Kuwait Explained

Native Name: دولة الكويت
Dawlat al-Kuwayt
Conventional Long Name:State of Kuwait
Common Name:Kuwait
National Anthem:Al-Nasheed Al-Watani
Official Languages:Arabic
Demonym:Kuwaiti
Capital:Kuwait City
Latd:29
Latm:22
Lats:11
Latns:N
Longd:47
Longm:58
Longs:42
Longew:E
Largest City:capital
Government Type:Constitutional hereditary emirate[1]
Leader Title1:Emir
Leader Name1:Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
Leader Title2:Prime Minister
Leader Name2:Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah
Sovereignty Type:Independence
Established Event1:from the UK
Established Date1:June 19, 1961
Area Rank:157th
Area Magnitude:1 E10
Area Km2:17,818
Area Sq Mi:6,880
Percent Water:negligible
Population Estimate:3,399,637[2]
Population Estimate Rank:n/a
Population Estimate Year:2007
Population Density Km2:131
Population Density Sq Mi:339
Population Density Rank:68th
Gdp Ppp:$130.239 billion
Gdp Ppp Rank:56th
Gdp Ppp Year:2007
Gdp Ppp Per Capita:$50,343
Gdp Ppp Per Capita Rank:3rd
Gdp Nominal Year:2007
Gdp Nominal Per Capita:$33,687
Hdi: 0.912
Hdi Rank:29th
Hdi Year:2006
Hdi Category:high>
Currency:Kuwaiti dinar
Currency Code:KWD
Time Zone:AST
Utc Offset:+3
Time Zone Dst:(not observed)
Utc Offset Dst:+3
Drives On:right
Cctld:.kw
Calling Code:965

The State of Kuwait (Arabic: دولة الكويت) is a sovereign Arab emirate on the coast of the Persian Gulf, enclosed by Saudi Arabia to the south and Iraq to the north and west. The name is a diminutive of an Arabic word meaning "fortress built near water."[3] It has a population of 3.1 million and an area of 17,818 km². Kuwait is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government and Kuwait City serves as its only political and economic capital. Kuwait is a very small country. Kuwait has the world's fifth largest oil reserves[4] and is the third richest country in the world per capita.[5] Kuwait's oil fields were discovered and exploited in the 1930s and after it gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1961, the nation's oil industry saw unprecedented growth. Petroleum and petroleum products now account for nearly 95% of export revenues, and 80% of government income.[6]

In 1990, Kuwait was invaded and annexed by neighboring Iraq. The seven month-long Iraqi occupation came to an end after a direct military intervention by United States-led forces. Nearly 750 Kuwaiti oil wells were set ablaze by the retreating Iraqi army resulting in a major environmental and economic catastrophe.[7] Kuwait's infrastructure was badly damaged during the war and had to be rebuilt.[8]

History

See main article: History of Kuwait. The history of Kuwait goes back to the year 1613.[9] Tribes from central Arabia settled in Kuwait in the 17th-century after experiencing a massive drought in their native land. This tribe came to be known as the Bani Khalid Tribe, they are the founders of Kuwait. Kuwait was known before, became a major center for spice trading between India and Europe. By late 18th-century, most of the local people made a living selling pearls. In 1756, the people elected Sabah I bin Jaber as the first emir of Kuwait. [10] The current ruling family of Kuwait, al-Sabah, are descendants of Sabah I.

During the rule of the al-Sabah, Kuwait progressively became a center of trade and commerce. It now served as a hub of trade between India, the horn of Africa, the Nejd, Mesopotamia and the Levant. Up until the advent of Japanese pearl farming, Kuwait had one of the largest sea fleets in the Persian Gulf region and a flourishing pearling industry. Trade consisted mainly of pearls, wood, spices, dates and horses.

As the influence of the Ottoman Empire increased in the region, Kuwait was assigned the status of a caza of the Ottomans. After the signing of the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913, then emir of Kuwait, Mubarak Al-Sabah, was diplomatically recognized by both the Ottomans and British as the ruler of the autonomous caza of the city of Kuwait and the hinterlands.[11] The 1922 Treaty of Uqair set Kuwait's border with Saudi Arabia and also established the Saudi-Kuwaiti neutral zone, an area of about 5,180 km² adjoining Kuwait's southern border. Oil was first discovered in Kuwait in the 1930s and the government became more proactive in establishing internationally recognized boundaries. After World War I, the Ottoman Empire was financially crippled and the invading British Indian Army invalidated the Anglo-Ottoman Convention, declaring Kuwait to be "independent sheikdom under British protectorate".

On February 25, 1961, Kuwait became fully independent following an exchange of notes between the United Kingdom and the then emir of Kuwait, Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah.[11] The Persian Gulf rupee, issued by the Reserve Bank of India, was replaced by the Kuwaiti dinar. The discovery of large oil fields, such as the Burgan field, triggered a large influx of foreign investments into Kuwait. The massive growth of the petroleum industry transformed Kuwait into one of the richest countries in the Arabian Peninsula and by 1952, the country became the largest exporter of oil in the Persian Gulf region. This massive growth attracted many foreign workers, especially from Egypt and India. Kuwait settled its boundary disputes with Saudi Arabia and agreed on sharing equally the neutral zone's petroleum reserves, onshore and offshore. After a brief stand-off over boundary issues, Iraq formally recognized Kuwait's independence and its borders in October 1963. During the 1970s, the Kuwaiti government nationalized the Kuwait Oil Company, ending its partnership with Gulf Oil and British Petroleum. In 1982, Kuwait experienced a major economic crisis after the Souk Al-Manakh stock market crash and decrease in oil price.[12] However, the crisis was short-lived as Kuwait's oil production increased steadily to fill the gap caused by decrease in Iraq's and Iran's oil production levels following the events of the Iran–Iraq War. In 1983, a series of six bomb explosions took place in Kuwait killing five people. The attack was carried out by Shiite Dawa Party to retaliate Kuwait's financial support to Iraq during its war with Iran.[13]

Kuwait had heavily funded Iraq's eight year-long war with Iran. After the war ended, Kuwait declined an Iraqi request to forgive its US$65 billion debt.[14] An economic warfare between the two countries followed after Kuwait increased its oil production by 40 percent.[15] Tensions between the two countries increased further after Iraq alleged that Kuwait was slant drilling oil from its share of the Rumaila field.[15] On 2 August, 1990 Iraqi forces invaded and annexed Kuwait. Saddam Hussein, then President of Iraq, deposed the emir of Kuwait, Jaber Al-Sabah, and installed Ali Hassan al-Majid as the new governor of Kuwait.[16] After a series of failed diplomatic negotiations, the United States-led coalition of thirty-four nations fought the Persian Gulf War to remove the Iraqi forces from Kuwait. The coalition successfully liberated Kuwait from Iraqi occupation on February 26, 1991.[17] Kuwait paid the coalition forces US$17 billion for their war efforts.[17]

During their retreat, the Iraqi armed forces carried out a scorched earth policy by damaging 700 oil wells in Kuwait, of which approximately 600 were set on fire.[18] It was estimated that by the time Kuwait was liberated from Iraqi occupation, about 5 to 6Moilbbl of oil was being burned in a single day because of these fires.[19] Oil and soot accumulation had affected the entire Persian Gulf region and large oil lakes were created holding approximately 25 to 50Moilbbl of oil[20] and covering 5% of Kuwait's land area.[18] In total, about 11Moilbbl of oil was released into the Persian Gulf[21] and an additional 2% of Kuwait's 96Goilbbl of crude oil reserves were burned by the time the oil fires were brought under control.[22] The fires took more than nine months to extinguish fully and it took Kuwait more than 2 years and US$50 billion in infrastructure reconstruction to reach pre-invasion oil output.[23] Kuwait has since largely recovered from the socio-economic, environmental, and public health effects of the Persian Gulf War. Kuwait is also the richest country in the Middle East.

Politics

See main article: Politics of Kuwait and Foreign relations of Kuwait. Kuwait is a constitutional monarchy and has the oldest directly elected parliament among Arab Persian Gulf states. The head of state is the Emir or Sheikh, a hereditary office. The Emir appoints a Prime Minister, who until recently was also the Crown Prince. A council of ministers, also known as cabinet ministers, aids the Prime Minister in his task as the head of Government of Kuwait which must contain at least one elected member of the Kuwaiti parliament, known as Majlis Al-Umma (National Assembly). The National Assembly has the power to dismiss the Prime Minister or any member of cabinet through a series of constitutional procedures. All cabinet ministers are answerable to the National Assembly.[24]

The National Assembly consists of fifty elected members, who are chosen in elections held every four years. Government ministers are also granted membership in the parliament and can number up to sixteen excluding the fifty elected members. According to the Constitution of Kuwait, nomination of a new Emir or Crown Prince by the ruling Al-Sabah family has to be approved by the National Assembly. If the nominee does not win the votes of the majority of the assembly, the royal family must submit the names of three other candidates to the National Assembly, and the Assembly must approve one of them to hold the post. Any amendment to the constitution can be proposed by the Emir but it needs to be approved by more than two-thirds of the members of the National Assembly before being implemented.[25] There have been several conflicts between the Emir, the government and the National Assembly over various policies. The National Assembly was suspended from 1976 to 1981, from 1986 to 1991 and from May 1999 to July 1999 due to irresolvable conflicts between some members of the government and the Assembly.[24]

Two-thirds of Kuwait's population do not have citizenship and thus cannot vote in parliamentary elections. Additionally, prior to 2005, only 15% of the Kuwaiti citizen population was allowed to vote, with all women, "recently naturalized" citizens (i.e. those of less than thirty years' citizenship), and members of the Kuwaiti Armed Forces excluded. On May 16, 2005, Parliament permitted women's suffrage by a 35-23 vote, subject to official interpretation of Islamic law and effective for the 2006 parliamentary election.[26] The decision raised Kuwait's eligible voter population from 139,000 to about 339,000. In 2006, Kuwaiti citizens were estimated to be more than 960,000. In 2005, the former Prime Minister Sheikh Sabah al-Ahmad al-Sabah announced the appointment of the first women as a cabinet minister, Massouma Mubarak. She was designated the post of Planning Minister and Minister of State for Administrative Development Affairs.[27] During the 2008 parliamentary elections, 27 of the 275 candidates were women. However, none of them won.[28]

See also: Al-Sabah, Elections in Kuwait and Political Issues in Kuwait.

Geography and climate

See main article: Geography of Kuwait. Located in the north-east corner of the Arabian Peninsula, Kuwait is one of the smallest countries in the world in terms of land area. The flat, sandy Arabian Desert covers most of Kuwait. Kuwait is the only country in the world which has no natural lake or water reservoir.[29] There is little difference in the country's altitude with the highest point in the country being 306 m above sea-level.[6] It has nine islands, all of which with the exception of Failaka Island are uninhabited.[30] With an area of 860 km², the Bubiyan is the largest island in Kuwait and is connected to the rest of the country by a 2,380 m long bridge.[31] Sparse vegetation is found along its 499 km long coastline.[6] Kuwait City is located on Kuwait Bay, a natural deep-water harbor.

The land area is considered arable.[6] Kuwait has some of the world's richest oil fields with the Burgan field having a total capacity of approximately 70Goilbbl of proven oil reserves. During the 1991 Kuwait oil fires, more than 500 oil lakes were created covering a combined surface area of about 35.7 km².[32] The resulting soil contamination due to oil and soot accumulation had made eastern and south-eastern parts of Kuwait uninhabitable. Sand and oil residue had reduced large parts of the Kuwaiti desert to semi-asphalt surfaces.[19] The oil spills during the Persian Gulf War also had drastically affected Kuwait's marine resources.[33]

Kuwait has an arid continental climate[34] . Summer, which lasts from May to September, is extremely hot and dry with temperatures easily crossing 45 °C (113 °F) during daytime.[35] Winter season, from November through February, is cool with some precipitation and average temperatures around 13 °C (56 °F) with extremes from -2 °C to 27 °C. Annual rainfall averages less than 127 mm and occurs chiefly between October and April.[36] The spring season in March is warm and pleasant with occasional thunderstorms. The frequent winds from the northwest are cool in winter and spring and hot in summer. Southeasterly winds, usually hot and damp, spring up between July and October; hot and dry south winds prevail in spring and early summer. The shamal, a northwesterly wind common during June and July, causes dramatic sandstorms.[36]

Governorates

See main article: Governorates of Kuwait. Kuwait is divided into six governorates (muhafazat, sing. muhafadhah):

The governorates are subdivided into districts.

The major cities are the capital Kuwait City and Jahrah (a thirty-minute drive northwest of Kuwait City). The main residential and business areas are Salmiya and Hawalli. The main industrial area is Shuwaikh within the Al Asimah Governorate. The main palace is the As-Seef Palace in the old part of Kuwait City where the Emir runs the daily matters of the country whilst the government headquarters are in the Bayan Palace and the Emir lives in Dar Salwa.

Economy

See main article: Economy of Kuwait. Kuwait has a GDP (PPP) of US$138.6 billion[37] and a per capita income of US$60,800,[37] making it the third richest country in the world.[5] Kuwait's human development index (HDI) stands at 0.912, the second highest in Middle East, after Israel and the highest in the Arab world. With a GDP growth rate of 5.7%, Kuwait has one of the fastest growing economies in the region.[37] According to the 2008 Index of Economic Freedom, Kuwait has the second-most free economy in the Middle East.[38] In March 2007, Kuwait's foreign exchange reserves stood at US$213 billion.[39] The Kuwait Stock Exchange, which has about 200 firms listed, is the second-largest stock exchange in the Arab world with a total market capitalization of US$235 billion.[40] In 2007, the Kuwaiti government posted a budget surplus of US$43 billion.[41]

Kuwait has a well developed banking system and several banks date back to the time before oil was discovered. The largest bank is the National Bank of Kuwait which has a widest network of branches. Burgan Bank is named after the largest oilfield in Kuwait and has the largest network of drive through ATM's in Kuwait. There are a handful of other local banks with most foreign banks having only a single branch presence.

Kuwait has a proven crude oil reserves of 104 billion barrels (15 km³),[37] estimated to be 10% of the world's reserves. According to the Kuwaiti constitution, all natural resources in the country and associated revenues are government property.[42] Being a tax-free country, Kuwait's oil industry accounts for 80% of government revenue. Petroleum and petrochemicals accounts for nearly half of GDP and 95% of export revenues. Increase in oil prices since 2003 has caused a surge in Kuwait's economy.[43] However, Kuwait's economy was badly affected by the global financial crisis of 2008.[44]

Kuwait's current oil production of 2.8 million bpd is expected to increase to 4 million bpd by 2020.[45] To realize this production target, Kuwait Petroleum Corporation plans to spend US$51 billion between 2007 to 2012 to upgrade and expand the country's existing refineries.[46] Other major industries include shipping, construction, cement, water desalination, construction materials and financial services.[37] Kuwait's climate limits agricultural development. Consequently, with the exception of fish, it depends almost wholly on food imports. About 75% of potable water must be distilled or imported. The government is keen on decreasing Kuwait's dependence on oil to fuel its economy by transforming it into a regional trading and tourism hub. The planned US$77 billion City of Silk is the largest real estate development project in the Middle East.[39] The Central Bank of Kuwait issues Kuwait’s currency, the Kuwaiti dinar. In December 2007, the dinar was the highest valued currency unit in the world.[47]

In 2007, estimated exports stood at US$59.97 billion and imports were around US$17.74 billion. Petroleum, petrochemical products, fertilizers and financial services are major export commodities. Kuwait imports a wide range of products ranging from food products and textiles to machinery. Kuwait's most important trading partners are Japan, United States, India, South Korea, Singapore, China, European Union and Saudi Arabia.[37] Japan is the largest customer of Kuwaiti oil followed by India, Singapore and South Korea.[48]

Demographics

See main article: Demographics of Kuwait. As of 2007, Kuwait's population was estimated to be 3 to 3.5 million people which included approximately 2 million non-nationals.[49] Kuwaiti citizens are therefore a minority of those who reside in Kuwait. The government rarely grants citizenship to foreigners to maintain status quo.[50]

About 57% of the Kuwaiti population is Arab, 39% Asian (including people from South Asia), and 4% are classified Bidoon.[11] Bidoons are a group of stateless Arab residents of Kuwait. Other large groups of expatriates include Indians, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis and Filipinos. In 2003, more than 400,000 Indian nationals lived in Kuwait,[51] making them the largest expatriate community there.[52] After Kuwait was liberated from Iraqi occupation, most of the 400,000 Palestinians living in Kuwait were expelled because of their government's open support for the Iraqi forces. Only a few thousand Palestinians remain in Kuwait.[53] The population of ethnic Armenians in Kuwait also shrank drastically following the events of the Iraq-Kuwait war.[54]

Kuwait's official language is Arabic, though English is widely spoken. Other important languages include Persian [55], Malayalam, Tamil, Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, and Filipino.

About 85% of Kuwait's population practises Islam.[11] Despite Islam being the state religion,[56] Kuwait has large communities of Christians (est. 300,000 to 400,000), Hindus (est. 300,000), Buddhists (est. 100,000), and Sikhs (est. 10,000).[57] Of the Muslims in Kuwait, 70% are Sunni and 30% are Shia Muslims.[6]

Culture

See main article: Culture of Kuwait. Being a highly cosmopolitan society, Kuwait has a diverse and vibrant culture. However, the influence of Islamic and Arab culture on its architecture, music, attire, cuisine and lifestyle is prominent.[58] The most distinctive characteristic of local Kuwaiti culture are the diwaniyas, a large reception room used for social gatherings attended mostly by close family members. While the Islamic dress code is not compulsory, unlike neighboring Saudi Arabia, many Kuwaiti men prefer wearing thawb, an ankle-length white shirt woven from wool or cotton while some women wear abaya, black over-garment covering most parts of the body. This attire is particularly well-suited for Kuwait's hot and dry climate.[59] Western-style clothing is also fairly popular, especially among Kuwait's youth.Seafood has been the mainstay of the Kuwaiti diet for centuries.[60] The Arabs in the Persian Gulf region played a crucial role in the spice trade between India and Europe and spices have remained an important ingredient of Kuwaiti cuisine. Traditional Kuwaiti cuisine includes Machboos or Kabsa which borrows heavily from South Asian cuisine.

Before the discovery of oil, pearling formed a crucial part of Kuwait's economy. Pearl fishery, known as ghaus, suffered decline after the advent of Japanese pearl farming.[61] However, Kuwait's pearl industry laid the foundation of its rich maritime history. Dhows, large wooden ships made from teak wood imported from India,[61] became an indistinct part of Kuwait's maritime fleet and dhow building is still practiced in this Persian Gulf state.[62] Kuwait's architecture is largely inspired by Islamic architecture. The most prominent landmark in country, the Kuwait Towers, were designed by Swedish architect Sune Lindström and are a unique blend of traditional minaret and modern architectural designs. The National Assembly of Kuwait, another famous landmark building, was designed by the famous Danish architect Jørn Utzon and completed in 1972. Sawt is the most prominent style of Kuwaiti music and is performed by 'ud (plucked lute) and mirwas (a drum), with a violin later supplementing the arrangement. The Bedouins are known for an instrument called the rubabah, while the use of oud, tanbarah (string instrument) and habban (bagpipe) are also widespread.[63]

See also: Music of Kuwait.

Transportation

See main article: Transport in Kuwait. Kuwait has an extensive, modern and well-maintained network of highways. Roadways extended 5,749 km, of which 4,887 km is paved.[6] In 2000, there were some 552,400 passenger cars, and 167,800 commercial taxis, trucks, and buses in use. Since there is no railway system in the country, most of the people travel by automobiles.[64] The government plans to construct US$11 billion rail network which will include a city metro for its capital.[65] Bus services are provided by City Bus and state-owned Kuwait Public Transportation Corporation.[66]

There are a total of seven airports in the country, of which four have paved runways. Kuwait International Airport serves as the principal hub for international air travel. State-owned Kuwait Airways is the largest airline in the country. In 2001, the airline carried 2,084,600 passengers on domestic and international flights.[64] In 2004, the first private airline of Kuwait, Jazeera Airways, was launched.[67] In 2005, the second private airline, Wataniya Airways of Kuwait was founded.

Kuwait has one of the largest shipping industries in the Persian Gulf region. The Kuwait Ports Public Authority manages and operates ports across Kuwait.[68] The country’s principal commercial seaports are Shuwaikh and Shuaiba which handled combined cargo of 753,334 TEU in 2006.[69] Mina Al-Ahmadi, the largest port in the country, handles most of Kuwait's oil exports.[70] Construction of another major port located in Bubiyan island started in 2005. The port is expected to handle 1.3 million TEU when operation starts in 2008.[71]

Education

See main article: Education in Kuwait. Oil revenues have allowed Kuwait to build an extensive educational system, yielding a literacy rate of 93.3 percent. Schooling is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 14. Both public and private school systems exist, with public schooling from kindergarten to secondary education available free of charge to Kuwaiti citizens.[72]

Kuwait University is Kuwait's only public university. However, both the extensive library system at Kuwait University and the collection at the Kuwait National Museum (1957) were heavily damaged and looted during the Iraqi occupation in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Other universities in Kuwait include the American University of Kuwait, the Gulf University for Science and Technology, the Australian College of Kuwait, the Arab Open University (AOU) and the American University of The Middle East (AUM).

The Gulf University for Science and Technology was the first private university established in Kuwait in 2002. It currently has two campuses in Hawalli and a third campus in Mishref where the Australian College of Kuwait is also located. The American University of Kuwait opened in 2004 with Dr. Shafeeq Al-Ghabra. The Australian College of Kuwait also opened in 2004 and there are more universities and colleges being discussed. Box Hill College Kuwait, an Australian women's college, opened its doors in September 2007 in Abu Halifa. It is an accredited extended campus of Box Hill TAFE, Australia, and offers internationally recognized qualifications.

In September 2008, the American University of the Middle East will open in the suburb of Egaila. This will be followed by a satellite campus of Algonquin College in 2009.

Within Kuwait, there are a multitude of American and British private schools. Of these schools the majority of which are American based such as ASK and UAS. Due to the practicing of both Arabic and English being the official languages, bilingual schools such as Al Bayan Bilingual School exist.

Media

Kuwait has one of the most vocal and transparent media in the Arab World.[73] In 2007, Kuwait was ranked second in the Middle East after Israel in the freedom of press index.[74] Though the government funds several leading newspapers and satellite channels,[75] Kuwaiti journalists enjoy greater freedom than their regional counterparts.[73] State-owned Kuwait News Agency (KUNA) is the largest media house in the country. The Ministry of Information regulates all media and communication industry in Kuwait.[76]

In 1998, there were 6 AM and 11 FM radio stations and 13 television stations. In 2000, there were 624 radios and 486 television sets for every 1,000 people. In 2001, there were 165,000 Internet subscribers served by three service providers.[77] Kuwait has ten satellite television channels of which four are controlled by the Ministry of Information. State-owned Kuwait Television (KTV) offered first colored broadcast in 1974 and operates three television channels.[77] Government-funded Radio Kuwait also offers daily informative programming in four foreign languages including Persian, Urdu, Tagalog and English on the AM and SW.

In 1998, Kuwait had eight major daily newspapers in circulation of which two were in English and six were in Arabic. In 2002, the Arab Times was the most popular English daily, followed by the Kuwait Times. Al-Anabaa, with a circulation of 106,800 copies, was the most widely read Arabic daily.[77] Currently, there are around 15 Arabic daily newspapers besides the English newspapers. A press law forbids insulting references to God and Islamic prophet Muhammad. Another law which made leading newspaper publishers eligible for hefty fines for criticizing the ruling family was lifted in 1992. Leading newspapers continue to impose self-restraint while being critical of the emir.[78] However, no such restraint is observed while criticizing the government.[77]

See also

External links

Notes and References

  1. Nominal.
  2. Kuwaiti Citizens approx. one million (1,055,602) and approx. two million (2,345,100) non-nationals (31/12/2007).
  3. http://www.arab.de/arabinfo/kuwaithis.htm Kuwait (History) - the name is a diminutive of an Arabic word meaning fortress built near water
  4. Oil & Gas Journal, January, 2007
  5. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2004rank.html CIA - The World Factbook - Rank Order - GDP - per capita (PPP)
  6. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ku.html CIA - The World Factbook - Kuwait
  7. http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/01/03/sproject.irq.kuwait.oil.fires/index.html CNN.com - Kuwait still recovering from Gulf War fires - Jan. 3, 2003
  8. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/country_profiles/791053.stm BBC NEWS World | Middle East | Country profiles | Country profile: Kuwait
  9. http://62.150.86.180/PageModule.asp?Module=10031
  10. http://www.kuwait-info.com/sidepages/nat_history.asp Kuwait's History
  11. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35876.htm Kuwait (06/07)
  12. http://www.stock-market-crash.net/souk.htm Kuwait’s Souk al-Manakh Stock Bubble
  13. Shireen T. Hunter, Iran and the World: Continuity in a Revolutionary Decade, (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1990), p.117
  14. http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_213.shtml Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait; 1990
  15. http://books.google.com/books?id=DejCbO1mvCYC&pg=PA156&dq=Kuwait+slant+drilling&sig=81dk_v5ZZ1F0oRhxuR6Fq7z61Qs
  16. http://cns.miis.edu/research/iraq/almajid.htm CNS - The Significance of the "Death" of Ali Hassan al-Majid
  17. http://ehistory.osu.edu/middleeast/CountryView.cfm?ID=115 Kuwait
  18. http://earthshots.usgs.gov/Iraq/Iraqtext
  19. http://www.american.edu/TED/kuwait.htm Kuwait Ted Case
  20. http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2003/0321kuwaitfire.html NASA - Top Story - 1991 KUWAIT OIL FIRES - March 21, 2003
  21. http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2001/gulf.war/legacy/environment/index.html CNN.com In-Depth Specials - Gulf War
  22. http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ke-Lo/Kuwait-Oil-Fires-Persian-Gulf-War.html Kuwait Oil Fires, Persian Gulf War - █ further reading:
  23. http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?sf=2813&art_id=qw104820750289B262&click_id=2813&set_id=1
  24. http://www.meepas.com/Kuwaitpoliticalsnapshot.htm meepas Kuwait country profile–Kuwait politics, Political snapshot
  25. http://www.majlesalommah.net/enrun.asp?id=226 National Assembly - Kuwait
  26. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/17/international/middleeast/17kuwait.html?pagewanted=print Kuwait Grants Political Rights to Its Women - New York Times
  27. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/article.asp?edition_id=10&categ_id=5&article_id=17117 The Daily Star - Opinion Articles - Women's suffrage means deep change in Kuwaiti politics
  28. http://www.gulf-daily-news.com/Story.asp?Article=217873&Sn=WORL&IssueID=31060 Gulf Daily News
  29. http://www.canadiancontent.net/profiles/Kuwait.html Kuwait - Quick facts, statistics and cultural notes
  30. http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-82709/Bubiyan Bubiyan (island, Kuwait) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  31. http://en.structurae.de/structures/data/index.cfm?ID=s0000613 Structurae [en&#93;: Bubiyan Bridge (1983)<!-- Bot generated title -->]
  32. http://encarta.msn.com/sidebar_761594234/Kuwaiti_Oil_Lakes.html Kuwaiti Oil Lakes - Sidebar - MSN Encarta
  33. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761563200_2/Kuwait_(country).html Kuwait (country) - MSN Encarta
  34. http://www.wordtravels.com/Travelguide/Countries/Kuwait/Climate/
  35. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761563200/Kuwait_(country).html Kuwait (country) - MSN Encarta
  36. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-45144/Kuwait Kuwait :: Climate - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  37. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/ku.html CIA - The World Factbook - Kuwait
  38. http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/country.cfm?id=Kuwait Index of Economic Freedom
  39. http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5jI7mKGXJeZVPX7byJfK3_jl1RU5Q AFP: Kuwait plans 77 billion dollar 'City of Silk'
  40. http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5gMAVPh33JPeYgGbSc3XLOgTRcP6A AFP: Kuwaiti stocks end week on record high
  41. http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5hb3ISwr0QiNj-lErPVrAAiHKphAg AFP: Kuwait posts record 72 billion dollar income
  42. http://www.majlesalommah.net/enrun.asp?id=223 National Assembly - Kuwait
  43. http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/summary_0198-219916_ITM Sparking the recovery: high oil prices are generating wealth for Kuwait and facilitating a massive construction programme. How is the country's electricity infrastructure placed to cope with the new demands that will be made upon it? - Journal, Magazine, Article, Periodical
  44. http://www.zawya.com/Story.cfm/sidZAWYA20081203050845/The%20problem%20with%20solutions%20to%20the%20economic%20crisis%20in%20Kuwait
  45. http://www.reuters.com/article/companyNews/idUSL0425775720080204 UPDATE 2-Kuwait keeps 2020 oil capacity aim despite problems Reuters
  46. http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5iwF-Yd3H2__0c-QDvThCQV8fhnaA AFP: Kuwait to spend $51 bln on oil development
  47. Floating exchange rate data taken from www.xe.com on December 22, 2007.
  48. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/Kuwait/Oil.html Kuwait Energy Data, Statistics and Analysis - Oil, Gas, Electricity, Coal
  49. Web site: Kuwait population hits 2.992 m; Citizens up in number, down in percentage. Arab Times Online. 2007-10-07.
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