|Agency:||Osservatori Regjonâl de Lenghe e de Culture Furlanis|
Friulan ( or affectionately marilenghe in Friulan, friulano in Italian, furlanščina in Slovenian) (also Eastern Ladin), is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaeto-Romance family, spoken in the Friuli region of northeastern Italy. Friulan has around 800,000 speakers, the vast majority of whom also speak Italian. It is sometimes called Eastern Ladin, since it shares the same roots as Ladin, although over the centuries it has diverged under the influence of surrounding languages, including German, Italian, Venetian, and Slovene. Documents in Friulan are attested from the 11th century, and poetry and literature dating as far back as 1300. By the 20th century, there was a revival of interest in the language, which has continued to this day.
A question which causes many debates is the influence of the Latin spoken in Aquileia and surrounding areas. Some claim that it had peculiar features that later passed into Friulan. Epigraphs and inscriptions from that period show some variants if compared to the standard Latin language, but most of these are common to other areas of the Roman Empire; often it is cited that Fortunatianus, bishop of Aquileia from 342 till circa 357, wrote a commentary to the Gospel in sermo rusticus, that is in the language spoken by the people, which therefore should have been quite different from Standard Latin. We don't know the language of the text, but it shows a shift between languages that didn't exist for example in other important communities of Northern Italy. The language spoken before the arrival of the Romans in 181 BC was of Celtic origin, since the inhabitants belonged to the Carni, a Celtic population. In modern Friulan the words of Celtic origins are few, while much influence of the original population is showed in toponyms (names of villages which end in -acco, -icco are an example). Even influences from Longobardic language—Friuli was one of their strongholds—are very few. From this evidence, scholars today agree that the formation of Friulan dates back to around 1000, at the same time as other dialects derived from Latin (see Vulgar Latin). The first written records of Friulan have been found in administrative acts of the 13th century, but these documents became more frequent in the following century, when literary works also emerged (Frammenti letterari for example). The main center at that time was Cividale. The Friulan language has never acquired official status: legal statutes were first written in Latin, then in Venetian, and finally in Italian.
Dr. Kevin L. Dooley, Assistant Professor of Political Science at Monmouth University has written a book entitled, Politics Still Matters: Globalization, Governance, and the Revival of Regional Minorities, that investigates the developments of Friulans in Italy, along with other languages.
The idea of unity among Ladin, Romansh and Friulan comes from the Italian historical linguist Graziadio Isaia Ascoli, who was born in Gorizia. In 1871 he presented his theory that these three languages are part of one family, which in the past stretched from Switzerland to Muggia and perhaps also Istria. These three languages are the only survivors of this family, and they all developed differently - in particular, Friulan was much less influenced by German. The scholar Francescato claimed subsequently that until the 14th century the Venetian language shared many phonetic features with Friulan and Ladin; therefore he thought that Friulan was a much more conservative language. It is also interesting to note that before the arrival of the Romans, the border between Carni and Venetic populations was the river Liquentia (nowadays Livenza), which is still the border between Friulan and Venetian today. Many features that Ascoli thought were peculiar to the Rhaeto-Romance languages can in fact be found in other languages of northern Italy.
During the Nazi Occupation of Italy in the Second World War, pro-Nazi German scholars presented supposed evidence for the "profound influence" German culture and language have had on the Friulians, including loan words and medieval place-names. Historical evidence was also found for the Friuli being active in the Carolingian and the early German empires, as well as for the role the German feudal lords played in the region before its annexation to the Duchy of Carinthia in the late 10th century. It was thus concluded that the Friulians "belong to the German cultural field", and that their land was an ancient part of the German empire and has ever since been part of the German "vital space". These theories indicate a Nazi intention to attempt a "Germanization" of the Friulian speakers, but such plans were cut off by their defeat in the war.
Today, Friulan is spoken in the province of Udine including the area of the Carnia Alps, but widely throughout the province of Pordenone, in half of the province of Gorizia, and in the eastern part of the province of Venice. In the past, the language borders were wider since also in Trieste and Muggia particular variants of Friulan were spoken—the main document about the dialect of Trieste, or tergestino, is "Dialoghi piacevoli in dialetto vernacolo triestino", published by G. Mainati in 1828.
Friuli was until the 1960s an area of deep poverty, causing a large number of Friulan speakers to emigrate. Most went to France, Belgium, and Switzerland or outside Europe, to Canada, Mexico, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, the United States, and South Africa. In these countries, there are associations of Friulan immigrants (called Fogolâr furlan), who try to protect their traditions and language.
The first texts in Friulan date back to the 13th century and are mainly commercial or juridical acts. We can see in these examples that Friulan was used together with Latin, which was still the administrative language. The prime examples of literature that have survived—much from this period has been lost—are poems from the 14th century, which are mainly dedicated to the theme of love and were probably inspired by the Italian poetic movement Dolce Stil Novo. The most notable work is Piruç myò doç inculurit (which means "My sweet, coloured pear"), composed by an anonymous author from Cividale, probably in 1380.
There are few differences in the first two rows, which demonstrates that there has not been a great evolution in the language except for several words which are no longer used (for example, dum(n) lo, a word which means "child", which was used frequently in the past). A modern Friulan speaker can understand these texts with only a little difficulty.
The second important period for Friulan literature is the 16th century. The main author of this period was Ermes di Colorêt, who composed over 200 poems.
|Ermes di Colorêt||16th|
|Pier Paolo Pasolini||20th|
Long vowels are typical of the Friulan language and this has a great influence also on Friulan pronunciation of Italian.
Friulan distinguishes between short and long vowels, e.g. in the following minimal pairs (long vowels are marked in the official orthography with a circumflex accent):
fis (fixed, dense)
lûs (light n.)
The Friulan dialects differ in their treatment of long vowels. In certain dialects, some of the long vowels are actually diphthongs. The following chart shows how four words (sêt thirst, pît foot, pôc (a) little, fûc fire) are pronounced in four dialects. Each dialect uses a unique pattern of diphthongs (yellow) and monophthongs (blue) for the long vowels:
The double consonants (ll, rr, and so on), used frequently in Italian, are nearly absent in Friulan.
Most feminine nouns end in -e, which is pronounced.
Some feminine nouns, however, end in a consonant, including those ending in -zion (from Latin).
Most masculine nouns end either in a consonant or in -i.
A few masculine nouns end in -e, including sisteme (system) and probleme (problem). These are usually words coming from ancient Greek. However, because most masculine nouns end in a consonant, it is not uncommon to find the forms sistem and problem instead—though this is more likely to occur in print than in speech.
There are also a number of masculine nouns which have been borrowed intact from Italian, that is, with a final -o, like treno (train). Many of these words have been fully absorbed into the language, even forming their plurals with the regular Friulan -s rather than the Italian -i. Still, there are some purists, including those influential in Friulan publishing, who frown on such words, insisting that the "proper" Friulan terms should be without the final -o. So despite the fact that one almost always hear treno, chances are that if you see the word in print it will be seen as tren.
The Friulan definite article (which corresponds to "the" in English) is derived from the Latin ille and takes the following forms:
The indefinite article in Friulan (which corresponds to "a" in English) derives from the Latin unus and varies according to gender:
An invariable partitive article also exists: des: des vacjis - some cows.
A Friulan adjective must agree in gender and number with the noun it qualifies. Most adjectives have four forms for singular (masculine and feminine) and plural (masculine and feminine), for example brut (ugly):
Note that, in some part of Friuli, the feminine is pronounced with no-standard substituted vowels, i.e. like the plurals brutes, brutas, or the singulars bruta or bruto.
To form the plural, normal rules are followed; given a masculine singular form, the corresponding feminine form is not so straightforward:
To form the plural of nouns ending in -e, whether feminine or masculine, change the final -e to -is.
To form the plural of almost all other nouns, simply add a final s. Note: this final s is always pronounced as a soft s, that is, like the s of the English word cats, and never with the hard z-sound of the s in dogs.
In some Friulan dialects there are many words whose final consonant becomes silent when the +s is added. These words include just about all those whose singular form ends in -t. The plural of gjat, for example, is written as gjats, but is pronounced in much of Friuli as though it were gjas, and that of plat (that means dish), though written as plats, is often pronounced as plas. Other words in this category include clâf (key) and clap (stone), whose plural forms, clâfs and claps, are often pronounced with a silent f and p, respectively (clâs, clas), so that the longer a in the former is all that distinguishes it from the latter. Note also that a final -ç, which is pronounced either as the English "-ch" (in central Friulan) or as "-s", is pluralized in writing as -çs, regardless of whether the pluralized pronunciation is "-s" or "-ts" (it varies according to dialect); an example is messaç / messaçs (message).
Masculine nouns ending in -l or -li form their plurals by dropping the -l or -li and adding -i.
Feminine nouns ending in -l are pluralized regularly.
Some masculine nouns which end in -t are pluralized by changing the final -t to -cj.
Nouns ending in s do not change spelling when pluralized (even though some speakers may pronounce the plural -s differently from the singular -s).
The plural of an (year) has several forms depending on dialect, including ain, ains, agn and agns. Regardless of pronunciation, the written form is agns.
A feature of Friulan are the clitic subject pronouns. These, known in Friulan as pleonastics, are never stressed; they are used together with the verbs to express the subject, and can be found before the verb in declarative sentences or immediately after it in case of interrogative or vocative (otative) sentences.
An example: jo o lavori means I work; jo lavorio? means Do I work?, while lavorassio means I wish I worked.
|Verbs, present, declarative form|
|Person||fevelâ (to speak)||lâ (to go)||jessi (to be)|
|Jo||o fevel-i||o v-oi||o soi|
|Tu||tu fevel-is||tu v-âs||tu sês|
|Lui||al fevel-e||al v-a||al è|
|Nô||o fevel-ìn||o l-in||o sin|
|Vô||o fevel-ais||o v-ais (l-ais)||o sês|
|Lôr||a fevel-in||a v-an||a son|
An adjective can be made into an adverb by adding -mentri to the ending of the feminine singular form of the adjective (lente becomes lentementri, slowly), though it can sometimes lose the -e of the adjective (facile becomes facilmentri, easily). These type of formation is more common in written language; in spoken language people use frequently other forms or locutions (i.e. a planc for slowly).
Most of the Friulan vocabulary is derived from Latin. Needless to say, there have been substantial phonological and morphological changes throughout its history. Therefore many words are shared with Romance languages, but other languages have contributed too:
Nowadays, Friulan is officially recognized in Italy, supported by law 482/1999, which protects linguistic minorities. Therefore, teaching of Friulan has been introduced in many primary schools. An online newspaper is active, and there are also a number of musical groups which use Friulan for their songs as well as some theatrical companies. Recently two movies have been made in Friulan (Tierç lion, Lidrîs cuadrade di trê), with positive reviews in Italian newspapers. In about 40% of the communities in the Province of Udine, road signs are in both Friulan and Italian. There is also an official translation of the Bible. In 2005, a notable brand of beer used Friulan for one of its commercials.
The main association to foster the use and development of Friulan is the Societât filologjiche furlane, founded in Gorizia in 1919.
See main article: List of Friulian place names. Every city and village in Friuli has two names, one in Italian and one in Friulan. Only the Italian is official and used in administration, although it is widely expected that the Friulan ones will receive partial acknowledgement in the near future. For example, the city of Udine is called Udin in Friulan, the town of Tolmezzo is called Tumieç, the town of Aviano is called Avian.
A challenge that Friulan shares with other minorities is to create a standard language and a unique writing system. The regional law 15/1996 approved a standard orthography, which represents the basis of a common variant and should be used in toponyms, official acts, written documents. These standard is based on Central Friulan, which was traditionally the language used in literature already in 1700 and afterwards (the biggest examples are probably Pieri Çorut's works), but with some changes:
There have been several critics of the standardization of Friulan, mainly from speakers of local variants which can differ a lot from it; they also argue that the standard could eventually kill local variants. The supporters of standardization answer about the various advantages that a unique form can bring to the language: above all, it can help to stop the influence of Italian language in the neologisms, which pose a serious threat to Friulan's future development. They also explain it is a written standard without affecting pronunciation, which can follow local variants.
Four dialects of Friulan can be distinguished, all mutually intelligible. They are usually distinguished by the last vowel of many parts of speech (including nouns, adjectives, adverbs), following this scheme:
For example, the word home becomes cjase in Central Friulan, and cjasa or cjaso in other areas. Pier Paolo Pasolini wrote his works in Western Friulan, since he learned the language from his mother who was from Casarsa/Cjasarsa, near Pordenone.
In the 13th century, early literary works in Friulan were based on the language spoken in Cividale, which was at that time the most important town in Friuli. These works show endings in -o, which, interestingly, nowadays is restricted to some villages in Carnia. Later, the main city of Friuli became Udine and the most common ending was -a; only from the 16th century on, -e endings were used in standard Friulan.
In the official writing system, approved by the Province of Udine and used in official documents, Friulan is written using the Latin script, plus the c-cedilla (ç). The letter q is used only for personal names and historical toponyms, in every other case is replaced by c. Besides that, k, x, w, and y appear only in loan words, so they are not considered part of the alphabet.
Aa Bb Cc Çç Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv ZzThere are also grave accents (à, è, ì, ò and ù) and circumflex accents (â, ê, î, ô, and û), which are put above the vowels to distinguish between homophonic words or to show where there is stress (the former) and show long vowels (the latter).
An alternative system is called Faggin-Nazzi from the names of the scholars who proposed it. It is less common, probably also because it is more difficult for a beginner due to its use of letters such as č that are typical of Slavic languages, but seem foreign to native Italian speakers.
|Hello, my name is Jack!||Mandi, jo mi clami Jacum!|
|Today the weather is really hot!||Vuê al è propite cjalt!|
|I really have to go now, see you||O scugni propite lâ cumò, ariviodisi|
|I can’t go out with you tonight, I have to study||No pues vignî fûr cun te usgnot, o ai di studiâ|
The grammar section is based on An introduction to Friulan by R. Pontisso. Some parts are also based loosely on Gramatiche furlane by Fausto Zof, Edizioni Leonardo, Udine 2002.