Generalissimo Explained

Generalissimo and Generalissimus are military ranks of the highest degree, superior to Field Marshal and other five-star ranks.

Usage

The word "generalissimo" is an Italian term, from generale, plus the superlative suffix -issimo, itself from Latin -issimus,[1] meaning "utmost, to the highest grade".

Historically this rank was given to a military officer leading an entire army or the entire armed forces of a nation, usually only subordinate to the Sovereign. Other usage of the rank has been for the commander of the united armies of several allied powers.

List of Generalissimos

See main article: category.

PersonServiceCountryEraNotes
Chiang Kai-shekNational Revolutionary ArmyRepublic of China1928[2] [3]
French ArmyFrance1918[4] [5]
Army of the Habsburg MonarchyHapsburg1625-1630, 1632-1634
Imperial Russian ArmyRussian Empire1799
Venezuelan ArmyVenezuela1812
Revolutionary Army of MexicoMexicoSeptember 1810 - February 1811
Spanish Armed ForcesSpain1936[6]
Republic of Cuba ArmyCuba1895
Ihsan NuriRebel forces of KurdistanKurdistanc.1930[7]
Charles XIV John of SwedenSwedish ArmySweden1810-1818, 1813-1814
Soviet Armed ForcesSoviet Union1945[8]
Kim Il-sungKorean People's ArmyNorth Korea1992[9]
Kim Jong-IlKorean People's ArmyNorth KoreaPosthumous 2012[10]
Prince Michael of PortugalPortuguese ArmyPortugal1823
Dominican ArmyDominican Republic1930[11]
Sun Yat-senRepublic of China1917-1918, 1922Technically as Grand Marshal[12] (source does not support this)
Yeon GaesomunArmy of the Kingdom of GoguryeoGoguryeo (Korea)c.642
Mexican ArmyMexico1846-1855[13]

See also

Notes and References

  1. Encyclopedia: Webster's Third New International Dictionary., French Larousse Étymologique.
  2. Jay Taylor:The Generalisimo:Chiang Kai-shek and the struggle for modern China (2009) Harvard Press
  3. Chiang Kai-shek was General Special Class of the Republic of China, cf. 特級上將授任條例
  4. John McGroarty :The Gray Man of Christ: Generalissimo Foch (1919) Los Angeles, Walter A Abbott
  5. Généralissime was the title used to describe Ferdinand Foch's Allied Command, starting 26 March 1918. He actually held the rank of général de division, and later the dignity of Marshal of France.
  6. http://www.time.com/time/covers/0,16641,19431018,00.html Cover
  7. Bletch Chirguh, La Question Kurde: ses origines et ses causes, Le Caire, Impimerie Paul Barbey, 1930, front cover, IHSAN NOURI PACHA Généralissime des forces nationales Kurdes
  8. Joseph Stalin was appointed Generalissimus of the Soviet Union. See: Ivan Aleksandrovich Venediktov, Selskokhozyaystvennaya yentsiklopediya, Vol. 4, Gos. izd-vo selkhoz, 1956, p. 584.
  9. http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/world/T100928004855.htm The Daily Yomuiri, 29 September 2010, Kim Jong Un spotlighted / 'Heir apparent' promoted to general, makes DPRK media debut
  10. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/late-kim-jong-il-awarded-highest-honour-by-north/story-e6frg6so-1226271640849 The Australian, 15 February 2012, Late Kim Jong-il awarded highest honour by North
  11. Stanley Walker : Generalissimo Rafael L. Trujillo (1955) Caribbean Library
  12. Book: Wu Tingfang (1842-1922): reform and modernization in modern Chinese history. Linda Pomerantz-Zhang. 1992. Hong Kong University Press. 255. 962209287X. 2010-10-31.
  13. Stephen L Hardin, Angus McBride : The Alamo 1836 (2001) Osprey . pp24, 100