Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. The Romans produced many works of poetry, comedy, tragedy, satire, history, and rhetoric, drawing heavily on the traditions of other cultures and particularly on the more matured literary tradition of Greece. Long after the Western Roman Empire had fallen, the Latin language continued to play a central role in western European civilization.
Latin literature is conventionally divided into distinct periods. Few works remain of Early and Old Latin; among these few surviving works, however, are the plays of Plautus and Terence, which have remained very popular in all eras down to the present, while many other Latin works, including many by the most prominent authors of the Classical period, have disappeared, sometimes being re-discovered after centuries, sometimes not. Such lost works sometimes survive as fragments in other works which have survived, but others are known from references in such works as Pliny the Elder's Naturalis Historia or the De Architectura of Vitruvius.
The period of Classical Latin, when Latin literature is widely considered to have reached its peak, is divided into the Golden Age, which covers approximately the period from the start of the 1st century BCE up to the mid-1st century CE, and the Silver Age, which extends into the 2nd century CE. Literature written after the mid-2nd century has often been disparaged and ignored; in the Renaissance, for example, when many Classical authors were re-discovered and their style consciously imitated. Above all, Cicero was imitated, and his style praised as the perfect pinnacle of Latin. Medieval Latin was often dismissed as "Dog-Latin"; but in fact, many great works of Latin literature were produced throughout Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, although they are no longer as widely known as those written in the Classical period. Three works survived to inspire architects and engineers in the Renaissance, the Naturalis Historia of Pliny the Elder, the books by Frontinus on the aqueducts of Rome and the De Architectura of Vitruvius.
For most of the Medieval era, Latin was the dominant written language in use in western Europe. After the Roman Empire split into its Western and Eastern halves, Greek, which had been widely used all over the Empire, faded from use in the West, all the more so as the political and religious distance steadily grew between the Catholic West and the Orthodox, Greek East. The vernacular languages in the West, the languages of modern-day western Europe, developed for centuries as spoken languages only: most people did not write, and it seems that it very seldom occurred to those who wrote to write in any language other than Latin, even when they spoke French or Italian or English or another vernacular in their daily life. Very gradually, in the late Middle Ages and the early Renaissance, it became more and more common to write in the Western vernaculars. It was probably only after the invention of printing, which made books and pamphlets cheap enough that a mass public could afford them, and which made possible modern phenomena such as the newspaper, that a large number of people in the West could read and write who were not fluent in Latin. Still, many people continued to write in Latin, although they were mostly from the upper classes and/or professional academics. As late as the 17th century, there was still a large audience for Latin poetry and drama; it was not unusual, for example, that Milton wrote many poems in Latin, or that Francis Bacon or Baruch Spinoza wrote mostly in Latin. The use of Latin as a lingua franca continued in smaller European lands until the 20th century.
Although the number of works of non-fiction and drama, history and philosophy written in Latin has continued to dwindle, the Latin language is still not dead. Well into the twentieth century, some knowledge of Latin was required for admission into many universities, and theses and dissertations written for graduate degrees were often required to be written in Latin. Treatises in chemistry and biology and other natural sciences were often written in Latin as late as the early 20th century. Up to the present day, the editors of Latin and Greek texts in such series as the Oxford Classical Texts, the Bibliotheca scriptorum Graecorum et Romanorum Teubneriana and some others still write the introductions to their editions in polished and vital Latin. Among these Latin scholars of the 20th and 21st centuries are R A B Mynors, R J Tarrant, L D Reynolds and John Brisco.
See main article: Old Latin.
Cato - agricultural writer
Catullus - lyric poet and elegist
Horace - lyric poet and satirist
Lucretius - philosopher
Ovid - elegist, didactic poet and mythological poet
Propertius - elegist
Tibullus - elegist
Virgil - epic, didactic and pastoral poet
Cicero - orator, philosopher and correspondent
Marcus Terentius Varro - agricultural writer and linguist
Publilius Syrus - writer of maxims
Vitruvius - architect
Augustus - autobiographer
Gaius Valerius Flaccus - epic poet
Lucan - epic poet
Marcus Manilius - astronomical poet
Silius Italicus - epic poet
Statius - lyric and epic poet
Juvenal - satirist
Martial - epigrammatist
Persius - satirist
Phaedrus - fabulist
Aulus Cornelius Celsus - physician
Aulus Gellius - essayist
Apuleius - novellist and philosopher
Columella - agricultural writer
Petronius - novellist
Pliny the Elder - scientist
Pliny the Younger - correspondent
Quintilian - rhetorician
Sextus Julius Frontinus - engineer
Valerius Maximus - author of a collection of anecdotes
Seneca the Elder - orator
Marcus Cornelius Fronto - correspondent
Seneca the Younger - philosopher, correspondent, scientist, tragedian and satirist
Augustine of Hippo - theologian, autobiographer and correspondent
Ausonius - elegist
Jerome - theologian and correspondent
Marcus Minucius Felix - theologian
Prudentius - Christian poet
Sidonius Apollinaris - panegyricist and correspondent
Tertullian - theologian
Ammianus Marcellinus - historian
Augustan History - history
Claudian - panegyricist
Herodian - historian
Pervigilium Veneris - lyric poetry
See main article: Medieval Latin.
William of Occam
See main article: Renaissance Latin.
See main article: New Latin.
See main article: Recent Latin.
Anna Elissa Radke
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