International development explained

This article is about international development. See the closely related concept of development cooperation. For other forms of development, see development (disambiguation).International development is a concept that lacks a universally accepted definition, but it is most used in a holistic and multi-disciplinary context of human development - the development of livelihoods and greater quality of life for humans. It therefore encompasses foreign aid, governance, healthcare, education, gender equality, disaster preparedness, infrastructure, economics, human rights, environment and issues associated with these.

International development is by definition a process undertaken by countries and communities with assistance from other nations' governments and communities, from international Non-Governmental Organisations (such as charities) or from intergovernmental organisations (such as the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank). As such it is distinct from development which would take place anyway, without international involvement.

International development is also distinct from, though conceptually related to, disaster relief and humanitarian aid. While these two forms of international support seek to alleviate some of the problems associated with a lack of development, they are most often short term fixes - they are not necessarily long-term solutions. International development, on the other hand, seeks to implement long-term solutions to problems by helping developing countries create the necessary capacity needed to provide such sustainable solutions to their problems. A truly sustainable development project is one which will be able to carry on indefinitely with no further international involvement or support, whether it be financial or otherwise.

International development projects may consist of a single, transformative project to address a specific problem or a series of projects targeted at several aspects of society.

History

Although international relations and international trade have existed for many hundreds of years it is only in the past century that international development theory emerged as a separate body of ideas.[1] More specifically, it has been suggested that 'the theory and practice of development is inherently technocratic, and remains rooted in the high modernist period of political thought that existed in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War'.[2]

Post World War II

The second half of the 20th century has been called the 'era of development'.[3] The origins of this era have been attributed to:

It has been argued that this era was launched on January 20th, 1949, when Harry S. Truman made these remarks in his inaugural address:[5]

Before this date, however, the United States had already taken a leading role in the creation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (now part of the World Bank Group) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), both established in 1944, and in the United Nations in 1945.

The launch of the Marshall Plan was another important step in the setting the agenda for international development, combining humanitarian goals with the creation of a political and economic bloc in Europe that was allied to the U.S. This agenda was given conceptual support during the 1950s in the form of modernization theory espoused by Walt Rostow and other American economists. The changes in the 'developed' world's approach to international development were further necessitated by the gradual collapse of Western Europe's empires over the next decades; now independent ex-colonies no longer received support in return for their subjugation.

By the late 1960s, the critics of modernization were advancing a dependency theory to explain the evolving relationship between the West and the Third World. In the 1970s and early 80's, the modernists at the World Bank and IMF adopted the neoliberal ideas of economists such as Milton Friedman or Bela Balassa, which were implemented in the form of structural adjustment programs, while their opponents were promoting various 'bottom up' approaches, ranging from civil disobedience and conscientization to appropriate technology and Rapid Rural Appraisal.

In response various parts of the UN system led a counter movement, which in the long run has proved to be successful. They were led initially by the International Labour Organization (ILO), influenced by Paul Streeten, then by UNICEF.[6] Then UNDP, even though headed by a conservative US republican, put forward the concept of Human Development, thanks to Mahboub ul Haq and Amartya Sen, thus changing the nature of the development dialogue to focus on human needs and capabilities.

By the 1990s, there were some writers for whom development theory had reached an impasse[7] and some academics were imagining a postdevelopment era.[8] [9] The Cold War had ended, capitalism had become the dominant mode of social organization, and UN statistics showed that living standards around the world had improved over the past 40 years.[10] Nevertheless, a large portion of the world's population were still living in poverty, their governments were crippled by debt and concerns about the environmental impact of globalization were rising.

In response to the impasse, the rhetoric of development is now focusing on the issue of poverty, with the metanarrative of modernization being replaced by shorter term vision embodied by the Millennium Development Goals and the Human Development approach. At the same time, some development agencies are exploring opportunities for public-private partnerships and promoting the idea of Corporate social responsibility with the apparent aim of integrating international development with the process of economic globalization.[11]

The critics have suggested that this integration has always been part of the underlying agenda of development.[12] They argue that poverty can be equated with powerlessness, and that the way to overcome poverty is through emancipatory social movements and civil society, not paternalistic aid programmes or corporate charity.[13] This approach is embraced by organizations such as the Gamelan Council seeking to empower entrepreneurs (e.g., through microfinance initiatives).

While some critics have been debating the end of development others have predicted a development revival as part of the War on Terrorism. To date, however, there is limited evidence to support the notion that aid budgets are being used to counter islamic fundamentalism in the same way that they were used 40 years ago to counter communism.[14]

Theories

See main article: Development theory.

There are a number of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved. Such theories draw on a variety of social scientific disciplines and approaches, and include historical theories such as:

Millennium Development Goals

See main article: Millennium Development Goals.

In the year 2000, United Nations signed the United Nations Millennium Declaration, which includes eight Millennium Development Goals to be achieved by 2015 or 2020. This represented the first time that a holistic strategy to meet the development needs of the world has been established, with measurable targets and defined indicators[15]

Because the MDGs are a multilateral United Nations programme, they are more removed from (but by no means independent of) individual national interests than unilateral development programmes, which are consistently subject to claims that they are used to further national economic interests or ideology, often with considerable justification.

The first seven Millennium Development Goals present measurable goals, while the eighth lists a number of 'stepping stone' goals - ways in which progress towards the first seven goals could be made.

The MDGs have catalysed a significant amount of action, including new initiatives such as Millennium Promise. Most of these initiatives however work in small scale interventions which do not reach the millions of people required by the MDGs.

Recent praise has been that it will be impossible to meet the first seven goals without meeting the eighth by forming a Global Partnership for Development. No current organisation has the capacity to dissolve the enormous problems of the developing world alone - especially in cities, where an increasing number of poor people live - as demonstrated by the almost nonexistent progress on the goal of improving the lives of at least 100 Million slum dwellers.

The Institution of Civil Engineers Engineering With Frontiers panel and its recommendations, and the 2007 Brunel Lecture by the ICE's future president Paul Jowitt, are representative of a change of approach in the UK at least to start drawing together the huge capacity available to western governments, industry, academia and charity to develop such a partnership.[16] [17]

Concepts

During recent decades, development thinking has shifted from modernization and structural adjustment programs to poverty reduction. Under the former system, poor countries were encouraged to undergo social and economical structural transformations as part of their development, creating industrialization and intentional industrial policy. Poverty reduction rejects this notion, consisting instead of direct budget support for social welfare programs that create macroeconomic stability leading to an increase in economic growth.

Poverty

See main article: Poverty.

The concept of poverty can apply to different circumstances depending on context. Poverty is the condition of lacking economic access to fundamental human needs such as food, shelter and safe drinking water. While some define poverty primarily in economic terms, others consider social and political arrangements also to be intrinsic - often manifested in a lack of dignity.

Dignity

See main article: Dignity.

Modern poverty reduction and development programmes often have dignity as a central theme. Dignity is also a central theme of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the very first article of which starts with:

"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights."

The concept of dignity in development has been extensively explored by many, and related to all of the development sectors. For example, in Development with Dignity Amit Bhaduri argues that full employment with dignity for all is both important and possible in India,[18] while the UN Millennium Project's task force on Water and Sanitation links the sector directly to dignity in the report Health, Dignity and Development: What will it take?.[19] The Asian Human Rights Commission released a statement in 2006 claiming that:

Participation

See main article: Participation (decision making).

See also: Orality.

The concept of participation is concerned with ensuring that the intended beneficiaries of development projects and programmes are themselves involved in the planning and execution of those projects and programmes. This is considered important as it empowers the recipients of development projects to influence and manage their own development - thereby removing any culture of dependency. It is widely considered to be one of the most important concepts in modern development theory..[20] [21] The UN System Network on Rural Development and Food Security describes participation as:

Local participants in development projects are often products of oral communities. This has led to efforts to design project planning and organizational development methods, such as participatory rural appraisal, which are accessible to non-literate people.

Appropriateness

See also: Appropriate technology.

The concept of something being appropriate is concerned with ensuring that a development project or programme is of the correct scale and technical level, and is culturally and socially suitable for its beneficiaries. This should not be confused with ensuring something is low-technology, cheap or basic - a project is appropriate if it is acceptable to its recipients and owners, economically affordable and sustainable in the context in which it is executed.

For example, in a rural sub-Saharan community it may not be appropriate to provide a chlorinated and pumped water system because it cannot be maintained or controlled adequately - simple hand pumps may be better; while in a big city in the same country it would be inappropriate to provide water with hand pumps, and the chlorinated system would be the correct response.

The economist E. F. Schumacher championed the cause of appropriate technology and founded the organization ITDG (Intermediate Technology Design Group), which develops and provides appropriate technologies for development (ITDG has now been renamed Practical Action).

The concept of right-financing has been developed to reflect the need for public and private financial support systems that foster and enable development, rather than hinder it.

Sustainability

See main article: Sustainable development and Sustainability.

A sustainable approach to development is one which takes account of economic, social and environmental factors to produce projects and programmes which will have results which are not dependent on finite resources. Something which is sustainable will not use more natural resources than the local environment can supply; more financial resources than the local community and markets can sustain; and will have the necessary support from the community, government and other stakeholders to carry on indefinitely.

It is one of the key concepts in international development, and is critical in removing dependency on overseas aid.

Capacity building

See main article: Capacity building.

Capacity building is concerned with increasing the ability of the recipients of development projects to continue their future development alone, without external support. It is a parallel concept to sustainability, as it furthers the ability of society to function independently in its own microcosm.

Practice

Measurement

The judging of how developed a country or a community is highly subjective, often highly controversial, and very important in judging what further development is necessary or desirable.

There are many different measures of human development, many of them related to the different sectors above. Some of them are:

Migration and remittance

See also: Codevelopment.

Migration has throughout history also led to significant international development. As people move, their culture, knowledge, skills and technologies move with them. Migrants' ties with their past homes and communities lead to international relationships and further flows of goods, capital and knowledge. The value of remittances sent home by migrants in modern times is much greater than the total in international aid given.[22]

Sectors

International development and disaster relief are both often grouped into sectors, which correlate with the major themes of international development (and with the Millennium Development Goals - which are included in the descriptions below). There is no clearly defined list of sectors, but some of the more established and universally accepted sectors are further explored here. The sectors are highly interlinked, illustrating the complexity of the problems they seek to deal with.

Water and sanitation

See also: Water supply and Sanitation.

In development, this is the provision of water and sanitary provision (toilets, bathing facilities, a healthy environment) of sufficient quantity and quality to supply an acceptable standard of living. This is different to a relief response, where it is the provision of water and sanitation in sufficient quantity and quality to maintain life.[23]

The provision of water and sanitation is primarily an engineering challenge, but also often includes an education element and is closely connected with shelter, politics and human rights.

The seventh Millennium Development Goal is to ensure environmental sustainability, including reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and achieving significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, by 2020

Examples of organisations specialising in Water & Sanitation are:

Health

See also: Public health and Reproductive health.

This is provision of access to quality healthcare to the population in an efficient and consistent manner and according to their needs. The standard and level of provision that is acceptable or appropriate depends on many factors and is highly specific to country and location. For example, in large city (whether in a 'developing' country or not), it is appropriate and often practical to provide a high standard hospital which can offer a full range of treatments; in a remote rural community it may be more appropriate and practical to provide a visiting healthworker on a periodic basis, possibly with a rural clinic serving several different communities.

The provision of access to healthcare is both an engineering challenge as it requires infrastructure such as hospitals and transport systems and an education challenge as it requires qualified healthworkers and educated consumers.

The fourth Millennium Development Goal is to reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five.

The fifth Millennium Development Goal is to reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio.

The sixth Millennium Development Goal is to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS and to halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.

Reaching these goals is also a management challenge. Health services need to make the best use of limited resources while providing the same quality of care to every man, woman and child everywhere. Achieving this level of services requires innovation, quality improvement and expansion of public health services and programs. The main goal is to make public health truly public.

Education

See main article: Education.

The provision of education often focuses on providing free primary level education, but also covers secondary and higher education. A lack of access to education is one of the primary limits on human development, and is related closely to every one of the other sectors. Almost every development project includes an aspect of education as development by its very nature requires a change in the way people live.

The second Millennium Development Goal is to Provide universal primary education.

The provision of education is itself an education challenge, as it requires qualified teachers who must be trained in higher education institutions. However, donors are unwilling to provide support to higher education because their policies now target the MDG. The result is that students are not educated by qualified professionals and worse, when they graduate from primary school they are inducted into a secondary school system that is not able to accommodate them.

Shelter

The provision of appropriate shelter is concerned with providing suitable housing for families and communities. It is highly specific to context of culture, location, climate and other factors. In development, it is concerned with providing housing of an appropriate quality and type to accommodate people in the long-term. This is distinct from shelter in relief, which is concerned with providing sufficient shelter to maintain life.[24]

Examples of organisations specialising in shelter are:

Human rights

See main article: Human rights.

The provision of human rights is concerned with ensuring that all people everywhere receive the rights conferred on them by International human rights instrumentshttp://www.unhchr.ch/html/intlinst.htm. There are many of these, but the most important for international development are:

Human rights covers a huge range of topics. Some of those more relevant to international development projects include rights associated with gender equality, justice, employment, social welfare and culture.

The third Millennium Development Goal is to promote gender equality and empower women by eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015

Livelihoods

This is concerned with ensuring that all people are able to make a living for themselves and provide themselves with an adequate standard of living, without compromising their human rights and while maintaining dignity.

The first Millennium Development Goal is to reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day and reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.

See also: Sustainable agriculture.

Finance

See also: Microfinance and Right-financing.

Several organisations and initiatives exist which are concerned with providing financial systems and frameworks which allow people to organise or purchase services, items or projects for their own development.

The 2006 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded jointly to Muhammad Yunus and the Grameen Bank, which he founded, for their work in providing microcredit to the poor.

Concerns

See main article: Development criticism.

The terms "developed" and "developing" (or "underdeveloped"), have proven problematic in forming policy as they ignore issues of wealth distribution and the lingering effects of colonialism. Some theorists see development efforts as fundamentally neo-colonial, in which a wealthier nation forces its industrial and economic structure on a poorer nation, which will then become a consumer of the developed nation's goods and services. Post-developmentalists, for example, see development as a form of Western cultural imperialism that hurts the people of poor countries and endangers the environment to such an extent that they suggest rejection of development altogether.

See also

References

External links

Notes and References

  1. Worsley, P. Culture and Development Theory, in Skelton, T. and Allen, T. (1999)
  2. Barlett (2007)
  3. Thomas, A. Poverty and the end of development in Allen, Thomas (2000)
  4. Browne (1990)
  5. Esteva, G. Development, in Sachs (1992)
  6. Andrew Cornia, Adjustment with a Human Face
  7. Schuurman (1993)
  8. Escobar (1995)
  9. Fukuyama (1992)
  10. Wroe, Doney (2005)
  11. Utting (2003)
  12. Korten (1995)
  13. Parfitt (2002)
  14. Moss, Roodman and Standley (2005)
  15. Web site: Millennium Development Goals Indicators. United Nations Statistics Division. 2008-01-13.
  16. Web site: Engineering Civilisation from the Shadows. Jowitt, Paul. 2006.
  17. Web site: Engineering Without Frontiers. Jowitt, Paul. July. 2004. PDF.
  18. Bhaduri (2005)
  19. Stockholm International Water Institute (2005)
  20. Web site: Participation Team - Overview. Institute for Development Studies.
  21. Web site: Participation & Civic Engagement. World Bank.
  22. Web site: Migrant remittances 'top $100Bn'. 8 April, 2005. BBC News. Migrant workers are sending $100bn home every year in what has become the biggest source of foreign funds for developing countries, the IMF says.
  23. Sphere Project. (2004)
  24. shelter