IBM explained

International Business Machines Corporation
Type:Public
Traded As:
NASDAQ:IBM
Dow Jones Component
S&P 500 Component
Industry:Computer hardware, Computer software, IT services, IT consulting
Founder:Thomas J. Watson
Foundation:Endicott, New York, U.S.
Location City:Armonk, New York
Location Country:U.S.
Area Served:Worldwide
Key People:Ginni Rometty
(President & CEO)
Samuel Palmisano (Chairman)
Revenue: US$ 106.91 billion (2011)[1]
Operating Income: US$ 20.28 billion (2011)
Net Income: US$ 15.85 billion (2011)
Assets: US$ 116.43 billion (2011)
Equity: US$ 20.13 billion (2011)
Num Employees:426,751 (2010)
Divisions:Financing, Hardware, Services, Software

International Business Machines Corporation or IBM is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and it offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology.[2] As of December 2011, IBM was the third-largest publicly traded technology company in the world by market capitalization.[3] [4]

The company was founded in 1911 as the Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation through a merger of three companies: the Tabulating Machine Company, the International Time Recording Company, and the Computing Scale Corporation.[5] [6] CTR adopted the name International Business Machines in 1924, using a name previously designated to CTR's subsidiary in Canada and later South America. Its distinctive culture and product branding has given it the nickname Big Blue.

In 2011, Fortune ranked IBM the 18th largest firm in the U.S.,[7] as well as the 7th most profitable.[8] Globally, the company was ranked the 31st largest firm by Forbes for 2011. Other rankings for 2011 include #1 company for leaders (Fortune), #2 best global brand (Interbrand), #1 green company worldwide (Newsweek), #12 most admired company (Fortune), and #18 most innovative company (Fast Company).[9] At December 31, 2010, IBM had over 426,751 employees serving clients in over 170 countries,[10] with occupations including scientists, engineers, consultants, and sales professionals.[11]

IBM holds more patents than any other U.S.-based technology company, and has nine research laboratories worldwide.[12] Its employees have garnered five Nobel Prizes, four Turing Awards, nine National Medals of Technology, and five National Medals of Science.[13] Famous inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine (ATM), the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the Universal Product Code (UPC), the financial swap, SABRE airline reservation system, DRAM, and Watson artificial intelligence.

The company has undergone several organizational changes since its inception, acquiring companies like SPSS (2009) and PwC consulting (2002), spinning off companies like Lexmark (1991), and selling off product lines like ThinkPad to Lenovo (2005).

Sam Palmisano stepped down as chief executive officer on January 1, 2012, but retained his position as chairman. He was replaced by veteran IBMer Ginni Rometty.[14] [15]

History

See main article: History of IBM and Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation.

1880–1929

Starting in the 1880s, various technologies came into existence that would form part of IBM's predecessor company. Julius E. Pitrap patented the computing scale in 1885;[16] Alexander Dey invented the dial recorder (1888);[17] in 1889, Herman Hollerith patented the Electric Tabulating Machine[18] and Willard Bundy invented a time clock to record a worker's arrival and departure time on a paper tape.[19] On June 16, 1911, these technologies and their respective companies were merged by Charles Ranlett Flint to form the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (C-T-R).[20] The New York City-based company had 1,300 employees and offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, New York; Dayton, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; Washington, D.C.; and Toronto, Ontario. It manufactured and sold machinery ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders to meat and cheese slicers, along with tabulators and punched cards.

Flint recruited Thomas J. Watson, Sr., from the National Cash Register Company to help lead the company in 1914.[20] Watson implemented "generous sales incentives, a focus on customer service, an insistence on well-groomed, dark-suited salesmen and an evangelical fervor for instilling company pride and loyalty in every worker".[21] His favorite slogan, "THINK", became a mantra for C-T-R's employees, and within 11 months of joining C-T-R, Watson became its president.[21] The company focused on providing large-scale, custom-built tabulating solutions for businesses, leaving the market for small office products to others. During Watson's first four years, revenues more than doubled to $9 million and the company's operations expanded to Europe, South America, Asia, and Australia.[21] On February 14, 1924, C-T-R was renamed the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM),[9] citing the need to align its name with the "growth and extension of [its] activities".[22]

1930–1979

In 1937, IBM's tabulating equipment enabled organizations to process unprecedented amounts of data, its clients including the U.S. Government, during its first effort to maintain the employment records for 26 million people pursuant to the Social Security Act,[23] and the Third Reich,[24] largely through the German subsidiary Dehomag. Also in 1937, the company president, Thomas J. Watson Sr., met with Adolf Hitler, and discussed issues on the supply of equipment, and in 1941 were made ​​leasing supplies to concentration camps to accommodate the prisoners. During the Second World War the company produced small arms for the American war effort(M1 Carbine, and Browning Automatic Rifle).

In 1952, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., became president of the company, ending almost 40 years of leadership by his father. In 1956, Arthur L. Samuel of IBM's Poughkeepsie, New York, laboratory programmed an IBM 704 to play checkers using a method in which the machine can "learn" from its own experience. It is believed to be the first "self-learning" program, a demonstration of the concept of artificial intelligence. In 1957, IBM developed the FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation) scientific programming language. In 1961, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., was elected chairman of the board and Albert L. Williams became president of the company. IBM develops the SABRE (Semi-Automatic Business-Related Environment) reservation system for American Airlines. The IBM Selectric typewriter was a highly successful model line of electric typewriters introduced by IBM on July 31, 1961.

In 1963, IBM employees and computers helped NASA track the orbital flight of the Mercury astronauts, and a year later, the company moved its corporate headquarters from New York City to Armonk, New York. The latter half of that decade saw IBM continue its support of space exploration, with IBM participating in the 1965 Gemini flights, the 1966 Saturn flights, and the 1969 mission to land a man on the moon.

On April 7, 1964 IBM announced the first computer system family, the IBM System/360. Sold between 1964 and 1978, it was the first family of computers designed to cover the complete range of applications, from small to large, both commercial and scientific. For the first time, companies could upgrade their computing capabilities with a new model without rewriting their applications.

In 1973, IBM engineer George J. Laurer developed the Universal Product Code.[25]

In the late 1970s, IBM underwent some internal convulsions between those in management wanting to concentrate on their bread-and-butter mainframe business, and those wanting the company to invest heavily in the emerging personal computer industry.

1980–present

Financial swaps were first introduced to the public in 1981 when IBM and the World Bank entered into a swap agreement.[26] The IBM PC, originally designated IBM 5150, was introduced in 1981, and it soon became the industry standard. In 1991, IBM sold Lexmark, and in 2002, it acquired PwC consulting. In 2003, IBM initiated a project to rewrite its company values. Using its Jam technology, the company hosted Internet-based online discussions on key business issues with 50,000 employees over 3 days. The discussions were analyzed by sophisticated text analysis software (eClassifier) to mine online comments for themes. As a result of the 2003 Jam, the company values were updated to reflect three modern business, marketplace and employee views: "Dedication to every client's success", "Innovation that matters—for our company and for the world", "Trust and personal responsibility in all relationships".[27] In 2004, another Jam was conducted during which 52,000 employees exchanged best practices for 72 hours. They focused on finding actionable ideas to support implementation of the values previously identified.[28]

In 2005 the company sold its personal computer business to Lenovo, and in 2009, it acquired software company SPSS Inc. Later in 2009, IBM's Blue Gene supercomputing program was awarded the National Medal of Technology and Innovation by U.S. President Barack Obama.

In 2006, IBM launched Secure Blue, a low-cost hardware design for data encryption that can be built into a microprocessor.[29]

In 2011, IBM gained worldwide attention for its artificial intelligence program Watson, which was exhibited on Jeopardy! where it won against game show champions Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter., IBM had been the top annual recipient of U.S. patents for 19 consecutive years.

IBM's closing value of $214 billion on September 29, 2011 surpassed Microsoft which was valued at $213.2 billion. It was the first time since 1996 that IBM exceeded its software rival based on closing price. However, as of September 30, 2011, IBM's value remained less than two-thirds of Apple's value of $362.1 billion.[30]

Corporate affairs

IBM's headquarter complex is located in Armonk, Town of North Castle, New York, United States.[31] [32] [33] The 283000square feet IBM building has three levels of custom curtainwall. The building is located on a 25 acre site.[34] IBM has been headquartered in Armonk since 1964.[35]

The company has ten research labs worldwide—Almaden, Austin, Australia, Brazil, China, Israel, India, Tokyo, Watson (New York), and Zurich—with Watson (dedicated in 1961) serving as headquarters for the research division and the site of its annual meeting. Other campus installations include towers in Montreal, Paris, and Atlanta; software labs in Raleigh-Durham, Rome and Toronto; buildings in Chicago, Johannesburg, and Seattle; and facilities in Hakozaki and Yamato. The company also operates the IBM Scientific Center, Hursley House, the Canada Head Office Building, IBM Rochester, and the Somers Office Complex. The company's contributions to architecture and design, including Chicago's 330 North Wabash building designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, were recognized with the 1990 Honor Award from the National Building Museum.[36]

IBM's Board of Directors, with 14 members, is responsible for the overall management of the company. With Cathie Black's resignation from the board in November 2010, the remaining 13 members (along with their affiliation and year of joining the board) are as follows: Alain J. P. Belda '08 (Alcoa), William R. Brody '07 (Salk Institute / Johns Hopkins University), Kenneth Chenault '98 (American Express), Michael L. Eskew '05 (UPS), Shirley Ann Jackson '05 (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), Andrew N. Liveris '10 (Dow Chemical), W. James McNerney, Jr. '09 (Boeing), James W. Owens '06 (Caterpillar), Samuel J. Palmisano '00 (IBM), Joan Spero '04 (Doris Duke Charitable Foundation), Sidney Taurel '01 (Eli Lilly), and Lorenzo Zambrano '03 (Cemex).[37]

Halign:center

Corporate recognition and brand

In 2011, Fortune ranked IBM the 18th largest firm in the U.S.,[7] as well as the 7th most profitable.[8] Globally, the company was ranked the 31st largest firm by Forbes for 2011.[38] Other rankings for 2011 include the following:[9]

For 2010, IBM's brand was valued at $64.7 billion.[40] The company was also listed in India's 2011 The Brand Trust Report as the #32 most trusted brands in the country.

For 2012, Vault ranked IBM Global Technology Services #1 in tech consulting for cyber security, operations and implementation, and public sector; and #2 in outsourcing.[41]

Working at IBM

In 2010, IBM employed 105,000 workers in the U.S., a drop of 30,000 since 2003, and 75,000 people in India, up from 9,000 seven years previous.[42]

IBM's employee management practices can be traced back to its roots. In 1914, CEO Thomas J. Watson boosted company spirit by creating employee sports teams, hosting family outings, and furnishing a company band. In 1924, the Quarter Century Club, which recognizes employees with 25 years of service, was organized and the first issue of Business Machines, IBM's internal publication, was published. In 1925, the first meeting of the Hundred Percent Club, composed of IBM salesmen who meet their quotas, convened in Atlantic City, New Jersey.

IBM was among the first corporations to provide group life insurance (1934), survivor benefits (1935) and paid vacations (1937). In 1932 IBM created an Education Department to oversee training for employees, which oversaw the completion of the IBM Schoolhouse at Endicott in 1933. In 1935, the employee magazine Think was created. Also that year, IBM held its first training class for women systems service professionals. In 1942, IBM launched a program to train and employ disabled people in Topeka, Kansas. The next year classes begin in New York City, and soon the company was asked to join the President's Committee for Employment of the Handicapped. In 1946, the company hired its first black salesman, 18 years before the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 1947, IBM announced a Total and Permanent Disability Income Plan for employees. A vested rights pension was added to the IBM retirement plan.

In 1952, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., published the company's first written equal opportunity policy letter, one year before the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board of Education and 11 years before the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 1961, IBM's nondiscrimination policy was expanded to include sex, national origin, and age. The following year, IBM hosted its first Invention Award Dinner honoring 34 outstanding IBM inventors; and in 1963, the company named the first eight IBM Fellows in a new Fellowship Program that recognizes senior IBM scientists, engineers and other professionals for outstanding technical achievements.On September 21, 1953, Thomas Watson, Jr., the company's president at the time, sent out a controversial letter to all IBM employees stating that IBM needed to hire the best people, regardless of their race, ethnic origin, or gender. He also publicized the policy so that in his negotiations to build new manufacturing plants with the governors of two states in the U.S. South, he could be clear that IBM would not build "separate-but-equal" workplaces.[43] In 1984, IBM added sexual orientation to its nondiscrimination policy. The company stated that this would give IBM a competitive advantage because IBM would then be able to hire talented people its competitors would turn down.[44]

IBM was the only technology company ranked in Working Mother magazine's Top 10 for 2004, and one of two technology companies in 2005.[45] [46] On October 10, 2005, IBM became the first major company in the world to commit formally to not using genetic information in employment decisions. The announcement was made shortly after IBM began working with the National Geographic Society on its Genographic Project.

IBM provides same-sex partners of its employees with health benefits and provides an anti-discrimination clause. The Human Rights Campaign has consistently rated IBM 100% on its index of gay-friendliness since 2003 (in 2002, the year it began compiling its report on major companies, IBM scored 86%).[47] In 2007 and again in 2010, IBM UK was ranked first in Stonewall's annual Workplace Equality Index for UK employers.[48]

The company has traditionally resisted labor union organizing,[49] although unions represent some IBM workers outside the United States. In 2009, the Unite union stated that several hundred employees joined following the announcement in the UK of pension cuts that left many employees facing a shortfall in projected pensions.[50]

A dark (or gray) suit, white shirt, and a "sincere" tie[51] was the public uniform for IBM employees for most of the 20th century. During IBM's management transformation in the 1990s, CEO Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. relaxed these codes, normalizing the dress and behavior of IBM employees to resemble their counterparts in other large technology companies. Since then IBM's dress code is business casual although employees often wear formal clothes during client meetings.

On 16 June 2011, the company announced a grants programs, called IBM100, to fund its employees participation in volunteer projects - the year long initiative is part of the company's centenary celebrations.[52]

Research and inventions

In 1945, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory was founded at Columbia University in New York, New York. The renovated fraternity house on Manhattan's West Side was used as IBM's first laboratory devoted to pure science. The lab was the forerunner of IBM's Research Division, which today operates research facilities around the world.

In 1966, IBM researcher Robert H. Dennard invented Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) cells, one-transistor memory cells that store each single bit of information as an electrical charge in an electronic circuit. The technology permits major increases in memory density and is widely adopted throughout the industry where it remains in widespread use today.

IBM has been a leading proponent of the Open Source Initiative, and began supporting Linux in 1998.[53] The company invests billions of dollars in services and software based on Linux through the IBM Linux Technology Center, which includes over 300 Linux kernel developers.[54] IBM has also released code under different open source licenses, such as the platform-independent software framework Eclipse (worth approximately US$40 million at the time of the donation),[55] the three-sentence International Components for Unicode (ICU) license, and the Java-based relational database management system (RDBMS) Apache Derby. IBM's open source involvement has not been trouble-free, however (see SCO v. IBM).Famous inventions by IBM include the following:

Selected current projects

DeveloperWorks is a website run by IBM for software developers and IT professionals. It contains how-to articles and tutorials, as well as software downloads and code samples, discussion forums, podcasts, blogs, wikis, and other resources for developers and technical professionals. Subjects range from open, industry-standard technologies like Java, Linux, SOA and web services, web development, Ajax, PHP, and XML to IBM's products (WebSphere, Rational, Lotus, Tivoli and Information Management). In 2007, developerWorks was inducted into the Jolt Hall of Fame.[56]

alphaWorks is IBM's source for emerging software technologies. These technologies include:

Virtually all console gaming systems of the latest generation use microprocessors developed by IBM. The Xbox 360 contains a PowerPC tri-core processor, which was designed and produced by IBM in less than 24 months.[57] Sony's PlayStation 3 features the Cell BE microprocessor designed jointly by IBM, Toshiba, and Sony. IBM will provide the microprocessors that serve as the heart of Nintendo's new Wii U system, which will debut in 2012.[58] The new Power Architecture-based microprocessor includes IBM's latest technology in an energy-saving silicon package.[59] Nintendo's seventh-generation console, Wii, features an IBM chip codenamed Broadway. The older Nintendo GameCube utilizes the Gekko processor, also designed by IBM.

In May 2002, IBM and Butterfly.net, Inc. announced the Butterfly Grid, a commercial grid for the online video gaming market.[60] In March 2006, IBM announced separate agreements with Hoplon Infotainment, Online Game Services Incorporated (OGSI), and RenderRocket to provide on-demand content management and blade server computing resources.[61]

IBM announced it will launch its new software, called "Open Client Offering" which is to run on Linux, Microsoft Windows and Apple's Mac OS X. The company states that its new product allows businesses to offer employees a choice of using the same software on Windows and its alternatives. This means that "Open Client Offering" is to cut costs of managing whether to use Linux or Apple relative to Windows. There will be no necessity for companies to pay Microsoft for its licenses for operating systems since the operating systems will no longer rely on software which is Windows-based. One alternative to Microsoft's office document formats is the Open Document Format software, whose development IBM supports. It is going to be used for several tasks like: word processing, presentations, along with collaboration with Lotus Notes, instant messaging and blog tools as well as an Internet Explorer competitor – the Mozilla Firefox web browser. IBM plans to install Open Client on 5% of its desktop PCs. The Linux offering has been made available as the IBM Client for Smart Work product on the Ubuntu and Red Hat Enterprise Linux platforms.[62]

The UC2 (Unified Communications and Collaboration) Client Platform is an IBM and Cisco Systems joint project based on Eclipse and OSGi. It will offer the numerous Eclipse application developers a unified platform for an easier work environment. The software based on UC2 platform will provide major enterprises with easy-to-use communication solutions, such as the Lotus based Sametime. In the future the Sametime users will benefit from such additional functions as click-to-call and voice mailing.[63]

Redbooks are publicly available online books about best practices with IBM products. They describe the products features, field experience and dos and don'ts, while leaving aside marketing buzz. Available formats are Redbooks, Redpapers and Redpieces.

Extreme Blue is one of IBM's internship programs, which tasks students with developing high-value technology.[64] In 2003, participants in the program filed 98 patents.[65]

In 2006, IBM launched Secure Blue, encryption hardware that can be built into microprocessors.

In May 2007, IBM unveiled Project Big Green, a re-direction of $1 billion per year across its businesses to increase energy efficiency.

On November 2008, IBM’s CEO, Sam Palmisano, during a speech at the Council on Foreign Relations, outlined a new agenda for building a Smarter Planet.[66] In addition, an official company blog exists. Smarter Planet @ IBM

On Aug 18, 2011, as part of its effort in cognitive computing, IBM has produced chips that imitate neurons and synapses. These microprocessors do not use von Neumann architecture, and they consume less memory and power.[67]

IBM also holds the SmartCamp program globally. The program searches for fresh start-up companies that IBM can partner with to solve world problems. IBM holds 17 SmartCamp events around the world. [68]

Environmental record

IBM was recognized as one of the "Top 20 Best Workplaces for Commuters" by the United States Environmental Protection Agency‎ (EPA) in 2005. The award was to recognize Fortune 500 companies which provided employees with excellent commuter benefits to help reduce traffic and air pollution.[69]

The birthplace of IBM, Endicott, suffered pollution for decades, however. IBM used liquid cleaning agents in circuit board assembly operation for more than two decades, and six spills and leaks were recorded, including one leak in 1979 of 4,100 gallons from an underground tank. These left behind volatile organic compounds in the town's soil and aquifer. Trace elements of volatile organic compounds have been identified in Endicott’s drinking water, but the levels are within regulatory limits. Also, from 1980, IBM has pumped out 78,000 gallons of chemicals, including trichloroethane, freon, benzene and perchloroethene to the air and allegedly caused several cancer cases among the townspeople. IBM Endicott has been identified by the Department of Environmental Conservation as the major source of pollution, though traces of contaminants from a local dry cleaner and other polluters were also found. Despite the amount of pollutant, state health officials could not verify whether air or water pollution in Endicott has actually caused any health problems. According to city officials, tests show that the water is safe to drink.[70]

Tokyo Ohka Kogyo Co., Ltd. (TOK) and IBM are collaborating to establish new, low-cost methods for bringing the next generation of solar energy products, called CIGS (Copper-Indium-Gallium-Selenide) solar cell modules, to market. Use of thin film technology, such as CIGS, has great promise in reducing the overall cost of solar cells and further enabling their widespread adoption.[71] [72]

IBM is exploring four main areas of photovoltaic research: using current technologies to develop cheaper and more efficient silicon solar cells, developing new solution processed thin film photovoltaic devices, concentrator photovoltaics, and future generation photovoltaic architectures based upon nanostructures such as semiconductor quantum dots and nanowires.[73]

Company logo and nickname

IBM's current "8-bar" logo was designed in 1972 by graphic designer Paul Rand.[74] It was a general replacement for a 13-bar logo that first appeared in the public on the 1966 release of the TSS/360. Logos designed in the 1970s tended to be sensitive to the technical limitations of photocopiers, which were then being widely deployed. A logo with large solid areas tended to be poorly copied by copiers in the 1970s, so companies preferred logos that avoided large solid areas. The 1972 IBM logos are an example of this tendency. With the advent of digital copiers in the mid-1980s this technical restriction had largely disappeared; at roughly the same time, the 13-bar logo was abandoned for almost the opposite reasonit was difficult to render accurately on the low-resolution digital printers (240 dots per inch) of the time.

Big Blue is a nickname for IBM. There are several theories explaining the origin of the name. One theory, substantiated by people who worked for IBM at the time, is that IBM field representatives coined the term in the 1960s, referring to the color of the mainframes IBM installed in the 1960s and early 1970s. "True Blue" was a term used to describe a loyal IBM customer, and business writers later picked up the term.[75] [76] Another theory suggests that Big Blue simply refers to the Company's logo. A third theory suggests that Big Blue refers to a former company dress code that required many IBM employees to wear only white shirts and many wore blue suits.[75] [77] In any event, IBM keyboards, typewriters, and some other manufactured devices have played on the "Big Blue" concept, using the color for enter keys and carriage returns. IBM has also used blue logos since 1947, making blue the defining color of the company's corporate design, which might be another, more plausible reason for the term.

See also

Further reading

Notes and References

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  2. Web site: Nanotechnology & Nanoscience.
  3. Web site: Prices and market values at 31 December 2011. 31 December 2011. Financial Times. 10 February 2012.
  4. News: IBM beats Microsoft in tech giants ranking. BBC World News. 30 September 2011.
  5. Web site: IBM Archives: Frequently Asked Questions.
  6. Book: Bennett. Frank P.. and Company. United States Investor. 22, Part 1. 1911. June 17. 1025.
  7. News: Fortune 500: IBM. 2011. Fortune. 17 December 2010.
  8. News: Fortune 20 most profitable companies: IBM. 2011. Fortune. 17 December 2010.
  9. Web site: IBM rankings. Ranking the Brands. 17 December 2010.
  10. ftp://public.dhe.ibm.com/annualreport/2010/2010_ibm_annual.pdf IBM 2010 Annual Report
  11. Web site: Worldwide IBM Research Locations. IBM. 2006-06-21.
  12. Web site: IBM maintains patent lead, moves to increase patent quality. 2010-12-02.
  13. Web site: Awards & Achievements. 2009-08-13. IBM.
  14. Web site: IBM Names Rometty to Succeed Palmisano as First Female CEO. Bloomberg BusinessWeek. 25 October 2011. 25 October 2011.
  15. Web site: IBM-CEO Transition. 2011-10-25. IBM.
  16. Book: Images of America: IBM in Endicott. Asward & Meredith. 2005. Arcadia Publishing. 0-7385-3700-4.
  17. Web site: Dey dial recorder, early 20th century. UK Science Museum. 30 December 2010.
  18. Web site: Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator. Columbia University. 30 December 2010.
  19. Web site: Employee Punch Clocks. Florida Time Clock. 30 December 2010.
  20. Book: Lee, Kenneth. Trouncing the Dow: A value-based method for making huge profits. 1998. McGraw-Hill. 0-07-136834-5. 123. 1 January 2011.
  21. Book: Mathews, Ryan. What's your story?: Storytelling to move markets, audiences, people, and brands. Watts Wacker. 2008. Pearson Education. 0-13-227742-5. 138. 1 January 2011.
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  26. Book: Fundamentals of Corporate Finance. 9th, alternate. Ross, Westerfield, & Jordan. 2010. McGraw Hill. 746.
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  35. Fuchs, Marek; County Lines: Onward in Armonk, New York Times, February 24, 2002
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  37. Web site: Board of Directors. IBM. 17 December 2010.
  38. News: Global 2000: IBM. 2010. Forbes. 17 December 2010. 2010-04-21.
  39. http://www.smartplanet.com/business/blog/smart-takes/dell-hp-ibm-top-newsweeks-2010-green-rankings/11649/ Dell, HP, IBM top Newsweek’s 2010 Green Rankings
  40. Web site: Best Global Brands Ranking for 2010. Interbrand. 15 February 2011.
  41. Web site: Tech Consulting Firm Rankings 2012: Best Firms in Each Practice Area. Vault. 29 December 2011.
  42. News: The Mumbai consensus. Chrystia Freeland. 2010-10-22. Reuters - Analysis & Opinion.
  43. Web site: IBM's EO Policy letter is IBM's foundation for diversity. IBM.
  44. Web site: IBM Valuing Diversity: Heritage - 1980s. IBM.
  45. Web site: 100 best companies for working mothers 2004. Working Mother Media, Inc.. http://web.archive.org/web/20041017073511/http://www.workingwoman.com/top10.html. 2004-10-17.
  46. Web site: 100 best companies 2005. Working Mother Media, Inc.. 2006-06-26.
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  49. Logan. John. The Union Avoidance Industry in the United States. British Journal of Industrial Relations. December 2006. 651–675.
  50. http://www.v3.co.uk/v3/news/2247938/ibm-employees-resisting-pension IBM workers up in arms at pension cuts
  51. Book: Smith, Paul Russell. Strategic Marketing Communications: New Ways to Build and Integrate Communications. Kogan Page. 1999. 24. 0749429186.
  52. News: IBM celebrates 100th anniversary. 16 June 2011. Telegraph. London.
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  55. Web site: Interview: The Eclipse code donation. 2001-11-01. IBM.
  56. Web site: developerWorks blogs : Michael O'Connell : dW wins Jolt Hall of Fame award; Booch, Ambler, dW authors also honored. IBM. 2007-03-27. 2007-04-23.
  57. Web site: IBM delivers Power-based chip for Microsoft Xbox 360 worldwide launch. IBM. 2005-10-25.
  58. Staff Writer, mybroadband. "IBM microprocessors drive the new Nintendo WiiU console." Jun 8, 2011. Retrieved Jun 17, 2011.
  59. Isaac Leung, Electronics News. "IBM’S 45NM SOI MICROPROCESSORS AT CORE OF NINTENDO WII U." Jun 8, 2011. Retrieved Jun 17, 2011.
  60. Web site: Butterfly and IBM introduce first video game industry computing grid. 2002-05-09. IBM.
  61. Web site: IBM joins forces with game companies around the world to accelerate innovation. 2006-03-21. IBM.
  62. Web site: IBM Client for Smart Work. 01.ibm.com. 2010-05-23.
  63. Web site: IBM and Cisco Unveil Platform for Developing Unified Communications and Collaboration Solutions. 2007-03-07. IBM. Orlando, Florida.
  64. Web site: Extreme Blue web page. 01.ibm.com. 2007-09-07. 2010-05-23.
  65. Web site: James Watson. Students swap beach for the lab bench in IBM internship scheme. Computing. 23 Sep 2004. 2009-12-21.
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