|Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development - Official Development Assistance by country as a percentage of GNI||2006||1st||34||http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/9001/a/80097|
|Privacy International - Privacy index (EU and 11 other selected countries)||2006||28th||36||http://www.privacyinternational.org/survey/phr2005/phrtable.pdf|
|New Economics Foundation - Happy Planet Index||2006||160th||178||http://www.happyplanetindex.org/map.htm|
|The Economist Intelligence Unit - Quality-of-life index||2005||66th||111||http://www.economist.com/media/pdf/QUALITY_OF_LIFE.pdf|
|Save the Children - % seats in the national government held by women||2004||23-25th||126||http://www.savethechildren.org/mothers/report_2004/images/pdf/SOWM_2004_final.pdf|
|World Health Organization - suicide rates by country (both sexes)||8th||101||http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide/country_reports/en/index.html|
|NationMaster's index of civil and political liberties||17th||140||http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/dem_civ_and_pol_lib-democracy-civil-and-political-liberties|