|State Name:||Uttar Pradesh|
|Nickname:||Manchester of Asia AND Leather City of World AND Economic Capital of UP|
|Skyline Caption:||J K Temple, the most famous landmark of Kanpur|
|Destination 1:||New Delhi|
|District:||Kanpur Nagar District, Kanpur Dehat District|
|Population Total:||4,168,000 (2001)http://web.archive.org/web/20040616075334/www.censusindia.net/results/town.php?stad=A&state5=999|
|Leader Title 1:||Mayor|
|Leader Name:||Mr Ravindra Patani |
(Member of BJP)
|Postal Code:||208 0xx|
|Vehicle Code Range:||UP-78|
Kanpur (Hindi: कानपुर, Urdu: کان پور, spelled as Cawnpore before 1948) is the seventh most populous city in India and the most populous within the state of Uttar Pradesh, and in terms of area, Kanpur is the fifth largest city in India  .It is also known as the Manchester of Asia.Kanpur is located on the banks of the river Ganga and is an important industrial centre. It has an area of over 1600 km² and had a population of 4.13 million in the 2001 census. Owing to the city's industrial importance, one of the Reserve Banks of India was established in the city.It is economic capital of Uttar pradesh.
Nestled on the banks of the River Ganga, Kanpur stands as one of North India’s major industrial centres with its own historical, religious and commercial importance. Believed to be founded by Hindu King Chandel of the state of Sachendi, Kanpur, it is believed that the city derived its name from Kanhiyapur, the town of Kanhiya (Lord Krishna). In the course of time, Kanhiyapur probably was abbreviated as Kanhapur and subsequently as Kanpur (the Anglicized spelling of which was Cawnpore during the British rule). Others believe that the name is derived from Karnapur and is associated with Karna, one of the heroes of the Mahabharata. Duryodhana made Karna a king, seeing him as a fitting match to Arjuna, and granted him this area; the region was named after its first king.Historically, Jajmau, on the eastern outskirts of present day Kanpur is regarded as one of the original settlements in the Kanpur district.Kanpur's development is unclear until the thirteenth century. Although no reference to Kanpur is found in history, the history of two of its suburbs, Jajmau and Bithoor, can be traced back to legendary times. Bithoor is located about 20 km upstream of the river from the city and is approximately 10 km from the IIT Kanpur Campus. Jajmau is about 8 km east of Kanpur city and is nearly 20 km downstream from the IIT Campus. According to Hindu mythology, just after creating the universe, Lord Brahma performed the Ashvamedh Yajna (a horse is released and escorted by armies, which engaged anyone who impeded the horse's progress in battle) at Bithoor (also known as Brahmavart) and established a shivalingam there. Another legendary site at Bithoor is the Valmiki Ashram, where the famous sage Valmiki is supposed to have written the Sanskrit epic Ramayana. According to this epic, queen Seeta, on being exiled by King Ramachandra of Ayodhya, spent her days in seclusion at the ashram bringing up her twin sons Lava and Kush.
At Jajmau there are remains of an ancient fort, now surviving as a huge mound. Recent excavations on this mound indicate the site is very ancient, perhaps dating back to the Vedic age. Popular legends have it that the fort belonged to Yayati, a king of the ancient Chandravanshi race, the eighth in succession to Lord Brahma. The famous Siddhnath temple of Lord Shiva and Siddha Devi temple at Jajmau belong to the Buddhist period. The place for a while was known as Siddhpuri.
Another interesting[how?] historical place near Kanpur is Shivrajpur, 20 km from Kanpur Railway Station. At Shivrajpur, there is an ancient temple built by Chandel Raja Sati Prasad in memory of his queen. This temple is believed to be built in a night and is situated on the banks of river Ganga. This temple is famous for its beautiful architectural work and its unique carving designs.
Parihar rulers of Kannauj may have ruled this place for a significant part of history long before the beginning of Mughal era. Some historical accounts suggest Parihar kings, Bhoj and Mihir, have ruled in Kanpur since nearby Kannuaj was the capital of Parihar.
In 1207 AD, Raja Kanti Deo of Prayag (connected to the throne of Kannauj), established the village Kohna, which later came to be known as Kanpur. Kanpur continued its association with Kannauj during the reigns of Harsha Vardhan, Bhoj, Mihir, Jai Chand and early Muslim rulers through the Sur Dynasty. The first mention of Kanpur was made in 1579 during Sher Shah's regime. Up to the 1st half of the 18th century, Kanpur continued to survive as an insignificant village. Its fate, however, took a new turn in the second half of the 18th century. In May 1765, Shuja-ud-daula, the Nawab Wazir of Awadh, was defeated by the British near Jajmau. From 1773 to 1801, it was part of the Oudh kingdom and then came into the hands of the British. At this time, the British realized the strategic importance of the site of Kanpur. European businessmen had, by this time, started establishing themselves in Kanpur. In order to ensure protection for their lives and property, the European business shifted the `Awadh local forces’ here in 1778. Kanpur passed into British hands under the treaty of 1801 with Nawab Saadat Ali Khan of Awadh. This forms a turning point in the history of Kanpur, as it became one of the most important military stations of British India. It was declared a district on 24 March 1803.South of Parmat were the British infantry lines and the parade grounds. Indian infantry occupied the space from the present Chunniganj to the Christ Church College. The Company Bagh was laid in 1847 and the construction of the Ganga canal was commenced in 1854.
See main article: Indian Rebellion of 1857.
See also: Siege of Cawnpore. In the 19th century, Kanpur was an important British garrison with barracks for 7,000 soldiers. During the First War of Independence, (also known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857) 900 British were besieged in the fortifications for 22 days by rebels under Nana Sahib. They surrendered on the agreement that they would get safe passage to the nearby Suttee Chaura Ghat whereupon they would board barges and be allowed to go by river to Allahabad. Though controversy surrounds what exactly happened at the Satichaura Ghat, and who fired the first shot, it is known that soon afterwards, the departing British were shot at, by the rebel sepoys, and were either killed or captured. Some of the British officers later claimed that the rebels had placed the boats as high in the mud as possible, on purpose to cause delay. They also claimed that Nana Sahib's camp had previously arranged for the rebels to fire upon and kill all the English. Although the East India Company later accused Nana Sahib of betrayal and murder of innocent people, no evidence has ever been found to prove that Nana Sahib had pre-planned or ordered the massacre. Some historians believe that the Satichaura Ghat massacre was the result of confusion, and not of any plan implemented by Nana Sahib and his associates. Lieutenant Mowbray Thomson, one of the four male survivors of the massacre, believed that the rank-and-file sepoys who spoke to him did not know of the killing to come.
Many were killed and the remaining 200 British women and children were brought back to shore and sent to a building called the Bibighar (the ladies' home). After some time, when it was apparent that the British under General Henry Havelock were likely to retake Kanpur, the commanders of the rebels thought to execute their hostages. The rebel soldiers refused to carry out orders, and butchers from the nearby town were brought in to kill the hostages three days before the British entered the city on July 18. The dismembered bodies were thrown into a deep well nearby. The British "Army of Retribution" under General Neill retook the city and committed a series of atrocities against the rebel Sepoys and thos unfortunate civilians caught in the area, including women, children and old men. The Kanpur massacre, as well as similar events elsewhere, were seen by the British as an occasion for unrestrained vengeance  .
The British dismantled the Bibighar and raised and a memorial railing and a cross at the site of the well. In 1862, they built a church called All Souls' Cathedral in memory of those killed; renamed the Kanpur Memorial Church, it still stands at what was the north-east corner of Wheeler’s entranchment. The marble gothic screen with the famous `mournful seraph’ was transferred to the churchyard after independence in 1947, and in its place a bust of Tantya Tope installed at NanaRao Park. The well is now bricked over, but the remains of a circular ridge are still there.
After 1857 it became an important center of the leather and textile industries. The Government Harness and Saddler Factory was started in 1860 to supply the army with leather products, followed by Cooper Allen & Co. in 1880. The first cotton textile mill, the Elgin Mills,was started in 1862 and Muir Mills in 1882, and many others that followed in the next 40 years, such as Victoria Mills and Atherton West & Co. (Atherton Mills), made Cawnpore a major textile producer. The British India Corporation (BIC) was headquartered here and led the development of many industries. The first Indian business house of Cawnpore was the firm NihalChand KishoriLal, which set up a trading facility in 1857. This firm was a leader in oil milling and had many oil mills spread across North India. The Juggilal Kamlapat Singhania family launched many factories between 1930 and 1970. The Jaipuria family contributed to the patriotic cause, by building the Swadeshi Cotton Mills in response to charges that the foreign rulers were raiding India of its cotton only to sell back textiles to the residents. Kanpur was known as the "Manchester of India" during the 20th Century. The NihalChand KishoriLal group (also knows as Kejriwal Group) over time diversified into flour milling, tea plantations and steel. They bought over in 1942 Cawnpore Flour Mills which had been established in 1886 by Edward Foy a Scotsman. New Cawnpore Flour Mills is at present one of the larger flour mills of North India and still managed by the same family.
The steel industry was first brought to Kanpur by Singh Engineering. The Kejriwals set up a ministeel mill on the outskirts of Kanpur, which is now a leading long products manufacturer. Kanpur is also an important center for India's leather industry. It is also one of the largest sugar producing areas in northern India. As of now, the city also owns many leather tanneries, and over a dozen Defence Ordnance Factories. It is also home to the pan masala and gutkha industry for bricks.
Recent years has brought a change to the area industry, with LML Plant slowing down production drastically. There has been some growth in the plastics and the 3-wheeler automotive industries. Kanpur has been neglected by the local state government despite its huge contribution to the economy, and requires an influx of funding and support if it is to return to its former glory.
The British contributed to charitable causes in the city by building the Ursula Horsman Hospital, the "Hallet" Hospital, Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, by protecting the Allen Forest (now a Zoo) and many other efforts. Most of these are now renamed, though a lot of residents still call them by their old names. The distortion of names is most visible at the railway crossing bridge next to the Railway Station, where the now-closed Murray Company is conveniently called Mari (Dead) Company.
Due to the onset of leather industries, the pollution levels have risen dangerously high. Due to lack of proper planning, this city, second only to Delhi, is a victim of congestion and overcrowding. Urban planning has yet to evolve. Agencies responsible for it have still a long way to go from selling plots of land to planning wholesome development. A recent article in the Time Asia magazine says it all regarding the pollution in the city.
New industries such as detergent, saddlery, food processing, pan masala, tea packaging, plastics (& packaging), jewellery manufacturing and exports, leather processing & goods have developed in the city.
Kanpur was a hotbed of change in the independence and literary movements during the 1900–1950 period. The largest shopping centre is named Navin Market, after the poet Bal Krishna Sharma aka "Navin". Later poets included Gopal Das "Niraj" who wrote songs for "Bollywood" movies. Kanpur is also the birth place of Shyamlal Gupta `Parshad’, composer of the famous ditty Vijayee Vishwa Tiranga Pyara. The propagation and popularization of Hindi also owes much to this city, with great Hindu literatteurs such as Acharya Mahavir Parasad Dwivedi, Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi, Pratap Narain Mishra and Acharya Gaya Prasad Shukla `Sanehi’. The Agricultural University is named after the revolutionary Chandrashekhar Azad and the Medical College after Ganesh Shanker Vidyarthi; both men spent much time in Kanpur. While Chandrashekhar 'Azad' shot himself when surrounded by a huge posse of British soldiers at Alfred Park, Allahabad, Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi was killed during the Hindu-Muslim riots of 1931 at Machli Bazar in Kanpur.
About 25 km from Kanpur is Bithoor. Legend has it that the wife of Lord Rama came to live at the ashram of the sage Valmiki, after Rama expelled her from Ayodhya. It was here that Sita gave birth to the twins Lav and Kush, and disappeared back into the earth (from where she was born, according to mythology) when confronted by a repentant Rama. Bithoor is also the site of the fort to which Nana Sahib escaped following the British retaking of Kanpur. Today, Bithoor is a tourist spot on the banks of the Ganges and Kanpur is expanding very fast with new residential complexes sprouting up everywhere.
The city's coordinates are 26.4670° North and 80.3500° East, placing it 83 km from Lucknow, the capital city of Uttar Pradesh. Kanpur, along with Allahabad and Fatehpur, are part of the Lower Doab, which in antiquity was known as the Vats country. It is surrounded by two main rivers of India, the Ganges in the north-east and the Pandu river (Yamuna) in the south. The districts surrounding Kanpur are Hamirpur in the south and Unnao in the north-east,
Kanpur is home to many residential and migratory birds. Most of them can be spotted at Bithoor, IIT Kanpur campus and areas alongside the Ganga Canal. The city has Asia's biggest (area wise) zoological garden. Exotic species of flora are present at the CSA campus.The Kanpur Zoo is famous for its cages designed to provide a natural habitat for the animals, and has a vast variety of animals. The water supply system of the zoo is a work of art, by an artist and engineer in the Sinchai Department of that time, Murari Sharan Saxena. The Zoo is a part of a lush green area - The Allen Forest, Nawabganj. The entry fee is minimal, making it the major picnic spot of the Kanpur region.
Kanpur is situated on the banks of the river Ganga; the population was 2,551,337 as per the 2001 census. In last decade population rose rapidly. One of the factors for this kind of growth can be higher number of in-migration to Kanpur City from other areas. It ranked third after Lucknow and Varanasi in 1901, but by 1961 it assumed a position on top of the list. It has registered an increase of over five times from 1,97,170 in 1901 to 8,83,815 in 1961 in the course of six decades. Kanpur has an area of about 1640 km² and is 126 meters above sea level. Languages spoken in and around Kanpur include Hindi, English and Urdu, Bengali and Punjabi. All major religions are practised in Kanpur.The Hindi language spoken by people of kanpur is the purest form of Hindi.
 Kanpur is one of the biggest producer of Textile and Leather products and they are exported in bulk. About 50 Tons of air cargo is generated for leather products only and this is sent through surface transport to New Delhi and from New Delhi it is sent to outside India through air cargo.Apart from leather and textile industry, the fertilizer, chemicals, two wheelers, soaps, Pan Masala, hosiery and engineering industries are also operating in the city.
The Stock yard of H.A.L. and SAIL are also located in the city. The highest number of ordnance factories are situated in the city.
Gas Authority of India, NTPC and perfume industries of Kannauj are also near to Kanpur. STP (Software Technology Park) is also functioning in Kanpur. The Directorate of Industries and Directorate of Handlooms are also situated in the city.
The following famous companies have their offices/plants in Kanpur.
Kanpur lies in northern plains of India which witness extremes of temperature. It can drop to a minimum of 0.5°C in the winters while it goes up to 49°C in summers. Kanpur experiences severe fog in December and January, resulting in massive traffic and travel delays. In summer excessive dry heat is accompanied by dust storms. Rains appear between July and September almost at the end of regular monsoon season. Some rainfall is recorded during the harvest season of March-April. These extremes however, give the region an advantage of having three crops of versatile range of products.
Kanpur is home to several educational institutions which have made it a popular educational center. IIT Kanpur, Harcourt Butler Technological Institute (HBTI), Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University formerly Kanpur University, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, and GSVM Medical College are few top colleges from the city. There are a number of degree colleges and schools(inter colleges) in the city.
Literacy rate of kanpur is 77.63% which is well above the national average.
LPG is provided to the users at their home via CUGL gas pipelines. This service has begun in Kakadeo and Pandu Nagar localities of the city and is expected to be soon extended to other parts of the city.
Cricket is most popular sport in Kanpur. Kanpur is home of Green Park Stadium, however, of late due to political and financial reasons, the ground has been rarely utilized. Other sports in the city that may be commonly visible, albeit at schools/colleges level are Hockey & Football.
Kanpur is well-connected with most other cities of India by Rail and Roads.
It lies as one of the most important railway stations on Delhi-Howrah Trunk Line of Indian Railways. The first Rajdhani Express of India ran via this station. There are direct trains from this station to almost all important stations in India.
The city lies on important National Highways. NH No.2, the oldest road of India, Grand Trunk Road - between Amritsar (legend says - Kabul before partition) to Kolkata (legend again says - Dhaka before partition) - runs right through this city. NH No 25. connects the city to western Indian cities like Mumbai through Jhansi.
Air India (formerly Indian Airlines) is running a regular daily flight using a 48-seater ATR42 Turboprop between Kanpur and Delhi domestic terminal, 6 days a week, Monday to Saturday. IC7801 departs Delhi at 1:30pm and reaches Kanpur at 2:55pm. Kanpur to Delhi IC7802 departs at 5:15pm and reaching Delhi at 6:40pm.
One of the earliest stations of All India Radio has been operational in Kanpur.
City today has following FM radio stations. -
The city has broadband internet connectivity and video conferencing facilities. Major players like BSNL, Bharti Airtel, Reliance Communications, Tata Communications & STPI, have a wide infrastructure to provide broadband Internet Bandwidth to home users, corporates etc.
Information Provided By Prakhar Yadav