Honolulu Explained

Honolulu, Hawaii
Nickname:Crossroads of the Pacific, Sheltered Bay, The Big Pineapple, Paradise
Settlement Type:State capital city
Pushpin Map:Hawaii
Coordinates Region:US-HI
Subdivision Type:Country
Subdivision Name:United States
Subdivision Type1:State
Subdivision Name1:Hawaii
Subdivision Type2:County
Subdivision Name2:Honolulu
Unit Pref:Imperial
Area Total Sq Mi:1177.8
Area Land Sq Mi:88.9
Area Water Sq Mi:1088.9
Population As Of:2010
Population Total:390,738 (47th)
Population Density Sq Mi:4393.2
Population Metro:953,207
Timezone:HAST
Utc Offset:−10
Coordinates Display:display=inline,title
Latd:21
Latm:18
Lats:32
Latns:N
Longd:157
Longm:49
Longs:34
Longew:W
Elevation M:Sea Level 0
Elevation Ft:0
Postal Code Type:Zip Code
Postal Code:96801-96850
Area Code:808
Blank Name:FIPS code
Blank Info:15-17000
Blank1 Name:GNIS feature ID
Blank1 Info:0366212

Honolulu is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Hawaii. Honolulu is the southernmost major U.S. city. Although the name "Honolulu" refers to the urban area on the southeastern shore of the island of Oahu, the city and county government are consolidated as Honolulu County which covers the entire island. For statistical purposes, the U.S. Census Bureau recognizes the urban part of Honolulu as a census-designated place.[1] Honolulu is a major financial center of the islands of the Pacific Ocean. The population of the Census-designated place was 390,738 at the 2010 census, while the population of the city and county was 953,207. Honolulu is the most populous state capital relative to state population. In the Hawaiian language, Honolulu means "sheltered bay" or "place of shelter". The city has been the capital of the Hawaiian islands since 1845 and gained historical recognition following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor near the city on December 7, 1941, and as the birthplace of Barack Obama, the 44th and current President of the United States.[2]

History

Evidence of the first settlement of Honolulu by the original Polynesian migrants to the archipelago comes from oral histories and artifacts. These indicate that there was a settlement where Honolulu now stands in the 11th century.[3] However, after Kamehameha I conquered Oʻahu in the Battle of Nuʻuanu at Nuʻuanu Pali, he moved his royal court from the Island of Hawaiʻi to Waikīkī in 1804. His court relocated in 1809 to what is now downtown Honolulu.[4] The capital was moved back to Kailua-Kona in 1812.

In 1794, Captain William Brown of Great Britain was the first foreigner to sail into what is now Honolulu Harbor.[5] More foreign ships followed, making the port of Honolulu a focal point for merchant ships traveling between North America and Asia.[6]

In 1845, Kamehameha III moved the permanent capital of the Hawaiian Kingdom from Lahaina on Maui to Honolulu. He and the kings that followed him transformed Honolulu into a modern capital,[7] erecting buildings such as St. Andrew's Cathedral, ʻIolani Palace, and Aliʻiōlani Hale. At the same time, Honolulu became the center of commerce in the islands, with descendants of American missionaries establishing major businesses in downtown Honolulu.[8]

Despite the turbulent history of the late 19th century and early 20th century, such as the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893, Hawaiʻi's subsequent annexation by the United States in 1898, followed by a large fire in 1900, and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, Honolulu remained the capital, largest city, and main airport and seaport of the Hawaiian Islands.[9]

An economic and tourism boom following statehood brought rapid economic growth to Honolulu and Hawaiʻi. Modern air travel brings, as of 2007, 7.6 million visitors annually to the islands, with 62.3% entering at Honolulu International Airport.[10] Today, Honolulu is a modern city with numerous high-rise buildings, and Waikīkī is the center of the tourism industry in Hawaiʻi, with thousands of hotel rooms. The UK consulting firm Mercer, in a 2009 assessment "conducted to help governments and major companies place employees on international assignments", ranked Honolulu 29th worldwide in quality of living; the survey factored in political stability, personal freedom, sanitation, crime, housing, the natural environment, recreation, banking facilities, availability of consumer goods, education, and public services including transportation.[11]

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 105.1sqmi. 85.7sqmi of it is land and 19.4sqmi of it (18.42%) is water.

The closest location on the mainland to Honolulu is the Point Arena, California Lighthouse, at 2045nmi.[12] (Nautical vessels require some additional distance to circumnavigate Makapu'u Point.) However, part of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska are slightly closer to Honolulu than the mainland.

Climate

Honolulu experiences a tropical savanna climate (Köppen classification As) with a mostly dry summer season. Honolulu has lots of sunshine most of the year. Temperatures vary little throughout the months, with average high temperatures of 80–90 °F (27–32 °C) and lows of 65–75 °F (19–24 °C) throughout the year. Temperaturesrarely exceed 95 °F (35 °C), with lows in the upper 40s °F (~15 °C) occurring once or twice a year. The highest recorded temperature was 95 degrees during a heat wave in September 1998. The highest recorded temperature in the state was also recorded later that day in Ni'ihau. The lowest recorded temperature was 47 degrees in January 1932. Waters off the coast of Honolulu average 77 °F (27 °C) in the summer months and 72 °F (25 °C) in the winter months.[13]

Annual average precipitation is 18.3inches, which mainly occurs during the winter months of October through early April, with very little rainfall during the summer. Honolulu has an average of 278 sunny days and 90 wet days per year. Although Honolulu is known to have a wet and dry season, it is unnoticeable. This is mainly because light showers falls in the summer while heavier rain falls during the winter. Yet, both seasons experience the same amount of rainy days.

Although the city is situated at the tropics, hurricanes are quite rare. The last recorded hurricane that hit the city was Category 4 Hurricane Iniki in 1992. Tornadoes are also uncommon and usually hit once every 15 years. Watersprouts off the coast are somewhat more common, hitting about once every five years. [14]

Government

Peter Carlisle has served as the 13th mayor of Honolulu since October 11, 2010. The municipal offices of the City and County of Honolulu, including Honolulu Hale, the seat of the city and county, are located in the census-designated place.[15] The Hawaii state government buildings are also located in the CDP.

The Honolulu District is located on the southeast coast of Oahu between Makapuu and Halawa. The district boundary follows the Koolau crestline, so Makapuu Beach is in the Koolaupoko District. On the west, the district boundary follows Halawa Stream, then crosses Red Hill and runs just west of Aliamanu Crater, so that Aloha Stadium, Pearl Harbor (with the USS Arizona Memorial), and Hickam Air Force Base are actually all located in the island's Ewa District.

The Hawaii Department of Public Safety operates the Oahu Community Correctional Center, the jail for the island of Oahu, in Honolulu CDP.[16]

The United States Postal Service operates post offices in Honolulu CDP. The main Honolulu Post Office is located by the international airport at 3600 Aolele Street.[17] Federal Detention Center, Honolulu, operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, is in the CDP.[18]

Diplomatic missions

Several countries have diplomatic facilities in Honolulu CDP in the City and County of Honolulu. They include consulates of Japan,[19] South Korea,[20] Philippines,[21] Federated States of Micronesia,[22] Australia,[23] and the Marshall Islands.[24]

Neighborhoods and districts

Demographics

2010 Census data

The population of Honolulu was 390,738 according to the 2010 U.S. Census. Of 390,738 residents, 192,781 (49.3%) are male and 197,957 (50.7%) are female. The median age for males was 40.5 and 43.5 for females; the overall median age was 41.9. Approximately 84.2% of the total population was 16 years and over; 82.1% were 18 years and over, 78.5% were 21 years and over, 21.8% were 62 years and over, and 18.1% were 65 years and over.

In terms of race and ethnicity, 19.5% (76,145 residents) were White, 1.5% (5,718 residents) were Black or African American, 0.2% (834 residents) were American Indian or Alaska Native, 53.7% (209,747 residents) were Asian, 7.6% (29,744 residents) were Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 0.8% (3,270 residents) were from Some Other Race, and 16.7% (65,250 residents) were from Two or More Races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 5.3% (20,883 residents) of the population.

Asian Americans represent the majority of Honolulu's population. Japanese Americans represent 20.6% (80,514) of the population; Filipino Americans represent 11.8% (45,965) of the population. Chinese American made up 10.3% of the population and numbered at 40,101 individuals. Native Hawaiians made up just 3.1% of the population and numbered at 12,017 individuals. There were 5,188 Samoan Americans whom made up 1.3% of the population. People of Guamanian or Chamorro descent made up 0.2% of the population and numbered at just 917 residents.[27]

Common race combinations for those of more than one race include those who reported themselves as White and Asian (18,348), White and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (6,106), Asian and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (13,527), and those who are White, Asian, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (15,204).[28]

Economy

The largest city and airport in the Hawaiian Islands, Honolulu acts as a natural gateway to the islands' large tourism industry, which brings millions of visitors and contributes $10 billion annually to the local economy.[29] Honolulu's location in the Pacific also makes it a large business and trading hub, particularly between the East and the West. Other important aspects of the city's economy include military defense, research and development, and manufacturing.[29]

Among the companies based in Honolulu are:

Go! Mokulele,[30] Hawaiian Airlines,[31] Island Air,[32] and Aloha Air Cargo are headquartered in the CDP.[33] [34] Prior to its dissolution, Aloha Airlines was headquartered in the CDP.[35] At one time Mid-Pacific Airlines had its headquarters on the property of Honolulu International Airport.[36]

Since the housing collapse, Honolulu has faced a decrease in its rent of about 3.4%, but has recently evened out. This stands in relation with the national average of a 4% decrease in rent.[37]

Since no national bank chains have any branches in Hawaii, many visitors and new residents use different banks. First Hawaiian Bank is the largest and oldest bank in Hawaii and their headquarters are at the First Hawaiian Center, the tallest building in the State of Hawaii.

Transportation

Air

Located on the western end of the CDP, Honolulu International Airport (HNL) is the principal aviation gateway to the state of Hawaii. Kalaeloa Airport is primarily a commuter facility used by unscheduled air taxis, general aviation and transient and locally-based military aircraft.

Highways

Honolulu has the nation’s second highest metropolitan travel time during peak commute hours, second only to Los Angeles. The following freeways, part of the Interstate Highway System serve Honolulu:

Other major highways that link Honolulu proper with other parts of the Island of Oahu are:

Like most major American cities, the Honolulu metropolitan area experiences heavy traffic congestion during rush hours, especially to and from the western suburbs of Kapolei, Ewa, Aiea, Pearl City, Waipahu, and Mililani.

There is a Hawaii Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project (HEVDP).[38]

Public transport

Honolulu Authority for Rapid Transportation (HART)

In November 2010, voters approved a charter amendment to create a public transit authority to oversee the planning, construction, operation and future extensions to Honolulu's rail system (see below). Operations began on July 1, 2011. HART will have a 10-member board of directors that includes three members appointed by the mayor, three members selected by the Honolulu City Council, and the city and state transportation directors.[39]

Bus

See main article: TheBus (Honolulu).

Established by former Mayor Frank F. Fasi as the replacement for the Honolulu Rapid Transit Co. Ltd.(HRT), Honolulu's TheBus system has been twice honored by the American Public Transportation Association bestowing the title of "America's Best Transit System" for 1994–1995 and 2000–2001. TheBus operates 107 routes serving Honolulu and outlying areas on Oahu with a fleet of 531 buses, and is run by the non-profit corporation Oahu Transit Services in conjunction with the city Department of Transportation Services. Honolulu is ranked 4th for highest per-capita use of mass transit in the United States.[40]

Rail

See main article: Honolulu High-Capacity Transit Corridor Project.

Currently, there is no urban rail transit system in Honolulu, although electric street railways were operated in Honolulu by the Honolulu Rapid Transit Company Ltd. prior to World War II. Honolulu Ltd.'s predecessors were the Honolulu Rapid Transit and Land Company (began 1903) and Hawaiian Tramways (began 1888).[41] The City and County of Honolulu is currently constructing a 20miles transit line that will connect Honolulu with outlying suburban areas to the west of the city on the southwestern part of Oʻahu. The Honolulu High-Capacity Transit Corridor Project is aimed at alleviating traffic congestion for Leeward Oʻahu commuters while being integral in the westward expansion of the metropolitan area. The project however has been criticized for its cost, delays and potential environmental impacts.

Cultural institutions

Performing arts

Established in 1900, the Honolulu Symphony is the oldest US symphony orchestra west of the Rocky Mountains. Other classical music ensembles include the Hawaii Opera Theatre. Honolulu is also a center for Hawaiian music. The main music venues include the Neal Blaisdell Center Concert Hall and Arena, the Waikiki Shell, and the Hawaii Theatre.

Honolulu also includes several venues for live theater, including the Diamond Head Theatre.

Visual arts

There are various institutions for the visual arts. The Honolulu Museum of Art is endowed with the largest collection of Asian and Western art in Hawaii. It also has the largest collection of Islamic art, housed at the Shangri La estate. The museum hosts a film and video program dedicated to arthouse and world cinema in the museum's Doris Duke Theatre, named for the museum's historic patroness Doris Duke.

The Contemporary Museum is the only contemporary art museum in the state. It has two locations: main campus in Makiki and a multi-level gallery in downtown Honolulu at the First Hawaiian Center.

The Hawaii State Art Museum (also downtown) boasts pieces by local artists as well as traditional Hawaiian art. The museum is administered by the Hawaii State Foundation on Culture and the Arts.

Honolulu also annually holds the Hawaii International Film Festival (HIFF). It showcases some of the best films from producers all across the Pacific Rim and is the largest "East meets West" style film festival of its sort in the United States.

Natural museums

The Bishop Museum is the largest of Honolulu's museums. It is endowed with the state's largest collection of natural history specimens and the world's largest collection of Hawaiiana and Pacific culture artifacts.[42] The Honolulu Zoo is the main zoological institution in Hawaii while the Waikiki Aquarium is a working marine biology laboratory. The Waikiki Aquarium is partnered with the University of Hawaii and other universities worldwide. Established for appreciation and botany, Honolulu is home to several gardens: Foster Botanical Garden, Liliʻuokalani Botanical Garden, Walker Estate, among others.

Sports

Honolulu's climate lends itself to year-round activities. In 2004, Men's Fitness magazine named Honolulu the fittest city in the United States.[43] Honolulu has three large road races:

Ironman Hawaii was first held in Honolulu, it was the first ever Ironman and is also the World Champs.

Fans of spectator sports in Honolulu generally support the football, volleyball, basketball, rugby union, rugby league and baseball programs of the University of Hawaii at Manoa.[44] High school sporting events, especially football, are especially popular.

Honolulu has no professional sports teams. It was the home of the Hawaii Islanders (Pacific Coast League, 1961–1987), The Hawaiians (World Football League, 1974–1975), Team Hawaii (North American Soccer League, 1977), and the Hawaiian Islanders (af2, 2002–2004).

The NCAA football Hawaii Bowl is played in Honolulu. Honolulu has also hosted the NFL's annual Pro Bowl each February since 1980, though the 2010 Pro Bowl was played in Miami. In 2011, the 2011 Pro Bowl returned once again to Honolulu. From 1993 to 2008, Honolulu hosted Hawaii Winter Baseball, featuring minor league players from Major League Baseball, Nippon Professional Baseball, Korea Baseball Organization, and independent leagues.

Venues

Venues for spectator sports in Honolulu include:

Aloha Stadium, a venue for American football and soccer (football), is located in the Halawa CDP.[45]

Media

See main article: Media in Honolulu, Hawaii.

Honolulu is served by one daily newspaper (the Honolulu Star-Advertiser), Honolulu Magazine, several radio stations and television stations, among other media.

Honolulu, and the island of Oahu has also been the location for many film and television projects, including Hawaii Five-0, Lost, and others.

Tourist attractions

See also: Early life and career of Barack Obama.

Notable residents

Notable people born in Honolulu, and current and former residents of Honolulu.

Education

Colleges and universities

See also: List of colleges and universities in Hawaii.

Colleges and universities in the Honolulu CDP include Honolulu Community College, Kapiolani Community College, the University of Hawaii at Manoa, Chaminade University, and Hawaii Pacific University.[34] UH Manoa houses the main offices of the University of Hawaii System.[46]

Public primary and secondary schools

Hawaii Department of Education operates public schools in Honolulu. Public high schools within the CDP include Wallace Rider Farrington, Kaiser, Kaimuki, Kalani, Moanalua, William McKinley, and Theodore Roosevelt.[34]

Private primary and secondary schools

Private schools include Academy of the Pacific, Damien Memorial School, Hawaii Baptist Academy, Iolani School, Kamehameha Schools, Maryknoll School, Mid-Pacific Institute, La Pietra, Punahou School, Sacred Hearts Academy, Saint Francis School, Saint Louis School and the University of Hawaii Lab School, Saint Patrick School, Trinity Christian School.

Public libraries

Hawaii State Public Library System operates public libraries. The Hawaii State Library in the CDP serves as the main library of the system,[47] while the Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, also in the CDP, serves handicapped and blind people.[48]

Branches in the CDP include Aina Haina,[49] Hawaii Kai,[50] Kaimuki,[51] Kalihi-Palama,[52] Manoa,[53] McCully,[54] Salt Lake-Moanalua,[55] and Waikiki.[56]

See also

External links

Notes and References

  1. Web site: Cities with 100,000 or More Population in 2000 ranked by Population per Square Mile, 2000 in Alphabetic Order. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. July 10, 2008. July 13, 2008.
  2. Web site: April 27, 2011. Certification of Live Birth: Barack Hussein Obama II, August 4, 1961, 7:24 PM, Honolulu. Department of Health, State of Hawaii. The White House. April 27, 2011.
  3. http://www.hellohonolulu.com/history.cfm Honolulu History – HelloHonolulu.com
  4. http://www.city-data.com/world-cities/Honolulu-History.html History – Honolulu
  5. http://www.travelgrove.com/travel-guides/United-States/Hawaii-Honolulu-History-c2089416.html Honolulu History, Hawaii | Travelgrove.com
  6. http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-West/Honolulu-History.html Honolulu: History – Native Hawaiians Meet Westerners, Begin Trading Goods
  7. http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0108523.html About Infoplease, Part of Family Education Network
  8. http://www1.honolulu.gov/cchnl.htm#city About the City, Official Web Site for The City and County of Honolulu
  9. http://www.honolulu-city.com/honolulu-history.htm Honolulu History
  10. Web site: 2007 Annual Visitor Research Report. Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism, State of Hawaii. July 1, 2008. May 30, 2009.
  11. Web site: Quality of Living global city rankings 2009 – Mercer survey. Mercer. April 28, 2009. May 8, 2009.
  12. Microsoft Streets and Trips 2007 Software, Copyright 2006 by Microsoft Corp. et al.
  13. http://weather.com/ Weather.com
  14. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=28119&refer=&units=us Weatherbase.com
  15. http://www.honolulu.gov/HR/location_hours.htm Honolulu.gov
  16. "oahu-community-correctional-center Oahu Community Correctional Center." Hawaii Department of Public Safety. Retrieved on May 19, 2010.
  17. "Post Office Location – Honolulu." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 21, 2009.
  18. "FDC Honolulu Contact Information." Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved on December 30, 2009.
  19. "Visa & Travel." Consulate-General of Japan in Honolulu. Accessed August 17, 2008.
  20. "Location." Consulate-General of South Korea in Honolulu. Retrieved on January 10, 2009.
  21. "Other Philippine Missions in the U.S.." Consulate-General of the Philippines in Chicago. Retrieved on January 10, 2009.
  22. "Department of Foreign Affairs, Overseas Embassies, Consulates, and Missions." Department of Foreign Affairs (Federated States of Micronesia). Retrieved on January 10, 2009.
  23. "Australian Consulate-General in Honolulu, United States of America." Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved on January 10, 2009.
  24. "Foreign Mission." Republic of the Marshall Islands. Retrieved on January 28, 2009.
  25. http://www.artsdistricthonolulu.com/ Artsdistricthonolulu.com
  26. http://www.alamoanacenter.com/ Ala Moana Center: Hawaii's Premier Shopping, Entertainment, and Dining Destination
  27. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_DP_DPDP1&prodType=table
  28. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_PL_P1&prodType=table
  29. Web site: Honolulu Economy. Advameg Inc.. City-Data.com. 2009. January 26, 2011.
  30. "Contact Us." Mesa Air Group. Retrieved on February 23, 2010.
  31. "Corporate Headquarters." Hawaiian Airlines. Retrieved on May 20, 2009.
  32. "Contact Information." Island Air. Retrieved on May 20, 2009.
  33. "Locations." Aloha Air Cargo. Retrieved on May 21, 2009.
  34. "Honolulu CDP, HI." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on May 21, 2009.
  35. "Aloha Airlines, Inc." BusinessWeek. Retrieved on May 21, 2009.
  36. "World Airline Directory." Flight International. May 16, 1981. 1452. "Head Office: Honolulu International Airport, Hawaii, USA."
  37. Web site: Study: Average Honolulu Rents Down. October 28, 2010.
  38. Web site: Hawaii Center for Advanced Transportation Technologies. High Technology Development Corporation. November 13, 2009.
  39. http://www.honolulutransit.org/rhs/hart.aspx
  40. http://www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/pubs/other_data_products/Top_Transit_Cities.xls National Transit Database
  41. http://www.hawaiihistory.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=ig.page&year=1888 Hawaii's History in 1888 – Hawaii History – 1888
  42. http://www.bishopmuseum.org/ Welcome to the Bishop Museum
  43. http://pacific.bizjournals.com/pacific/stories/2004/01/05/daily10.html Pacific.bizjournals.com
  44. http://www.uhm.hawaii.edu/ University of Hawaii at Manoa
  45. "Halawa CDP, Hawaii." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on May 21, 2009.
  46. Magin, Janis L. "Land deals could breathe new life into Moiliili." Pacific Business News. Sunday July 1, 2007. 1. Retrieved on October 5, 2011. "Dobelle at that time had even suggested moving the University of Hawaii system offices from the Manoa campus to office space in Moiliili, something the current administration is not actively considering."
  47. "Hawaii State Library." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.
  48. "Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.
  49. "Aina Haina public Library." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.
  50. "Hawaii Kai Library." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.
  51. "Kaimuki Public Library." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.
  52. "Kalihi-Palama Public Library." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.
  53. "Manoa Public Library." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.
  54. "McCully Public Library." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.
  55. "Salt Lake-Moanalua Public Library." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.
  56. "Waikiki Public Library." Hawaii State Public Library System. Retrieved on May 22, 2009.