|Conventional Long Name:||Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China|
|Common Name:||Hong Kong|
|Official Languages:||Chinese, English |
|Demonym:||Hong Kong people,|
|Leader Title1:||Chief Executive|
|Leader Name1:||Sir Donald Tsang|
|Leader Title2:||Chief Justice|
|Leader Name2:||Andrew Li|
|Leader Title3:||President of the|
|Leader Name3:||Jasper Tsang|
|Government Type:||Non-sovereign partial indirect democracy|
|Established Event1:||Transfer of sovereignty to Britain (Treaty of Nanking)|
|Established Date1:||29 August 1842|
|Established Event2:||Japanese occupation|
|Established Date2:||25 December 1941 –|
15 August 1945
|Established Event3:||Transfer of sovereignty to the PRC|
|Established Date3:||1 July 1997|
|Area Magnitude:||1 E9|
|Area Sq Mi:||427|
|Population Estimate Year:||End-2008|
|Population Estimate Rank:||98th|
|Population Census Year:||Mid-2008|
|Population Density Km2:||6054.5|
|Population Density Sq Mi:||16,452|
|Population Density Rank:||3rd|
|Gdp Ppp:||$293.311 billion|
|Gdp Ppp Rank:||38th|
|Gdp Ppp Year:||2007|
|Gdp Ppp Per Capita:||$42,123|
|Gdp Ppp Per Capita Rank:||10th|
|Gdp Nominal:||$207.171 billion|
|Gdp Nominal Rank:||37th|
|Gdp Nominal Year:||2007|
|Gdp Nominal Per Capita:||$29,752|
|Gdp Nominal Per Capita Rank:||27th|
|Currency:||Hong Kong dollar|
|Date Format:||yyyy年m月d日 (Chinese)|
Hong Kong (; ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located in Southern China in East Asia, bordering the province of Guangdong to the north and facing the South China Sea to the east, west and south. It has a population of 7 million people, but with only 1,108km2 of land, making it one of the most densely populated areas in the world.
Beginning as a trading port, Hong Kong became a dependent territory of the United Kingdom in 1842, and remained so until transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China in 1997. Along with Macau, Hong Kong is one of the two special administrative regions under the One Country, Two Systems policy. As a result, Hong Kong is largely self-governing, it has its own currency, legal and political systems, a high degree of autonomy in all of its affairs, with the exception of foreign affairs and defence, and is generally not considered a part of mainland China.   
Renowned for its expansive skyline and natural setting, Hong Kong is one of the world's leading financial capitals, a major business and cultural hub, and maintains a highly developed capitalist economy. Its identity as a cosmopolitan centre where east meets west is reflected in its cuisine, cinema, music and traditions, and although the population is predominantly Chinese, residents and expatriates of other ethnicities form a small but significant segment of society.
The original "fragrant harbour" was a small inlet between the island of Ap Lei Chau and the south side of Hong Kong Island, now known as Aberdeen Harbour in English, but still called "Heung Gong Tsai" (Little Hong Kong) in Cantonese.
It is not certain why Hong Kong harbour is so named. The reference to fragrance may refer to the harbour waters sweetened by the fresh water esturine influx of the Pearl River, or to the incense factories lining the coast to the north of Kowloon which was stored around Aberdeen Harbour for export, before the development of Victoria Harbour. The village of Heung Gong Tsuen on Ap Lei Chau is perhaps the earliest recorded use of the name.
See main article: History of Hong Kong. Human settlement in the area now known as Hong Kong dates back to the late Paleolithic and early Neolithic era, but the name Hong Kong (香港) did not appear on written record until the Treaty of Nanking of 1842. The area's earliest recorded European visitor was Jorge Álvares, a Portuguese mariner who arrived in 1513. 
In 1839 the refusal by Qing Dynasty authorities to import opium resulted in the First Opium War between China and Britain. Hong Kong Island became occupied by British forces in 1841, and was formally ceded to Britain under the Treaty of Nanking at the end of the war. The British established a Crown Colony with the founding of Victoria City the following year. In 1860, after China's defeat in the Second Opium War, Kowloon Peninsula south of Boundary Street and Stonecutter's Island were ceded to Britain under the Convention of Peking. In 1898 Britain obtained a 99-year lease of Lantau Island and the adjacent northern lands, which became known as the New Territories.
During the first half of the 20th century, Hong Kong was a free port, serving as an entrepôt of the British Empire. The British introduced an education system based on their own model, while the local Chinese population had little contact with the European community of wealthy tai-pans settled near Victoria Peak.
In conjunction with its military campaign in World War II, the Empire of Japan invaded Hong Kong on 8 December 1941. The Battle of Hong Kong ended with British and Canadian defenders surrendering control of the colony to Japan on 25 December. During the Japanese occupation, civilians suffered widespread food shortages, rationing, and hyper-inflation due to forced exchange of currency for military notes. Hong Kong lost more than half of its population in the period between the invasion and Japan's surrender in 1945, when the United Kingdom resumed control of the colony. 
Hong Kong's population recovered quickly as a wave of mainland migrants arrived for refuge from the ongoing Chinese Civil War. With the proclamation of the People's Republic of China in 1949, more migrants fled to Hong Kong in fear of persecution by the Communist Party. Many corporations in Shanghai and Guangzhou also shifted their operations to Hong Kong. The colony became the sole place of contact between mainland China and the Western world, as the Chinese communist government increasingly isolated itself from outside influence.
As textile and manufacturing industries grew with the help of population growth and low cost of labour, Hong Kong rapidly industrialised, with its economy becoming driven by exports, and living standards rising steadily. The construction of Shek Kip Mei Estate in 1953 marked the beginning of the public housing estate program, designed to cope with the huge influx of immigrants. Trade in Hong Kong accelerated even further when Shenzhen, immediately north of Hong Kong, became a Special Economic Zone of the PRC, and established Hong Kong as the main source of foreign investment to the mainland. The later decades of the 20th century saw the economy shift from textiles and manufacturing to mainly services-based, as the financial and banking sectors became increasingly dominant.
With the lease of the New Territories due to expire within two decades the governments of the United Kingdom and the People's Republic of China discussed the issue of Hong Kong's sovereignty in the 1980s. In 1984 the two countries signed the Sino-British Joint Declaration, agreeing to transfer sovereignty to the People's Republic of China in 1997, and stipulating that Hong Kong would be governed as a special administrative region, retaining its laws and a high degree of autonomy for at least fifty years after the transfer. The Hong Kong Basic Law, which would serve as the constitutional document after the transfer, was ratified in 1990, and the transfer of sovereignty occurred at midnight on 1 July 1997, marked by a handover ceremony at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre.
Hong Kong's economy was affected by the Asian financial crisis of 1997 that hit many East Asian markets, and the lethal H5N1 avian influenza also surfaced that year. After a gradual recovery, Hong Kong suffered again due to an outbreak of SARS in 2003. Today, Hong Kong continues to serve as an important global financial centre, but faces uncertainty over its future role with a growing mainland China economy, and its relationship with the PRC government in areas such as democratic reform and universal suffrage.
In accordance with the Sino-British Joint Declaration, and reflecting the policy known as "one country, two systems" by the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong enjoys a high degree of autonomy as a special administrative region in all areas except defence and foreign affairs. The declaration stipulates that the region maintain its capitalist economic system and guarantees the rights and freedoms of its people for at least 50 years beyond the 1997 handover. The Basic Law is the constitutional document that outlines executive, legislative and judicial authorities of government, although final authority for interpreting the Basic Law rests with the PRC government.
The primary institutions of government are:
A politically neutral body that implements policies and provides government services, where public servants are appointed based on qualifications, experience and ability;
The Basic Law and universal suffrage have been major issues of political debate since the transfer of sovereignty. In 2002, the government's proposed Article 23 of the Basic Law, which required the enactment of laws prohibiting acts of treason and subversion against the Chinese government, was met with fierce opposition, and eventually shelved.   Debate between pro-Beijing groups and pro-democracy groups characterises Hong Kong's political scene, with the latter supporting a faster pace of democratisation.
See main article: Legal system of Hong Kong and Judiciary of Hong Kong. In contrast to mainland China's civil law system, Hong Kong continues to follow the English Common Law tradition established during British rule. Hong Kong's courts are permitted to refer to decisions (precedents) rendered by courts of other common law jurisdictions, and judges from other common law jurisdictions are allowed to participate in proceedings of Hong Kong's Court of Final Appeal and sit as Hong Kong judges.
Structurally, Hong Kong's court system consists of the Court of Final Appeal, the High Court, which is made up of the Court of Appeal and the Court of First Instance, and the District Court, which includes the Family Court. Other adjudicative bodies include the Lands Tribunal, the Magistrates' Courts, the Juvenile Court, the Coroner's Court, the Labour Tribunal, the Small Claims Tribunal, and the Obscene Articles Tribunal, which is responsible for classifying non-video pornography to be circulated in Hong Kong. Justices of the Court of Final Appeal are appointed by Hong Kong's Chief Executive.
The Department of Justice is the largest legal institution in Hong Kong, and its responsibilities involve legislation, judicial administration, prosecution, civil representation, legal and policy drafting and reform, and the legal profession. Aside from prosecuting criminal cases, officials of the Department of Justice also appear in court on behalf of the government in all civil and administrative lawsuits against the government. As protector of the public interest, it may apply for judicial reviews and assign legal representation on behalf of the public to take part in such a trial. The Basic Law protects the Department of Justice from any interference.
See main article: Districts of Hong Kong. Hong Kong is subdivided into 18 geographic districts for administrative purposes, each represented by a district council that advises the government on local matters such as public facilities, community programmes, cultural activities and environmental improvements. There are a total of 534 district councils seats, 405 of which are elected, while the rest are appointed by the Chief Executive and 27 ex officio chairmen of rural committees. The government's Home Affairs Department communicates government policies and plans to the public through the district offices.
The 18 districts can be split into three areas, often used for statistical purposes. Hong Kong Island is the original 1842 colony, and contains Hong Kong's financial core on its northern coast. Kowloon is to the north across Victoria Harbour, the southern part of which was ceded in 1860. The much larger New Territories was the final addition to Hong Kong's territory in 1898.
As a special administrative region, Hong Kong is governed as a unitary authority, and as such there are no formal definitions for its cities and towns. One such example is Victoria City, which was one of the first urban settlements in Hong Kong after it became a colony, and was considered Hong Kong's capital city during British rule. Its historic boundary, along with that of Kowloon and New Kowloon, remain stated in law, but has not had any legal or administrative status since 1982.
Hong Kong is located on China's south coast, 60km east of Macau on the opposite side of the Pearl River Delta. It is surrounded by the South China Sea on the east, south, and west, and borders the city of Shenzhen in Guangdong Province to the north over the Sham Chun River. The territory's 1104km2 land area consists primarily of Hong Kong Island, Lantau Island, Kowloon Peninsula and the New Territories as well as some 260 other islands.
As much of Hong Kong's terrain is hilly to mountainous with steep slopes, less than 25% of the territory's landmass is developed, and about 40% of the remaining land area is reserved as country parks and nature reserves. Most of the territory's urban development exists on Kowloon peninsula, along the northern edge of Hong Kong Island and in scattered settlements throughout the New Territories. The highest elevation in the territory is at Tai Mo Shan, at a height of 958m (3,143feet) above sea level. Hong Kong's long, irregular and curvaceous coastline also affords the territory with many bays, rivers and beaches.
Despite Hong Kong's reputation of being intensely urbanised, the territory has made much effort to promote a green environment, and recent growing public concern has prompted the severe restriction of further land reclamation from Victoria Harbour. Awareness of the environment is growing as Hong Kong suffers from increasing pollution compounded by its geography and tall buildings. Approximately 80% of the city's smog originates from other parts of the Pearl River Delta.
Situated just south of the Tropic of Cancer, Hong Kong's climate is humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa). Summer is hot and humid with occasional showers and thunderstorms, and warm air coming from the southwest. It is also the time when typhoons are most likely, sometimes resulting in flooding or landslides. Winter weather usually starts sunny and becomes cloudier towards February, with the occasional cold front bringing strong, cooling winds from the north. The most pleasant seasons are spring, although changeable, and autumn, which is generally sunny and dry. Hong Kong averages 1,948 hours of sunshine per year, while the highest and lowest ever recorded temperatures at the Hong Kong Observatory are 36.1sigfig=4NaNsigfig=4 and 0°C, respectively.
See main article: article and Economy of Hong Kong. Hong Kong is one of the world's leading financial centres. Its highly capitalist economy is perhaps the freest in the world. The Index of Economic Freedom has ranked it as such for 15 consecutive years.    It is an important centre for international finance and trade, with one of the greatest concentration of corporate headquarters in the Asia-Pacific region, and is known as one of the Four Asian Tigers for its high growth rates and rapid industrialisation between the 1960s and 1990s. The Hong Kong Stock Exchange is the sixth largest in the world, with a market capitalisation of US$2.97 trillion as of October 2007, and the second highest value of initial public offerings, after London. The currency used in Hong Kong is the Hong Kong dollar, which has been pegged to the U.S. dollar since 1983.
The Government of Hong Kong plays a passive role in the financial industry, mostly leaving the direction of the economy to market forces and the private sector. Under the official policy of positive non-interventionism, Hong Kong is often cited as an example of laissez-faire capitalism. Following World War II, Hong Kong industrialised rapidly as a manufacturing centre driven by exports, and then underwent a rapid transition to a service-based economy in the 1980s. Hong Kong matured to become a financial centre in the 1990s, but was greatly affected by the Asian financial crisis in 1998, and again in 2003 by the SARS outbreak. A revival of external and domestic demand has led to a strong recovery, as cost decreases strengthened the competitiveness of Hong Kong exports and a long deflationary period ended.
The territory has little arable land and few natural resources, so it must import most of its food and raw materials. Hong Kong is the world's eleventh largest trading entity, with the total value of imports and exports exceeding its gross domestic product. Much of Hong Kong's exports consist of re-exports, which are products made outside of the territory, especially in mainland China, and distributed via Hong Kong. Even before the 1997 handover, Hong Kong had established extensive trade and investment ties with mainland China, and its autonomous status now enables it to serve as a point of entry for investment flowing into the mainland. At the end of 2007, there were 3.46 million people employed full-time, with the unemployment rate averaging 4.1%, the fourth straight year of decline. Hong Kong's economy is dominated by the service sector, which accounts for over 90% of its GDP, while industry now constitutes just 9%. Inflation was at 2% in 2007, and Hong Kong's largest export markets are mainland China, the United States, and Japan.
See main article: Hong Kong Military Service Corps and People's Liberation Army Hong Kong Garrison. As it has never been a sovereign state, Hong Kong never has any entirely independent military forces. As a British colony and later territory, defence was provided by the British military under the command of the Governor of Hong Kong who was ex officio Commander-in-chief. When the People's Republic of China assumed sovereignty in 1997, the British barracks were replaced by a garrison of the People's Liberation Army, comprising ground, naval, and air forces, and under the command of the Chinese Central Military Commission. The Basic Law protects local civil affairs against interference by resident military forces, and the Hong Kong Government remains responsible for the maintenance of public order.
See main article: Demographics of Hong Kong. Residents of Hong Kong are sometimes referred to as Hongkongers. The territory's population increased sharply throughout the 1990s, reaching 6.99 million in 2006. Hong Kong has a fertility rate of 0.95 children per woman, one of the lowest in the world and far below the 2.1 children per woman required to sustain the current population. However, the population in Hong Kong continues to grow due to the influx of immigrants from mainland China, approximating 45,000 per year. Life expectancy in Hong Kong is 81.6 years as of 2006, the sixth highest in the world.
About 95% of Hong Kong's population is of Chinese descent, the majority of which is Cantonese or from ethnic groups such as Hakka and Teochew. The remaining 5% of the population is composed of non-ethnic Chinese forming a highly visible group despite their smaller numbers. A South Asian population of Sindhis, Indians, Pakistanis and Nepalese are found. Vietnamese refugees have become permanent residents of Hong Kong. There are also a number of Europeans, Americans, Australians, Canadians, Japanese, and Koreans working in Hong Kong's commercial and financial sector.
Hong Kong's de-facto official dialect is Cantonese, a Chinese language originating from Guangdong province to the north of Hong Kong, and is spoken by 95% of the population as a first language. English is also an official language, and according to a 1996 by-census is spoken by 3.1% of the population as an everyday language and by 34.9% of the population as a second language. Signs displaying both Chinese and English are common throughout the territory. Since the 1997 handover, an increase in immigrants from mainland China and greater integration with the mainland economy have brought an increasing amount of Mandarin speakers to Hong Kong.
Religion in Hong Kong enjoys a high degree of freedom, guaranteed by the Basic Law. 90% of Hong Kong's population practises a mix of local religions, most prominently Buddhism (mainly Chinese Mahayana) and Taoism.   A Christian community of around 600,000 exists,  forming about 8% of the total population, and is equally divided between Catholics and Protestants. There are also Muslim, Latter-Day Saint, Jewish, Jehovah's Witness, Hindu, Sikh and Bahá'í communities. Concerns over a lack of religious freedom after the 1997 handover have subsided, with Falun Gong adherents free to practice in Hong Kong, and the Anglican Church and Roman Catholic Church each freely appointing its own bishops, unlike in mainland China.
See main article: Education in Hong Kong. Hong Kong's education system roughly follows the system in England, although at the higher education levels, both English and American systems exist. The medium of instruction is mainly spoken Cantonese, written Chinese and English, but Mandarin language education has been increasing. The Programme for International Student Assessment, has ranked Hong Kong's education system as the second best in the world.
Hong Kong's public schools are operated by the Education Bureau. The system features a non-compulsory three-year kindergarten, followed by a compulsory six-year primary education, a three-year junior secondary education, a non-compulsory two-year senior secondary education leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examinations, and a two-year matriculation course leading to the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examinations. Most comprehensive schools in Hong Kong fall under three categories: the rarer public schools; the more common subsidised schools, including government aids and grant schools; and private schools, often run by Christian organisations and having admissions based on academic merit rather than on financial resources. Outside this system are the schools under the Direct Subsidy Scheme and private international schools.
There are nine public universities in Hong Kong, and a number of private higher institutions, offering various bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees, other higher diplomas and associate degree courses. The University of Hong Kong, the oldest institution of tertiary education in territory, was referred by Quacquarelli Symonds as a "world-class comprehensive research university"  and was ranked 26th on the 2008 THES - QS World University Rankings  , making it 3rd in Asia (after only to University of Tokyo and Kyoto University). The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology and Chinese University of Hong Kong are ranked 39 and 42 respectively, making them ranked 5th and 6th respectively in Asia. 
See main article: Culture of Hong Kong. Hong Kong is frequently described as a place where East meets West, reflecting the culture's mix of the territory's Chinese roots with the culture brought to it during its time as a British colony/territory. Although over a decade has passed since the handover, Western cultural practices remain, and coexist seamlessly with the traditional philosophy and practices of Chinese culture. Hong Kong still has a Welsh male voice choir and a traditional English morris dancing team, for example.
One of the more noticeable contradictions is Hong Kong's balancing of a modernised way of life with traditional superstitious Chinese practices. Concepts like Fung shui are taken very seriously, with expensive construction projects often hiring expert consultants, and are often believed to make or break a business. Other objects like bagua mirrors are still regularly used to deflect evil spirits, and buildings often lack any floor number that has a 4 in it, due to its similarity to the word for "die" in the Chinese language. The fusion of east and west also characterises Hong Kong's cuisine, where dim sum or da been lo restaurants can be found next to fast food joints.
While Hong Kong is a recognised global centre of trade, its most famous export is its entertainment industry, particularly in the martial arts genre which gained a high level of popularity in the late 1960s and 1970s. Several Hollywood performers have originated from Hong Kong cinema, notably Bruce Lee, Chow Yun-Fat, and Jackie Chan. A number of Hong Kong film-makers have also achieved widespread fame in Hollywood, such as John Woo, Wong Kar-wai and Tsui Hark. Homegrown films such as Chungking Express, Infernal Affairs, Shaolin Soccer, Rumble in the Bronx, and In the Mood for Love have gained international recognition. Hong Kong is also the world's main centre for Cantopop music, which draws its influence from other forms of Chinese music, and more international styles including jazz, rock and roll, rhythm and blues, electronic music, western pop music and others, and has a multinational fanbase.
The Hong Kong government supports cultural institutions such as the Hong Kong Heritage Museum, the Hong Kong Museum of Art, the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts, and the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra. Also, the government's Leisure and Cultural Services Department subsidises and sponsors international performers brought to Hong Kong. Many international cultural activities are organised by the government, consulates, and privately.
Hong Kong has two broadcast television stations, ATV and TVB. Cable and satellite services are also widespread. The production of Hong Kong's soap dramas, comedy series and variety shows have reached mass audiences throughout the Chinese-speaking world. Magazine and newspaper publishers in Hong Kong distribute and print in both Chinese and English, with a focus on sensationalism and celebrity gossip. The media is relatively free from government interference compared to that of mainland China, and newspapers are often divided along political lines of support or show skepticism towards the Chinese government in Beijing. Hong Kong is also one of three CNN International headquarters.
Hong Kong offers wide recreational and competitive sport opportunities despite its limited land area. Internationally, Hong Kong participates in the Olympic Games, and numerous other Asian Games events, and hosted the equestrian events for the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. There are major multipurpose venues like Hong Kong Coliseum and MacPherson Stadium. Hong Kong's steep terrain make it ideal for hiking, with expansive views over the territory, and its rugged coastline provides many beaches for swimming.
See main article: Architecture of Hong Kong. Hong Kong has the world's greatest number of skyscrapers, at 6,439. The high density and tall skyline of Hong Kong's urban area is due to a lack of available sprawl space, with the average distance from the harbourfront to the steep hills of Hong Kong Island at 1.3abbr=onNaNabbr=on. This lack of space causing demand for dense, high-rise offices and housing, has resulted in 38 of the world's 100 tallest residential buildings being in Hong Kong, and more people living or working above the 14th floor than anywhere else on Earth, making it the world's most vertical city.
A downside to the lack of space and demand for construction is that few older buildings remain, the city instead becoming a centre for modern architecture. The tallest building in Hong Kong is Two International Finance Centre, at 415m (1,362feet) high. Other recognisable skyline features include the HSBC Headquarters Building, said to be easily dismantled and rebuilt elsewhere, the triangular Central Plaza with its pyramid-shaped spire, The Center with its nighttime multi-coloured neon light show, and I M Pei's Bank of China Tower with its sharp, angular façade. The city has been rated as having the best skyline in the world. Notable remaining historical assets include the Tsim Sha Tsui Clock Tower, the Central Police Station, and the remains of Kowloon Walled City.
There are many development plans in place, including the construction of new government buildings, waterfront redevelopment in Central, and a series of projects in West Kowloon. More high-rise development is set to take place on the other side of Victoria Harbour in Kowloon, as the 1998 closure of the nearby Kai Tak Airport lifted strict height restrictions, including the soon-to-be tallest tower, the International Commerce Centre, which will open in 2010.
See main article: Transport in Hong Kong. Hong Kong has a highly developed transportation network, encompassing both public and private transport. Over 90% of daily travels (11 million) are on public transport, making it the highest percentage in the world. The Octopus card, a stored value smart card payment system, can be used to pay for fares on almost all railways, buses and ferries, and also for parking and purchases at convenience stores and fastfood restaurants.
The city's rapid transit system, MTR, has 150 stations and serves 3.4 million people a day. A tramway system, serving the city since 1904, covers the northern parts of Hong Kong Island and is the only tram system in the world run exclusively with double deckers. Double-decker buses were introduced to Hong Kong in 1949, and are now almost exclusively used, with single-decker buses remaining in use for routes with lower demand or roads with lower carrying capacity. Most normal franchised bus routes in Hong Kong operate until 1 am. Public light buses run the length and breadth of Hong Kong, through areas where standard bus lines cannot reach or do not reach as frequently, quickly, or directly.
The Star Ferry service operates four lines across Victoria Harbour and has been in operation for over 120 years, providing a panoramic view of Hong Kong's skyline for its 53,000 daily passengers. It is considered one of the city's most treasured cultural icons and has been rated as one of the most picturesque ferry crossings in the world. Other ferry services are provided by operators serving outlying islands, new towns, Macau, and cities in mainland China. Hong Kong is also famous for its junks traversing the harbour, and small kai-to ferries which serve remote coastal settlements.
Hong Kong's steep, hilly terrain calls for some unusual ways of getting up and down the slopes. The Peak Tram, the first public transport system in Hong Kong, has provided vertical rail transport between Central and Victoria Peak since 1888 by steeply ascending the side of a mountain. In Central and Western district, there is an extensive system of escalators and moving pavements, including the longest outdoor covered escalator system in the world, the Mid-Levels escalator.
Hong Kong International Airport is a leading air passenger gateway and logistics hub in Asia and one of the world's busiest airports in terms of international passenger and cargo movement, serving more than 47 million passengers and handling 3.74 million tonnes of cargo in 2007. It replaced Kai Tak Airport in Kowloon in 1998, and has been rated as the world's best airport in a number of surveys. Over 85 airlines operate at the two-terminal airport and it is the primary hub of Cathay Pacific, Dragonair, Air Hong Kong, Hong Kong Airlines and Hong Kong Express.
. http://www.hongkongpost.com. HongkongPost Postage Rates and Services. HongkongPost. 2007 Nov. Hong Kong. 3. In the Chinese language, however, there are two similar yet different terms for the use of "Mainland", i.e., Dalu (大陸) and Neidi (内地), see the Mainland China article for details.