Iyer Explained

Group:Iyer
அய்யர்
Poptime:

1901:415,931
2004:~ 2,400,000 (Estimated)[1]

Popplace:Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh
Langs:Mother tongue is Tamil with unique Iyer dialects. Knowledge of Sanskrit for religious reasons.
Rels:Hinduism
Related:Pancha-Dravida Brahmins, Tamil people, Iyengar, Madhwa

Iyer (Tamil : அய்யர் Malayalam:അയ്യര) (variously spelt as Iyer, Ayyar, Aiyar, Ayer or Aiyer) also called Sāstri[2], Sarma or Bhattar[3] [4] is the name given to Hindu Brahmins of Tamil or Telugu origin who are followers of the Advaita philosophy propounded by Adi Shankara.[5] [6] [7] [8] [9] They are found mostly in Tamil Nadu as they are generally native to the Tamil country. But they are also found in significant numbers in Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Karnataka.

The name 'Iyer' originated in the medieval period when different sects of Brahmins residing in the then Tamil country organized themselves as a single community. A breakaway sect of Sri Vaishnavas later formed a new community called "Iyengars".[10] [11] [12]

As per popular tradition, Iyers are the descendants of Indo-Aryan migrants from North India. However, genetic researches have found little difference in genetic patterns with the rest of the Tamil populace. Iyers are sub-divided into various sub-sects based on their individual functions or duties. They are also classified based on the Veda they follow or according to their gotra.

Iyers fall under the Pancha Dravida Brahmin sub-classification of India's Brahmin community and follow the same customs and traditions as other Brahmins.[13] In recent times, they have been affected by reservation policies [14] and the Self-Respect Movement in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

Etymology

Iyers are South Indian Brahmins who reside in the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Iyers are predominantly Smarthas or followers of the Smriti texts.[15] [8]

The word Iyer is derived from the title Ayyā which is often used by Tamils to designate respectable people. There are number of etymologies for the word Ayyā, generally it is thought to be derived from Proto-Dravidian term denoting an elder brother. It is used in that meaning in Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam.[16] Yet others derive theword Ayya as a Prakrit version of the Sanskrit word Aryā which means 'noble'. "Ayar" is also the name of a Tamil Yadava sub-caste.[17] During the British Raj, Christian clergymen were also occasionally given the honorific surname "Ayyar".[18]

In ancient times, Iyers were also called Anthanar[19] [20] or Pārppān,[21] [22] [23] though the usage of the word Pārppān is considered derogatory in modern times.[24] Until recent times, Kerala Iyers were called Pattars.[25] Like the term pārppān, the word "Pattar" too is considered derogatory.[26]

It has also been recorded that in the past, the Nayak kings of Madurai have held the title "Aiyar" while Brahmins have borne titles as Pillai or Mudali.[27]

Origin

See also: Indo-Aryan migration and Genetics and archaeogenetics of South Asia.

Regional origin

The origin of Iyers, like other South-Indian Brahmin communities, is shrouded in mystery. There have been evidences of Brahmin presence in the southern states even prior to the Sangam Age. However, it is generally believed that they were few in number and that most Iyers migrated from other parts of India at a later stage. According to some sources, these early inhabitants comprised mostly of priests who ministered in temples known as "Gurukkals". Large scale migrations are generally believed to have occurred between 200 and 1600 AD and most Iyers are believed to have descended from these migrants.[28] [29] However, this theory has come under attack in recent times from historians and anthropologists who question the validity of this theory due to lack of evidence.[30] [31] [32] During the early medieval period, when Ramanuja founded Vaishnavism many Iyers adopted the new philosophical affiliation and were called Iyengars.The Valluvars are believed to be the descendants of the earliest priests of the Tamil country.[33]

There is also ample evidence to suggest that a large number of individuals of non-Brahmin communities could have been invested with the sacred thread and ordained as temple priests.[34] [35]

Though, Iyers have been classified as a left-hand caste in ancient times,[29] Schoebel, in his book History of the Origin and Development of Indian Castes published in 1884, spoke of Tamil Brahmins as "Mahajanam" and regarded them, along with foreign migrants, as outside the dual left and right-hand caste divisions of Tamil Nadu.[29]

Ethnicity and genetics

Iyer men and women are slightly different in physical makeup and complexion to the average Tamilian [36] [31] and this, along with the social practices and customs of Iyers are regarded as evidences of an "Aryan origin" for Tamil Brahmins.[37] [38] Moreover, some Iyer communities pay homage to the river Narmada instead of the South Indian river Cauvery in their rituals and revere legends proposing a northern origin for their community.[39] Iyer marriage rites, especially, are a mixture of some customs regarded Aryan and some considered Dravidian. [40] [41] This issue is still being debated and researched by anthropologists, linguists and archaeologists alike. However, regardless of whether the "Aryan theory" of origin for Iyers is true or not, still it has often been a burning political issue in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

Recent genetic studies amongst Iyers of Madurai reveal close proximity to populations from Eurasian steppes of Central Asia.[42] Other genetic researches have found close similarities between recent migrants and Bengali Brahmins. [43] However, the sharing of some haplotypes between the Iyers and some Southeast Asian populations suggests a migration through Southeast Asia to India. When genetic analysis of South Asians was performed while discarding caste-based ramifications, it was observed that South Indians, in general had lesser genetic affinity with Central Asian people than the inhabitants of North India overall and the mitochondrial DNA (maternal) of Indian caste and tribal populations all emerged from the same source.[44] [45]

Edgar Thurston classified Iyers as mesocephalic with an average cephalic index of 74.2[46] and an average nasal index of 95.1 based on the anthropological survey he had conducted in the Madras Presidency.[47] Kerala Iyers were found to have an average cephalic index of 74.5 [46] and nasal index of 92.9.[47]

Population and distribution

Today, Iyers live all over South India, but an overwhelming majority of Iyers continue to thrive in Tamil Nadu. Tamil Brahmins form an estimated 3% of the state's total population and are distributed all over the state.[48] However, accurate statistics on the population of the Iyer community is unavailable.[48]

They are concentrated mainly along the Cauvery Delta districts of Mayiladuthurai, Thanjavur [49] [50] and Tiruchirapalli where they form almost 10% of the total population.[51] [52] In Northern Tamil Nadu they are found in the urban areas of Chennai,[53] [54] Kanchipuram, Chengalpattu, Sriperumbudur and Vellore. They are almost non-existent in rural parts.[55]

Iyers are also found in fairly appreciable number in Western and Southern districts of Tamil Nadu.[56] Iyers of the far south are called Tirunelveli Iyers[57] and speak the Tirunelveli Brahmin dialect. The most prominent Tirunelveli Iyer was Subramanya Bharathi, often regarded as the "national poet of Tamil Nadu". In Coimbatore, there are a large number of Kerala Iyers from Palakkad.[58]

Subsects

Iyers have many sub-sects among them, such as Vadama, Brahacharnam or Brahatcharanam, Vāthima, Sholiyar or Chozhiar, Ashtasahasram, Mukkāni, Gurukkal, Kāniyālar and Prathamasāki.[59] [10] [60] Each sub-sect is further subdivided according to the village or region of origin.

Vadama

See main article: Vadama. The Vadamas (Tamil: வடமா) regard themselves the most superior of Smartha Brahmins.[10] [61] The word "Vadama" is derived from the Tamil word Vadakku meaning North.[62] Due to this reason, it is widely speculated that the Vadamas could have been the latest of the Brahmin settlers of the Tamil country.[61] At the same time, however, the honorific title Vadama could also be used simply to denote the level of Sanskritization and cultural affiliation and not as evidence for a migration at all.[63]

Vadamas follow a number of Vaishnavite religious beliefs and practices.[10] They sport the urdhvapundram mark on their forehead unlike other sects of Iyers. [10] A large section of the Iyengar community is believed to be made of converted Vadamas.

Vadamas have also significantly contributed towards popularizing and propagating the worship of Lord Shiva and Devi.[64] [65]

The Vadamas are classified into Vadadesa Vadama, Choladesa Vadama, Sabhaiyar, Inji and Thummagunta Dravida.[10]

Vāthima

See main article: Vathima. The Vāthimas (Tamil: வாத்திமா) are few in number and are confined mostly to eighteen villages in Thanjavur district. They are sub-divided into Pathinettu Gramathu Vāthima or Vāthima of the eighteen villages, Udayalur, Nannilam and Rathamangalam.[66]

Brahacharnam

See main article: Brahatcharanam. Brahacharnam is a corruption of the Sanskrit word Brahatcharnam(Sanskrit: ब्रहतचरनम्) means "the great sect".[67] Brahacharnams are more Saivite than Vadamas and are sub-divided into Kandramaicka, Milanganur, Mangudi, Pazhamaneri, Musanadu, Kolathur, Marudancheri,Sathyamangalam and Puthur Dravida.[67]

Ashtasahasram

The Ashtasahasram(Sanskrit: अष्टसहश्रम) are, like the Brahacharnams, more Saivite than the Vadamas.[68] They are further sub-divided into Aththiyur, Arivarpade, Nandivadi and Shatkulam.[68]

Dīkshitar

The Dīkshitars (Tamil: தீக்ஷிதர்) are based mainly in the town of Chidambaram and according to legend, have descended from three thousands individuals who migrated from Varanasi.[68] They wear their kudumi in front of their head like the Nairs and Namboothiris of Kerala.[68]

Chozhiar or Sholiyar

The Sholiyars (Tamil: சோழியர்்) serve as priests, cooks or decorate idols in Hindu temples.[69] According to legend, they are believed to have descended from Chanakya, the minister of Chandragupta Maurya.[70] They are divided into Tirukattiur, Madalur, Visalur, Puthalur, Senganur, Avadiyar Koil.[71]

Gurukkal

See main article: Gurukkal Brahmins. The sect of Sivāchārya or Gurukkal (Tamil: குருக்கள்்்) form the hereditary priesthood or in the Siva and Sakthi temples in Tamil Nadu.[72] They are Saivites and adhere to the philosophy of Shaiva Siddhanta.[72] They are well versed in Agama Sasthras and follow the Agamic rituals of these temples.[72]

Gurukkals are sub-divided into Tiruvalangad, Conjeevaram and Thirukkazhukunram.[72]

Mukkāni

The Mukkāni(Tamil: முக்கானீ) sub-sect of Iyers are traditionally helpers to the priests in the temples of Thiruchendur.[70] Legend has it that the Mukkānis were the Bhootaganas, the demon bodyguards of Lord Siva and that they were given the responsibility for guarding Subrahmanya's shrines by Siva.. The Mukkanis predominantly subscribe to the Rig Veda.

Kāniyālar

The Kāniyālar(Tamil: காநியாளர்) are a little known sub-sect of Iyers. A large number of Kāniyālars serve as cooks and menial servants in Vaishnavite temples.[70] Hence, they sport the nāmam like Vaishnavite Iyengars.[70]

Prathamasāki

The Prathamasākis form another little-known sub-sect of Iyers. They follow the White Yajur Veda.[73] According to Hindu legend, in remote antiquity, the Prathamasākis were cursed by God to spend one hour every day as Parayars[74] and hence they are known as "Madhyana Paraiyans" in Tanjore district[73] and are regarded inferior by other sects of Brahmins.[73]

Edgar Thurston also mentions another sect of Iyers called Kesigal or Hiranyakesigal.[67] However, this sub-sect appears to have disappeared or merged into the larger Vadama community with the passage of time.

Iyers, just like other Brahmins were required to learn the Vedas. Iyers are also divided into different sects based on the Veda they follow.[75] Iyers belonging to the Yajur Veda sect usually follow the teachings of the Krishna Yajur Veda.[13]

Gotrās and Shākhas

See also: Brahmin gotra system.

Iyers, like all other Brahmins, trace their paternal ancestry to one of the eight rishis or sages. Accordingly they are classified into eight gotrās based on the rishi they have descended from. A maiden in the family belongs to gotra of her father, but upon marriage takes the gotrā of her husband.

The Vedas are further sub-divided into shākhās or "branches" and followers of each Veda are further sub-divided based on the shākhā they adhere to. However, only a few of the shākhās are extant, the vast majority of them having disappeared.The different Vedas and the corresponding shākhās that exist today in Tamil Nadu are:

Vedashākhā
Rig VedaShakala and Paingi
Yajur VedaKanva and Taittiriya
Sama VedaKauthuma, Jaiminiya/Talavakara, Shatyayaniya and Gautama
Atharva VedaShaunakiya and Paippalada

Migration

Karnataka

Over the last few centuries, a large number of Iyers have also migrated and settled in parts of Karnataka. During the rule of the Mysore Maharajahs, a large number of Iyers from the then Madras province migrated to Mysore. The Ashtagrama Iyers are also a prominent group of Iyers in Karnataka.

Kerala

See main article: Kerala Iyers. A series of large-scale migrations of Iyers from the Tamil country into Kerala over the past few centuries has created a 'Kerala Iyer' community. According to anthropologists, two streams of migration actually took place:

Travancore and Cochin regions

During the 18th century, a large number of Iyers migrated from Southern Tamil Nadu and settled in the erstwhile princely states of Travancore and Cochin However, Iyers were neither considered eligible nor allowed to officiate as priests in the temples of Kerala as the priests in these parts practised 'Tantra Vidhi'- a very complex system of Tantric rites monopolized by the Namboothris.

Due to their skill in culinary art, Iyers were initially employed mostly as cooks. They are generally credited with having introduced Tamil delicacies as idli, sambhar, dosa and vadai in Kerala. However, with the passage of time, Iyers entered administrative and commercial professions as well.The first prominent member of the Iyer community in Kerala was Ramayyan Dalawa, who was the Prime Minister (Dewan or Dalawa) of Travancore State during the reign of Raja Marthanda Varma. Other prominent Iyers from Kerala include Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer, Malayattoor Ramakrishnan, V. R. Krishna Iyer and T. N. Seshan.

Tamil Brahmins have fully integrated into Kerala society even while retaining their ancestral traditions. Their mother tongue is a dialect of Tamil heavily influenced by Malayalam vocabulary. During the 19th century, Iyers, like Malayali Nambudhiris, even adopted the Malayali practice of sambandham though the numbers contacting such alliances were very low. [77]

Palakkad Iyers

Iyers who migrated to the Palakkad district from the Chola kingdom to serve in the temples of Kerala are known as Palakkad Iyers. From the very beginning, the Palakkad Iyers were endowed with grants of land and were pretty well-off compared to the Travancore and Cochin Iyers. They also officiated in temples as priests. The Palakkad Iyers resided in agrahārams.[58] Those who established themselves in the interior parts of Kerala lived in houses known as Madom.

The Palakkad Iyers were greatly affected by the Kerala Agrarian Relations Bill, 1957 (repealed in 1961 and substituted by The Kerala Land Reforms Act, 1963) which abolished the tenancy system.

Sri Lanka

See also: Aryacakravarti dynasty.

According to the Buddhist scripture Mahavamsa, the presence of Brahmins have been recorded in Sri Lanka as early as 500BC when the first migrations from the Indian mainland supposedly took place. Currently, Brahmins are an important constituent of the Sri Lankan Tamil minority.[78] [79] Tamil Brahmins are believed to have played a historic role in the formation of the Jaffna Kingdom.[79] [80] [81]

Recent migrations

Apart from South India, Iyers have also migrated to and settled in places in North India. There are significantly large Iyer communities in Mumbai,[82] [83] Kolkata, Orissa and Delhi.[54] [84] [85] These migrations, which commenced during the British rule, were often undertaken in search of better prospects and contributed to the prosperity of the community.[14]

In recent times Iyers have also migrated in significant numbers to the United Kingdom, Europe and the U.S.[83] in search of better fortune.[86] [87] [88] [89]

Religious practices, ceremonies and festivals

Rituals

Iyer rituals comprise rites as described in Hindu scriptures such as Apastamba Sutra attributed to the Hindu sage Apastamba.[13] The most important rites are the Shodasa Samaskāras or the 16 duties.[90] Although many of the rites and rituals followed in antiquity are no longer practised, some have been retained.[91]

Iyers are initiated into rituals at the time of birth. In ancient times, rituals used to be performed when the baby was being separated from mother's umbilical cord. This ceremony is known as Jātakarma.[92] However, this practice is no longer observed. At birth, a horoscope is made for the child based on the position of the stars. The child is then given a ritual name.[92] [93] On the child's birthday, a ritual is performed to ensure longevity. This ritual is known as Ayushya Homam. This ceremony is held on the child's birthday reckoned as per the Tamil calendar based on the position of the nakshatras or stars and not the Gregorian calendar.[93] The child's first birthday is the most important and is the time when the baby is formally initiated by piercing the ears of the boy or girl. From that day onwards a girl is expected to wear earrings.

A second initiation (for the male child in particular) follows when the child crosses the age of seven.[94] [95] This is the Upanayana ceremony during which a Brahmana is said to be reborn.[95] [96] A three-piece cotton thread is installed around the torso of the child encompassing the whole length of his body from the left shoulder to the right hip.[94] [97] [96] [98] The Upanayana ceremony of initiation is solely performed for the members of the dvija or twice-born castes, generally when the individual is between 7 and 16 years of age. In ancient times, the Upanayana was often considered as the ritual which marked the commencement of a boy's education, [99] which in those days, comprised mostly of the study of the Vedas. However, with the Brahmins taking to other vocations than priesthood, this initiation has become more of a symbolic ritual. The neophyte was expected to perform the Sandhya Vandanam on a regular basis[100] and utter a prescribed set of prayers, three times a day: dawn, mid-day, and dusk. The most sacred and prominent of the prescribed set of prayers is the Gayatri Mantra,[101] [100] which is as sacred to the Hindus as the Kalima to the Muslims and Ahunwar to the Zoroastrians.[100] Once a year, Iyers change their sacred thread. This ritual is exclusive to South Indian Brahmins and the day is commemorated in Tamil Nadu as Āvani Avittam.[102] [103]

Other important ceremonies for Iyers include the rites for the deceased. [104] [105] [106] All Iyers are cremated according to Vedic rites, usually within a day of the individual's death.[107] The death rites include a 13-day ceremony, and regular Tarpanam(performed every month thereafter, on Amavasya day, or New Moon Day), for the ancestors.[107] [108] [109] There is also a yearly shrārddha, that must be performed.[109] [110] These rituals are expected to be performed only by male descendants of the deceased. Married men who perform this ritual must be accompanied by their wives. The women are symbolically important in the ritual to give a "consent" to all the proceedings in it.[107]

Festivals

See also: Hindu festivals.

Iyers celebrate almost all Hindu festivals like Deepavali, Navratri, Pongal, Vinayaka Chathurthi, Janmaashtami, Tamil New Year, Sivarathri and Karthika Deepam. However, the most important festival which is exclusive to Brahmins of South India is the Āvani Avittam festival.

Weddings

See also: Iyer Wedding. A typical Iyer wedding consists of Sumangali Prārthanai (Hindu prayers for prosperous married life), Nāndi (homage to ancestors), Nischayadhārtham (Engagement)[98] and Mangalyadharanam (tying the knot).[111] The main events of an Iyer marriage include Vratam (fasting), Kasi Yatra (pilgrimage to Kasi), Oonjal (Swing), Kanyadanam (placing the bride in the groom's care), Mangalyadharanam, Pānigrahanam [112] and Saptapathi (or seven steps - the final and most important stage wherein the bride takes seven steps supported by the groom's palms thereby finalizing their union).[112] This is usually followed by Nalangu, which is a casual and informal event.[113]

Lifestyle and culture

See also: Culture of Tamil Nadu.

Traditional ethics

Iyers generally lead orthodox lives and adhere steadfastly to their customs and traditions. However, of recent, they have started abandoning their traditional duties as temple priests for more secular vocations, causing contemporary Iyers to be more flexible than their ancestors.[114] Iyers follow the Grihya Sutras of Apastamba and Baudhayana apart from the Manusmriti. The society is patriarchal but not feudal.[115]

Iyers are generally vegetarian. Some abjure onion and garlic on the grounds that they activate certain base senses. Cow milk and milk products were approved.[116] They were required to avoid alcohol and tobacco.[117] [116]

Iyers follow elaborate purification rituals, both of self and the house. Men are forbidden from performing their "sixteen duties" while Women are forbidden from cooking food without having a purificatory bath in the morning.[114] Food is to be consumed only after making an offering to the deities.[118] The bathing was considered sufficiently purifying only if it confirmed to the rules of madi.[119] The word madi is used by Tamil Brahmins to indicate that a person is bodily pure.In order to practice madi, the brahmin had to wear only clothes which had been recently washed and dried, and the clothes should remain untouched by any person who was not madi.[119] Only after taking bath in cold water, and after wearing such clothes, would the person be in a state of madi.[120] This practice of madi is followed by Iyers even in modern times, before participating in any kind of religious ceremony.

.

Until the turn of the last century, an Iyer widow was never allowed to remarry.[121] Once her husband dies, an Iyer woman had to tonsure her head.[122] She had to remove the kunkumam or the vermilion mark on her forehead, and was required to smear her forehead with the sacred ashes. All these practices have, however, greatly dimimished with the enactment of reforms.[123]

Traditional attire

Iyer men traditionally wear veshtis or dhotis which cover them from waist to foot. These are made of cotton and sometimes silk. Veshtis are worn in different styles. Those worn in typical brahminical style are known as panchakacham(from the sanskrit terms pancha and gajam meaning "five yards" as the length of the panchakacham is five yards in contrast to the veshtis used in daily life which are four or eight cubits long). They sometimes wrap their shoulders with a single piece of cloth known as angavastram (body-garment). In earlier times, Iyer men who performed austerities also draped their waist or chests with deer skin or grass.[98]

The traditional Iyer woman is draped in a nine yard saree, also known as madisār.[124]

Patronage of art

For centuries, Iyers have taken a keen interest in preserving the arts and sciences. They undertook the responsibility of preserving the Bharata Natya Shastra, a monumental work on Bharatanatyam, the classical dance form of Tamil Nadu. During the early 20th century, dance was usually regarded as a degenerate art associated with devadasis. Rukmini Devi Arundale, however, revived the dying art form thereby breaking social and caste taboos about Brahmins taking part in the study and practice of the dance.[125] [126]

However, compared to dance, the contribution of Iyers in field of music has been considerably noteworthy.[127] The Trinity of Carnatic Music were responsible for making some excellent compositions towards the end of the 18th century. Today, there are Iyers who give traditional renderings as well as playback singers in Indian films like Nithyashree Mahadevan, Usha Uthup, Shankar Mahadevan, Mahalaxmi Iyer, Hamsika Iyer and Naresh Iyer . Iyers have also contributed considerably to drama, short story and temple architecture.

In the field of literature and journalism, the Iyer community has produced individuals like R. K. Narayan, R. K. Laxman, Subramanya Bharathi, Kalki Krishnamurthy, Ulloor Parameswara Iyer, and Cho Ramaswamy to name a few. They have also contributed in an equal amount to Tamil language and literature[128] .

Food

See also: Tamil cuisine.

The main diet of Iyers is composed of vegetarian food[13], mostly rice which is the staple diet for millions of South Indians. Vegetarian side dishes are frequently made in Iyer households apart from compulsory additions as rasam,sambar,etc. Home-made ghee is a staple addition to the diet, and traditional meals do not begin until ghee is poured over a heap of rice and lentils. While tasting delicious, the cuisine eschews the extent of spices and heat traditionally found in south Indian cuisine. Iyers are mostly known for their love for curd. Other South Indian delicacies such as dosas, idli, etc. are also relished by Iyers. Coffee amongst beverages and curd amongst food items form an indispensable part of the Iyer food menu.

The food is taken only after it is purified by a ritual called annasuddhi which means "purification of rice".[118]

Agrahāram

In ancient times, Iyers, along with Iyengars and other Tamil Brahmins, lived in exclusive Brahmin quarters of their village known as an agrahāram(in Sanskrit Agram means tip or end and Haram means Shiva). Shiva and Vishnu temples were usually situated at the ends of an agrahāram. In most cases, there would also be a fast-flowing stream or river nearby.[129]

A typical agrahāram consisted of a temple and a street adjacent to it. The houses on either side of the street were exclusively peopled by Brahmins who followed a joint family system. All the houses were identical in design and architecture though not in size.[130] [131]

With the arrival of the British and commencement of the Industrial Revolution, Iyers started moving to cities for their sustenance. Starting from the late 1800s, the agrahārams were gradually discarded as more and more Iyers moved to towns and cities to take up lucrative jobs in the provincial and judicial administration.[132] [133] [130] [131] [134]

However, there are still some agrahārams left where traditional Iyers continue to reside. In an Iyer residence, people wash their feet first with water on entering the house. [135]

Language

See also: Manipravalam.

Tamil is the mother tongue of most Iyers residing in India and elsewhere. However, Iyers speak a distinct dialect of Tamil unique to their community.[136] This dialect of Tamil is known as Brāhmik or Brahmin Tamil, but is more popularly known by its colloquial term "Iyer baashai" or "language of Iyers". Brahmin Tamil is highly Sanskritized and has often invited ridicule from Tamil nationalists due to its extensive usage of the Sanskrit vocabulary.[137] However, with Brahmins moving out of their agrahārams to urban centres or migrating to foreign countries, Brahmin Tamil is being increasingly discarded and is facing the prospect of extinction. The Palakkad Iyers have a unique sub-dialect of their own. Palakkad Tamil is characterized by the presence of a large number of words of Malayali origin. The Iyers of Tirunelveli speak a form of Tamil closely allied to the Tirunelveli dialect. The Sankheti Iyers speak a sub-dialect of Brahmin Tamil called Sankheti.

In most cases, Iyers who had settled in different parts of the world are comfortable with the local lingua[85]

Iyengars speak a separate dialect of Tamil called Iyengar Tamil. Some regard the Iyengar speech not as a dialect at all, but only as a sub-dialect of Brahmin Tamil.

See also: Brahmin Tamil.

Iyers today

Akin to Bengali Brahmins, the Brahmins of South India were one of the first communities to be Westernized. However, this was restricted to their outlook on the material world. They have retained their Smartha traditions despite almost two centuries of western influence.[14]

In addition to their earlier occupations, Iyers today have diversified into a variety of fields — their strengths particularly evident in the fields of Mass Media, science, mathematics and computer science.[138] It is a small percentage of Iyers who voluntarily choose, in this era, to pursue the traditional vocation of priesthood, though all Hindu temple priests are Brahmins.[114]

Social and political issues

Since ancient times, Iyers, as members of the privileged priestly class, exercised a near-complete domination over educational,religious and literary institutions in the Tamil country.[139] Their domination continued throughout the British Raj as they used their knowledge of the English language and education to dominate the political, administrative, judicial and intellectual spectrum. Upon India's independence in 1947, they tried to consolidate their hold on the administrative and judicial machinery . Such a situation led to resentment from the other castes in Tamil Nadu, an upshot of this atmosphere was an "non-Brahmin" movement and the formation of the Justice Party. Periyar, who took over as Justice Party President in the 1940s, changed its name to Dravida Kazhagam, and formulated the view that Tamil Brahmins were Aryans as opposed to a majority of Tamils who were Dravidian based on Robert Caldwell's writings. [140] The ensuing anti-Brahmin propaganda and the rising unpopularity of the Rajaji Government left an indelible mark on the Tamil Brahmin community ending their political aspirations forever. In the 1960s the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (roughly translated as "Organisation for Progress of Dravidians") and its subgroups gained political ground on this platform forming state ministries, thereby wrenching control from the Indian National Congress, in which Iyers at that time were holding important party positions. Today, apart from a few exceptions, Iyers have virtually disappeared from the political arena.[141] [142] [143] [144] [145] [146] [147]

In 2006, the Tamil Nadu government took the decision to appoint non-Brahmin priests in Hindu temples in order to curb Brahmin ecclesiastical domination.[148] . This created a huge controversy. Violence broke out in March 2008 when a non-Brahmin oduvar or reciter of Tamil idylls, empowered by the Government of Tamil Nadu, tried to make his way into the sanctum sanctorum of the Nataraja temple at Chidambaram. [149]

Criticism

Relations with other communities

See also: Brahminism, Anti-Brahminism and Reservations in India.

The legacy of Iyers have often been marred by accusations of racism and counter-racism against them by non-Brahmins and vice versa.

Sir T. Muthuswamy Iyer, the first Indian judge of the Madras High Court, once made the controversially casteist remark:

According to a British survey in 1912, though Brahmins represented only 3.2 percent of the male population of Tamil Nadu, they held 83.3 percent of the subjudgeships(immediately under British personnel), 55 percent of the deputy collectorships and 72.6 percent of the district administrative posts. Sixty seven percent of those receiving baccauleaurate degrees from The Madras University were Brahmins. Of those receiving Law degrees Brahmins outnumbered all non-brahmin Hindus 3.5 to 1 and brahmins receiving teaching licentiates outnumbered non-brahmin Hindus by more than 6.5 to 1[150] . These realities created resentment, not only among the British administrators who saw Brahmins as a threat to their hegemony but also among non-brahmin Hindus of all stripes[150] . AntiBrahmin sentiment became organized in the formation of the Justice Party in late 1916. This party, composed of upper-class non-brahmins was committed to enhancing the opportunities for non-brahmins[150] .

Grievances and alleged instances of discrimination by Brahmins are believed to be the main factors which fuelled the Dravidian Movement. With the dawn of the 20th century, and the rapid penetration of western education and western ideas, there was a rise in consciousness amongst the lower castes who felt that rights which were legitimately theirs were being denied to them. This, in combination with the depressed economic and social conditions of non-Brahmins, led the non-Brahmins to agitate and form the Justice Party in 1916, which later became the Dravidar Kazhagam. The Justice Party banked on vehement anti-Hindu and anti-Brahmin propaganda to ease Brahmins out of their privileged positions. Gradually, the non-Brahmin replaced the Brahmin in every sphere and destroyed the monopoly over education and the administrative services which the Brahmin had previously held.[151]

However, with the destruction of Brahmin monopoly over the services and introduction of adequate representation for other communities, anti-Brahmin feelings did not subside. On the contrary, they were fully exploited by politicians, who often indulged in anti-Brahmin rhetoric primarily in order to get non-Brahmin votes.[152] With the passage of time, they reached such a pitch that even individuals who had previously been a part of the Dravidian Movement began to cry foul. Deprived of opportunities, Tamil Brahmins began to migrate en masse to other states in India and foreign countries in search of livelihood.[14] There were frequent allegations of casteism and racism against Brahmins very similar to the ones made by the lower castes against them in the decades before independence.

However, the very concept of "Brahmin atrocities" is refuted by some Tamil Brahmin historians who are keen to dismiss it as fictitious. They argue that allegations of casteism against Tamil Brahmins have been exaggerated and that even prior to the rise of the Dravida Kazhagam, a significant section of Tamil Brahmin society was liberal and anti-casteist. The Temple Entry Proclamation passed by the princely state of Travancore which gave people of all castes the right to enter Hindu temples in the princely state was due to the efforts of the Dewan of Travancore, Sir C. P. Ramaswamy Iyer who was an Iyer.[153]

Dalit leader and founder of political party Pudiya Tamizhagam, Dr.Krishnasamy admits that the Anti-Brahmin Movement had not succeeded up to the expectations and that there continues to be as much discrimination of Dalits as had been before.

Alleged negative attitude towards Tamil language and culture

Another accusation hurled upon Iyers was that they were Sanskritists who entertained a distorted and contemptuous attitude towards Tamil language, culture and civilization.[154] [155]

However, a detailed study of the history of Tamil literature proves this accusation wrong.[156] The renowned Dravidologist Kamil Zvelebil, in his book Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature, even goes to the extent of saying that the Brahmin was chosen as a scapegoat to answer for the decline of Tamil civilization and culture in the medieval and post-medieval periods. [157] [158] Agathiar, usually identified with the legendary Vedic sage Agastya is credited with compiling the first rules of grammar of the Tamil language.[159] . Tolkappiar who wrote Tolkappiam, the oldest extant literary work in Tamil is believed to be a Tamil Brahmin and a disciple of Agathiar.[160] Moreover, individuals like U. V. Swaminatha Iyer and Subramanya Bharathi have made invaluable contributions to the Dravidian Movement.[161] [162] Parithimar Kalaignar was the first to campaign for the recognition of Tamil as a classical language. [163]

Professor George L. Hart in a speech in 1997 on Tamil, Brahmins, & Sanskrit rubbishes the claims of anti Brahmins that Brahmins favored Sanskrit to Tamil.

Portrayal in popular media

There have been extensive portrayals of Iyers in popular media, both positive and negative. This is because despite the fact that Tamil Brahmins form just 3% of the Tamil population their distinct culture and unique practices and strange habits make them strong targets of criticism,both positive and negative.

Brahmins have been mentioned for the first time in the works of Sangam poets.[164] During the early Christian era, Brahmin saints have been frequently praised for their efforts in combating Buddhism. [165] In modern times, when Iyers and Iyengars control a significant percentage of the print and visual media, there has been an appreciable coverage of Brahmins and Brahmin culture in magazines and periodicals and a number of Brahmin characters in novels, tele serials and films.

The first known literary work in Tamil to heap criticism on Brahmins was the Tirumanthiram, a treatise on Yoga from the 13th century.[166] However, anti-Brahminism has been a more recent phenomenon and has been partly due to the efforts of Christian missionaries of the 19th century.[167] The writings and speeches of Iyothee Thass, Maraimalai Adigal, Periyar, Bharatidasan, C. N. Annadurai and the leaders of Justice Party in the early 20th century and of the Dravidar Kazhagam in more modern times constitute much of modern anti-Brahmin rhetoric.[168] [169] [170] [171] [172] [173] Starting from the 1940s onwards, Annadurai and the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam have been using films and the mass media for the propagation of their political ideology.[174] Most of the films made, including the 1952-blockbuster Parasakthi, are anti-Brahminical in character.

See also: Portrayal of Tamil Brahmins in popular media.

Prominent individuals

Some of the early members of the community to gain prominence were sages and religious scholars like Agatthiar, Tholkappiyar, Parimelazhagar and Naccinarkiniyar.[159] [160] Prior to the 1800s, almost all prominent members of this community hailed from religious or literary spheres.[175] Tyagaraja, Syama Sastri and Muthuswamy Dīkshitar, who constitute the "Trinity of Carnatic music" were probably the first verified historical personages from the community, as the accounts or biographies of those who lived earlier appear semi-legendary in character.[176] [177] [178] During the British Raj, Iyers and Iyengars dominated the services by their predominance in the legal and administrative professions.[179] Most of the Dewans of the princely state of Travancore during the 19th century were Tamil Brahmins (Iyers and Iyengars).[180] Some of the prominent individuals of the period as Seshayya Sastri, Sir T. Muthuswamy Iyer, Sir P. S. Sivaswami Iyer, Shungrasoobyer, Sir K. Seshadri Iyer, Sir S. Subramania Iyer and C. P. Ramaswamy Ayyar all had a legal background. At the same time, they were also intimately associated with the Indian National Congress and the Indian independence movement. The most prominent freedom fighter from the community was Subrahmanya Bharati. Following independence, Iyers have diversified into a number of fields dominating the domain of classical arts in particular.

See also: List of Iyers.

References

. History of the Tamils from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar. 1929.

. Castes and Tribes of Southern India Volume I - A and B. Edgar Thurston. K. Rangachari. 1909. Government Press. Madras.

. The Dravidian Elements in Indian Culture. 1924. E. Benn Limited. Gilbert Slater.

. Cochin, Its Past and its Present. Francis Day. 1861. Gantt Brothers. Madras.

. The Smile of Murugan on Tamil Literature of South India. Kamil Zvelebil. 1973. BRILL. 9004035915.

. Some Contributions of South India to Indian Culture. 1919. University of Calcutta. S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar.

Further reading

See also

External links

Notes and References

  1. Accurate statistics on the population of Iyers are unavailable. This is due to the fact that the practice of conducting caste-based population census have been stopped since independence. The statistics given here are mainly based on estimates from unofficial sources
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  3. [#Castes and Tribes of Southern India|Castes and Tribes of Southern India]
  4. [#Cochin, Its past and present|Cochin, Its past and present]
  5. Book: The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume XVI. 1908. Clarendon Press. London., Pg 267
  6. [#universalhistory 1781|An Universal History]
  7. [#universalhistory 1781|An Universal History]
  8. [#Castes and Tribes of Southern India|Castes and Tribes of Southern India]
  9. [#Folk Songs of Southern India|Folk Songs of Southern India]
  10. [#Castes and Tribes of Southern India|Castes and Tribes of Southern India]
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  29. [#G. S. Ghurye|G. S. Ghurye]
  30. P.V.Manickam Naicker, writes in 'The Tamil Alphabet and its Mystic Aspect', 1917,Pg 74-75: "Even should Dutt's description of the aryanisation be true, the real Aryan corpus in South-India came to nothing. A cranial study of the various classes will also confirm the same. The lecturer, being a non-Brahmin, wishes to leave nothing to be misunderstood. His best and tried friends are mostly Brahmins and he is a sincere admirer of them. There is no denying the fact that the ancestors of the present Brahmins were the most cultured among the South-Indians at the time the said Aryanisation took place and got crystallized into a class revered by the people. As the cultured sons of the common mother Tamil, is it not their legitimate duty to own their kinsmen and to cooperate and uplift their less lucky brethern, if they have real patriotism for the welfare of the country? On the contrary, the general disposition of many a Brahmin is to disown his kinship with the rest of the Tamil brethern, to disown his very mother Tamil and to comstruct an imaginary untainted Aryan pedigree as if the Aryan alone is heaven-born
  31. [#Slater|Slater]
  32. [#Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature|Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature]
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    . Castes and Tribes of Southern India Volume VII. Edgar Thurston. K. Rangachari. 1909. 303. Government Press. Madras.

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  81. [#Pathmanathan|Pathmanathan]
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  83. [#Ritualizing on the Boundaries|Ritualizing on the Boundaries]
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  121. [#Home Life in India|Home Life in India]
  122. [#Home Life in India|Home Life in India]
  123. [#Brahmin Women|Brahmin Women]
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  148. News: Tamil Nadu breaks caste barrier. May 16, 2006. BBC News. 2008-09-06.
  149. News: Tension at Chidambaram temple. March 2, 2008. Web India 123. 2008-09-06.
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  152. News: Drive out anti-Tamil evil forces: DMK. February 16, 2008. Chennai Online News. 2008-08-19.
  153. Book: Jayaprasad, K.. RSS and Hindu Nationalism. 1991. 138. Deep & Deep Publications.
  154. [#Zvelebil|Zvelebil]
  155. P.V.Manickam Naicker, in his The Tamil Alphabet and its Mystic Aspect writes: "At least one of them is explicit in his endeavour to establish page after page and chapter after chapter, untainted Aryan pedigree for the Brahmins and Brahmins alone among the South-Indians. As such, he has naturally no scruples to say that the Tamils have nothing excellent or high which can be claimed as their own. Whatever is bad in them is their heritage and whatever good in them they owe to Sanskrit
  156. [#Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature|Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature]
  157. [#Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature|Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature]
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  162. Book: van der Veer, Peter. Conversion to Modernities: The Globalization of Christianity. 1996. 131. Routledge. 0415912741.
  163. News: Saravanan. T.. Tamil scholar's house to be made a memorial. September 12,2006. The Hindu: Tamil Nadu. 2008-08-10.
  164. [#Krishnaswami Aiyangar|Krishnaswami Aiyangar]
  165. [#Krishnaswami Aiyangar|Krishnaswami Aiyangar]
  166. [#Zvelebil|Zvelebil]
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  168. [#Revolt|Revolt]
  169. [#Revolt|Revolt]
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  171. [#Revolt|Revolt]
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  173. Book: K. Klostermaier. A survey of Hinduism. 1994. 300. SUNY Press. 0791421090, ISBN 9780791421093.
  174. Book: Özbudun, Ergun. Competitive Elections in Developing Countries. Myron Weiner. 1987. 62. Duke University Press. 0822307669.
  175. Book: Sastri, K. A. Nilakanta. A History of South India from Prehistoric Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar: from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. 1966. 289. Oxford University Press.
  176. [#The Tamil Plutarch|The Tamil Plutarch]
  177. [#The Tamil Plutarch|The Tamil Plutarch]
  178. Book: Ghose, Rajeshwari. The Tyāgarāja cult in Tamilnāḍu: A Study in Conflict and Accommodation. 1996. 10. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 812081391X, ISBN 9788120813915.
  179. [#Slater|Slater]
  180. Book: Sivaraman, Mythily. Fragments of a Life: A Family Archive. 2006. 4. Zubaan. 8189013114, ISBN 9788189013110.