French language explained

French
Nativename:français
States:See below
Speakers:68 million (2005) to 115 million (2010)[1]
Date:NA
Speakers2:Native and L2: 265–275 million[2]
Familycolor:Indo-European
Fam2:Italic
Fam3:Romance
Fam4:Western Romance
Fam5:Gallo-Iberian
Fam6:Gallo-Romance
Fam7:Gallo-Rhaetian
Fam8:Oïl
Iso1:fr
Iso2:fri
Iso2b:fre
Iso2t:fra
Iso3:fra
Lingua:51-AAA-i
Script:Latin (French alphabet)
Nation:


Numerous international organisations
Agency:Académie française (French Academy)
Map:New-Map-Francophone World.PNG
Notice:IPA

French (French: ''le français'' or French: ''la langue française'') is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the province of Quebec and the Acadia region in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts of the world, the largest numbers of which reside in Francophone Africa.[3] In Africa, French is most commonly spoken in Gabon (where 80% report fluency)[3] Mauritius (78%), Algeria (75%), Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire (70%). French is estimated as having between 70 million[4] and 110 million[5] native speakers and 190 million second language speakers.[6] French is the second-most studied foreign language in the world, after English.[7] [8]

French is a distortion of the spoken Latin language of the Roman Empire, as are languages such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian, Sardinian and Catalan. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl, languages historically spoken in northern France and Belgium which have largely been supplanted by French today. The development of French was also influenced by the native Celtic languages of Roman Gaul and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole.

It is an official language in 29 countries, most of which form what is called, in French, la francophonie, the community of French-speaking countries. It is an official language of all United Nations agencies and a large number of international organizations. According to the European Union, 129 million, or twenty-six percent of the Union's total population, speak French, of whom 72 million are native speakers (65 million in France, 4.5 million in Belgium, plus 2.5 million in Switzerland which is not part of the EU) and 69 million are second-language or foreign language speakers, thus making French the third language in the European Union that people state they are most able to speak, after English and German. Twenty-percent of non-Francophone Europeans know how to speak French, totaling roughly 145.6 million people in Europe alone.

George Weber, author of "Top Languages: The World's 10 most influential Languages", wrote that until the end of the nineteenth century, French had a global dominance similar to that now occupied by English. He said "nobody could pass for educated without the ability to speak French" and "However, French dominance was never so complete as its rival's is now for the simple reason that 100 years ago large parts of the world were not yet connected to rest as they are all today. In Mongolia it was sufficient to speak Mongolian, in Madagascar Malagasy could get you anywhere. Globalization had not been heard of then."[6] As a result of extensive colonial ambitions of France and Belgium (at that time governed by a French-speaking elite), between the 17th and 20th centuries, French was introduced to the Americas, Africa, Polynesia, the Levant, Southeast Asia, and the Caribbean.

According to a demographic projection led by the Université Laval and the Réseau Démographie de l'Agence universitaire de la francophonie, French will be represented by approximately 500 million people in 2025 and by 650 million people, or approximately seven percent of the world's population in 2050.[9] [10]

Geographic distribution

Europe

French is the second-most widely spoken mother tonguein the European Union. It is also the third-most widely understood language in the EU, after English and German, and is one of the three working languages of the European Commission, again, along with English and German.[11]

Legal status in France

See also: Toubon Law and Languages of France.

According to the Constitution of France, French has been the official language since 1992[12] (although previous legal texts have made it official since 1539, see ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts). France mandates the use of French in official government publications, public education except in specific cases (though these dispositions are often ignored) and legal contracts; advertisements must bear a translation of foreign words.

In addition to French, there are also a variety of regional languages and dialects. France has signed the European Charter for Regional Languages, but has not ratified it since that would go against its 1958 Constitution.[13]

Switzerland

French is one of the four official languages of Switzerland (along with German, Italian and Romansh) and is spoken in the western part of Switzerland called Romandie, of which Geneva is the largest city. The language divisions in Switzerland do not coincide with political subdivisions and some cantons have bilingual status for example, cities such Biel/Bienne or cantons such as Valais-Fribourg-Berne. French is the native language of about 20% of the Swiss population and is spoken by 50.4% of the population.

Most of Swiss French is mutually compatible with the standard French spoken in France, but it is often used with small differences, such as those involving numbers after 69 and slight differences in other vocabulary terms.

Belgium

In Belgium, French is the official language of Wallonia (excluding a part of the East Cantons, which are German-speaking) and one of the two official languages—along with Dutch—of the Brussels-Capital Region, where it is spoken by the majority of the population, though often not as their primary language.[14] French and German are not official languages nor recognized minority languages in the Flemish Region, although along borders with the Walloon and Brussels-Capital regions, there are a dozen municipalities with language facilities for French speakers. A mirror situation exists for the Walloon Region with respect to the Dutch and German languages. In total, native French speakers make up about 40% of the country's population, while the remaining 60% speak Dutch as a first language. Of the latter, 59% claim French as a second or third language, meaning that about three quarters of the Belgian population can speak French.[15]

Monaco and Andorra

Although Monégasque is the national language of the Principality of Monaco, French is the only official language, and French nationals make up some 47% of the population.

Catalan is the only official language of Andorra; however, French is commonly used because of the proximity to France and the fact that France is, with the Urgel's Bishop, part of the government. French nationals make up 7% of the population.

Luxembourg

French is one of three official languages of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, alongside German and Luxembourgish, the natively spoken language of Luxembourg. French is primarily used for administrative purposes by the government, and is also the language used to converse with foreigners.[16] Luxembourg's education system is trilingual: the first years of primary school are in Luxembourgish, before changing to German; while in secondary school, the language of instruction changes to French.[16]

Italy

French is also an official language in the small region of Aosta Valley, Italy.[17] Though most non-Italophone people in the region speak Franco-Provençal,[18] they use standard French to write. That is because the international recognition of Franco-Provençal as a separate language (as opposed to a dialect or patois of French) was quite recent.

The United Kingdom and the Channel Islands

French is a large minority language and immigrant language in the United Kingdom, with over 300,000 French-born people in the UK. It is also the most popular foreign language. French is spoken and understood by 23% of the UK population.

Modern and Middle English reflect a mixture of Oïl and Old English lexicons after the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, when a Norman-speaking aristocracy took control of a population whose mother tongue was Germanic in origin. As a result of the intertwined histories of England and continental possessions of the English Crown, many formal and legal words from Modern English have French roots. Thus whilst words such as buy and sell are of Germanic origin, purchase and vend are from Old French.

French is an official language in both Jersey and Guernsey. Both use French to some degree, mostly in an administrative or ceremonial capacity. Jersey Legal French is the standardized variety used in Jersey. However, Norman (in its local forms, Guernésiais and Jèrriais) is the historical vernacular of the islands.

North and South America

Canada

See also: Canadian French, French language in Canada, Spoken languages of Canada and Official bilingualism in Canada.

French is the second most common language in Canada, after English, and both are official languages at the federal level. French is the sole official language in the province of Quebec, being the mother tongue for some 7 million people, or almost 80.1% (2006 Census) of the Province. About 95.0% of the people of Quebec speak French as either their first or second language, and for some as their third language. Quebec is also home to the city of Montreal, which is the world's second largest French speaking city, by number of first language speakers. New Brunswick, where about a third of the population is francophone, is the only officially bilingual province. Portions of Eastern Ontario, Northeastern Ontario, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Alberta and Manitoba have sizable French minorities, and many provinces provide service in French for its linguistic minorities. Smaller pockets of French speakers exist in all other provinces.

About 9,487,500 of Canadians speak French as their first language, or around 30% of the country,[19] [20] with 2,065,300 constituting secondary speakers.[21] Due to the increased bilingual school programs and French Immersion Classes in English Canada, the portion of Canadians proficient in French has risen significantly in the past two decades, and is still rising.

The difference between French spoken in Quebec and French spoken in France is similar in degree to that between American and British English.In Quebec, where the majority of French-speaking Canadians live, the Office québécois de la langue française (English: Quebec Board of the French language) regulates Quebec French and ensures the Charter of the French Language (Bill 101 & 104) is respected. The Office québécois de la langue française determined that "stop" is a valid French word; however, it is observed that stop signs reading "ARRÊT" predominate in French-speaking areas, and "STOP" can be found in majority English-speaking areas.

Haiti

French is one of Haiti's two official languages. It is the principal language of writing, school instruction, and administrative use. It is spoken by all educated Haitians and is used in the business sector. It is also used in ceremonial events such as weddings, graduations and church masses. About 10-15% of the country's population have French as their first language; the rest speak it as a secondary language in varying degrees of proficiency from basic level to fluent. The second official language is the recently standardized Haitian Creole which is spoken by virtually the entire population of Haiti. Haitian Creole is one of the French-based creole languages, drawing the large majority of its vocabulary from French, with influences from West African languages, as well as several European languages. Haitian Creole is closely related to Louisiana Creole and all other French creoles.

French overseas departments and territories in the Americas

French is also the official language in France's overseas departments and territories of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Barthélemy, St. Martin and Saint-Pierre et Miquelon.

United States

See main article: French in the United States.

See also: Cajun French, Louisiana Creole French, Acadian French and Missouri French. French is the fourth[22] [23] most-spoken language in the United States, after English, Spanish and Chinese, and the second most-spoken in the states of Louisiana, Maine, Vermont and New Hampshire.

Louisiana is home to many distinct dialects, collectively known as Louisiana French. Cajun French has the largest number of speakers, mostly living in Acadiana. According to the 2000 United States Census, there are over 194,000 people in Louisiana who speak French at home, the most of any state if Creole French is excluded.[23] New England French, essentially a variant of Canadian French, is spoken in parts of New England. Missouri French was historically spoken in Missouri and Illinois (formerly known as Upper Louisiana), but is nearly extinct today.[24]

Brazil

The French language was spoken in Brazil for a brief period during the colonial attempts of France Antarctique and France Ecquinociale. Also, the language was used by the community of French immigrants and expatriates in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and by the Brazilian public education system.

Today the Karipuna indigenous community (nearly 30,000 people) of Amapá in North Brazil speaks a French creole, the Lanc-Patuá, possibly related to the French Guiana Creole.

Africa

See main article: African French and Maghreb French.

A majority of the world's French-speaking population lives in Africa. According to the 2007 report by the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, an estimated 115 million African people spread across 31 Francophone African countries can speak French as either a first or a second language.[3] This number does not include the people living in non-Francophone African countries who have learned French as a foreign language.[3] Due to the rise of French in Africa, the total French-speaking population is expected to reach 700 million people in 2050.[25]

French is mostly a second language in Africa, but it has become a first language in some areas, such as the region of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire[26] and in Libreville, Gabon.[27] The classification of French as a second language in Francophone Africa is debatable because it is often the only language spoken and written in schools, administrations, radio, TV and the Internet. This prevalence of French is noticeable in popular music, in which French is often mixed with the language of the song. It is not possible to speak of a single form of African French, but rather of diverse forms of African French which have developed because of the contact with many indigenous African languages.[28] In fact, the term African French is a misnomer, as forms are different from country to country, and the root of the French spoken in a particular country depends on its former colonial empire. French spoken in the Benin, for example, is closer to that spoken in France than to French spoken in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is rooted in Belgian French.

In the territories of the Indian Ocean, the French language is often spoken alongside French-derived creole languages, the major exception being Madagascar. There, a Malayo-Polynesian language (Malagasy) is spoken alongside French.

Sub-Saharan Africa is the region where the French language is most likely to expand, because of the expansion of education and rapid demographic growth.[29] It is also where the language has evolved the most in recent years.[30] [31] Some vernacular forms of French in Africa can be difficult to understand for French speakers from other countries,[32] but written forms of the language are very closely related to those of the rest of the French-speaking world.

French is an official language in many African countries, most of them former French or Belgian colonies:

In addition, French is an administrative language and commonly used, though not on an official basis, in Mauritius and in the Maghreb states:

Algeria

Most urban Algerians have some working knowledge of French, and a high (though unknown) percentage speak it fluently.However, because of the country's colonial past, the predominance of French has long been politically fraught. Numerous reforms have been implemented in recent decades to improve the status of Arabic in relation to French, especially in education. For this reason, although Algeria is certainly one of the most Francophone countries in the world outside of France, and has perhaps the largest number of French speakers, it does not participate in the Francophonie association.

Egypt

The official language in Egypt is literary Arabic, and it is mandatory in all schools. The most used second languages in Egypt are English and French, which are learned by some elements of the Egyptian upper and upper-middle classes; most Egyptians will mostly learn English and French in addition to Arabic. Private schools have either English or French as the main language of instruction. Egypt participates in the Francophonie. There are two French-speaking universities in the country, the Université Française d'Égypte and the Université Senghor.

French overseas departments and territories in Africa

French is also the official language of Mayotte and Réunion, two overseas territories of France located in the southwest Indian Ocean.

Asia

Lebanon & Syria & Israel

Arabic is the official language of Lebanon, where a special law regulates the use of French. French is considered a second language by the Lebanese people and is used on bank notes (along with Arabic) and on official buildings. French is widely used by the Lebanese, especially for administrative purposes, and is taught in many schools as a secondary language along with Arabic and English. See further languages of Lebanon.

As in Lebanon, French was official in Syria until 1943. In contrast to the situation in Lebanon, the French language is less used, but it is still spoken to some degree by educated groups, both in the élite and in the middle-class. See further languages of Syria.

There are also a significant number of native and second-language French-speakers in Israel who trace their origins to the francocized Jewish communities of North Africa, (see Maghrebi Jews) and Romania. Today, about 10% of Israelis speak French, taught in the numerous French schools run by the French government and Catholic orders. See further: languages of Israel.

Southeast Asia

French is an administrative language in Laos and Cambodia, although its influence has waned in recent years.[33] In colonial Vietnam, the elites spoke French, and many who worked for the French spoke a French creole known as "Tây Bồi" (now extinct). However, French has been effectively displaced as the main foreign language of choice by English in recent years. The language was also spoken by the elite in the leased territory Guangzhouwan in southern China. (See also: French Indochina)

India

French has de-jure official status in the Indian Union Territory of Pondicherry, along with the regional languages Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam. Some students of Tamil Nadu opt for French as their second or third language (usually behind English and Tamil). According to the French Institute of Pondicherry, French is however "very little spoken" in Pondicherry.[34]

French is commonly taught as a third language in secondary schools in most cities of Maharashtra, including Mumbai (Bombay), as part of the preparation for secondary school (X-SSC) and higher secondary school (XII-HSC) certificate examinations. Certain high-profile schools affiliated with the CBSE in the NCR offer French as an option as early as grade 4.

French is also taught in schools in Chandannagar (a former French colony in West Bengal). Students also have the option of having French as an additional subject in the secondary school (WBBSE) and higher secondary school (WBCHSE) certificate examinations. Nevertheless, French is taught throughout India as an optional foreign language and is a very popular subject among students.

See also: French India.

Oceania and Australasia

French is an official language of the Pacific Island nation of Vanuatu where 45% of the population can speak French. In the French territory of New Caledonia, 97% of the population can speak, read and write French, whereas only 1% have no knowledge of French.[35] In French Polynesia, 95% of the population can speak, read and write French, whereas only 2% have no knowledge of French.[36] In the French territory of Wallis and Futuna, 78% of the population can speak, read and write French, whereas 17% have no knowledge of French.[37]

Dialects

See main article: Dialects of the French language.

History

See main article: History of French. French is a Romance language (meaning that it is descended primarily from Vulgar Latin) that evolved out of the Gallo-Romance dialects spoken in northern France.

Current situation

French was the most important language of diplomacy and international relations from the 17th century to approximately the middle of the 20th century. English has taken over that role since then.[6] [38] [39] French remains one of the most important diplomatic languages,[5] with the language being one of the working languages of NATO, the International Olympic Committee, the UN Secretariat, the Council of Europe, the International Court of Justice, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, European Commission, the European Space Agency, World Trade Organisation and the North American Free Trade Agreement. It is also a working language in nonprofit organisations such as the Red Cross, Amnesty International, Médecins sans Frontières, or Médecins du Monde.[40]

Phonology

See main article: French phonology.

Although there are many French regional accents, foreign learners normally study only one version of the language, which has no commonly used special name.

French pronunciation follows strict rules based on spelling, but French spelling is often based more on history than phonology. The rules for pronunciation vary between dialects, but the standard rules are:

Writing system

Alphabet

See main article: French alphabet.

French is written with the 26 letters of the basic Latin script, with four diacritics appearing on vowels (circumflex accent, acute accent, grave accent, diaeresis) and the cedilla appearing in ⟨ç⟩.

There are two ligatures, ⟨œ⟩ and ⟨æ⟩.

Orthography

See main article: French orthography.

French spelling, like English spelling, tends to preserve obsolete pronunciation rules. This is mainly due to extreme phonetic changes since the Old French period, without a corresponding change in spelling (see Vocabulary below). Moreover, some conscious changes were made to restore Latin orthography:

As a result, it can be difficult to predict the spelling of a word based on the sound. Final consonants are generally silent, except when the following word begins with a vowel. For example, all of these words end in a vowel sound: pied, aller, les, French: finit, beaux. The same words followed by a vowel, however, may sound the consonants, as they do in these examples: beaux-arts, les amis, pied-à-terre.

On the other hand, a given spelling will usually lead to a predictable sound, and the Académie française works hard to enforce and update this correspondence. In particular, a given vowel combination or diacritic predictably leads to one phoneme.

French writing, as with any language, is affected by the spoken language. In Old French, the plural for animal was animals. The sequence was unstable and was turned into a diphthong . This change was then reflected in the orthography: animaus. The us ending, very common in Latin, was then abbreviated by copists monks by the letter x, resulting in a written form animax. As the French language further evolved, the pronunciation of au turned into so that the u was reestablished in orthography for consistency, resulting in modern French animaux (pronounced first before the final was dropped in contemporary French). The same is true for cheval pluralized as chevaux and many others. In addition, castel pl. castels became château pl. châteaux

Some proposals exist to simplify the existing writing system, but they still fail to gather interest.[41] [42] [43] [44]

Grammar

See main article: French grammar.

French grammar shares several notable features with most other Romance languages, including:

French declarative word order is subject–verb–object, although if the object is a pronoun, it precedes the verb. Some types of sentences allow for or require different word orders, in particular inversion of the subject and verb like "Parlez-vous français ?" when asking a question rather than just "Vous parlez français ?" Both questions mean the same thing, however, a rising inflection is always used on both of them whenever asking a question, especially on the second one. Specifically, the first translates into, "Do you speak French?" while the second one is literally just: "You speak French?"

Vocabulary

The majority of French words derive from Vulgar Latin or were constructed from Latin or Greek roots. In many cases a single etymological root appears in French in a "popular" or native form, inherited from Vulgar Latin, and a learned form, borrowed later from Classical Latin. The following pairs consist of a native noun and a learned adjective:

There are also noun-noun and adjective-adjective pairs:

It can be difficult to identify the Latin source of native French words, because in the evolution from Vulgar Latin, unstressed syllables were severely reduced and the remaining vowels and consonants underwent significant modifications.

It is estimated that 12% (4,200) of common French words found in a typical dictionary such as the Petit Larousse or Micro-Robert Plus (35,000 words) are of foreign origin (where Greek and Latin learned words are not seen as foreign). About 25% (1,054) of these foreign words come from English and are fairly recent borrowings. The others are some 707 words from Italian, 550 from ancient Germanic languages, 481 from other Gallo-Romance languages, 215 from Arabic, 164 from German, 160 from Celtic languages, 159 from Spanish, 153 from Dutch, 112 from Persian and Sanskrit, 101 from Native American languages, 89 from other Asian languages, 56 from other Afro-Asiatic languages, 55 from Slavic languages and Baltic languages, 10 from Basque and 144 (about 3%) from other languages.[45]

Numerals

The French counting system is partially vigesimal: twenty (French: vingt) is used as a base number in the names of numbers from 60 to 99. The French word for 80 is French: quatre-vingts, literally "four twenties", and the word for 75 is French: soixante-quinze, literally "sixty-fifteen". This reform arose after the French Revolution to unify the different counting systems (mostly vigesimal near the coast, because of Celtic (via Breton) and Viking influences). This system is comparable to the archaic English use of score, as in "fourscore and seven" (87), or "threescore and ten" (70). In Old French (during the Middle Ages), all numbers from 30 to 99 could be said in either base 10 or base 20, e.g. vint et doze (twenty and twelve) for 32, dous vinz et diz (two twenties and ten) for 50, uitante for 80, or nonante for 90.

Belgian French, Swiss French and the French used in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Burundi are different in this respect. In Belgium and Switzerland 70 and 90 are French: septante and French: nonante. In Switzerland, depending on the local dialect, 80 can be French: quatre-vingts (Geneva, Neuchâtel, Jura) or French: huitante (Vaud, Valais, Fribourg). Octante had been used in Switzerland in the past, but is now considered archaic.[46] In Belgium and in its former African colonies, however, quatre-vingts is universally used.

It should also be noted that French, like most European languages, uses a period (also called a full stop) or a space to separate thousands where English uses a comma or (more recently) a space. The comma is used in French numbers as a decimal point: 2,5 = deux virgule cinq.

Cardinal numbers in French from 1 to 20 are as follows:

Words

The "Canadian" audio samples here are not necessarily from speakers of Quebec French, which has distinct regional pronunciations of certain words.

EnglishFrenchCanadian accentNorthern French accent
FrenchFrançais
EnglishAnglais
YesOui (si when countering an assertion or a question expressed in the negative)
NoNon
Hello!Bonjour! (formal) or Salut (informal) or "Allô" (Canada or when answering on the telephone)
Good evening!Bonsoir!
Good night!Bonne nuit!
Goodbye!Au revoir!
Have a nice day!Bonne journée!
Please/if you pleaseS’il vous plaît (formal) or S’il te plaît (informal)
Thank youMerci
You are welcomeDe rien (informal) or Ce n’est rien (informal) ("it is nothing") or Je vous en prie (formal) or Je t’en prie (informal)
I am sorryPardon or Je suis désolé (if male) / Je suis désolée (if female) or Excuse-moi (informal) / Excusez-moi (formal) / "Je regrette" / /
Who?Qui ?
What?Quoi ? (←informal; used as "What?" in English)) or Comment ? (←formal; used the same as "Pardon me?" in English)
When?Quand ?
Where?Où ?
Why?Pourquoi ?
What is your name?Comment vous appelez-vous ? (formal) or Comment t’appelles-tu ? (informal), ,
BecauseParce que / Car
Because ofà cause de
ThereforeDonc
How?Comment ?
How much?Combien ?
I do not understand.Je ne comprends pas.
Yes, I understand.Oui, je comprends. Except when responding to a negatively posed question, in which case Si is used preferentially over Oui
I agreeJe suis d’accord. D’accord can be used without je suis.
Help!Au secours!(à l’aide)
Can you help me please?Pouvez-vous m’aider s’il vous plaît ? / Pourriez-vous m’aider s’il vous plaît ? (formal) or Peux-tu m’aider s’il te plaît ? / Pourrais-tu m’aider s’il te plaît (informal)
Where are the toilets?Où sont les toilettes ?
Do you speak English?Parlez-vous anglais ?
I do not speak French.Je ne parle pas français.
I do not know.Je ne sais pas.
I know.Je sais.
I am thirsty.J’ai soif. (literally, "I have thirst")
I am hungry.J’ai faim. (literally, "I have hunger")
How are you? / How are things going? / How is everything?Comment allez-vous? (formal) or Ça va? / Comment ça va ? (informal)
I am (very) well / Things are going (very) well // Everything is (very) wellJe vais (très) bien (formal) or Ça va (très) bien. / Tout va (très) bien (informal)
I am (very) bad / Things are (very) bad / Everything is (very) badJe vais (très) mal (formal) or Ça va (très) mal / Tout va (très) mal (informal)
I am all right/so-so / Everything is all right/so-soAssez bien or Ça va comme ci, comme ça or simply Ça va.. (Sometimes said: « Couci, couça. », informal: "bof") i.e. « Comme ci, comme ça. »)
I am fine.Ça va bien.
| |(how)can i help you ? / (do)you need help ? / on a besoins d'aide ! || (comment)pourais-je vous aider ? / (est-ce que)tu a besoin d'aide / we need help!

See also

External links

Courses and tutorials

Vocabulary

Notes and References

  1. http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/actions-france_830/langue-francaise-francophonie-diversite-linguistique_1040/langue-francaise_3094/les-priorites_20237/francais-langue-internationale_83179.html Francophonie
  2. http://www.francophonie.org/IMG/pdf/Synthese-Langue-Francaise-2010.pdf La langue française dans le monde 2010
  3. La Francophonie dans le monde 2006–2007 published by the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Nathan, Paris, 2007.
  4. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/encyclopedia/entry/Frenchla French Language
  5. http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/francophonie/francophonie.htm Francophonie
  6. http://www.andaman.org/BOOK/reprints/weber/rep-weber.htm The World's 10 Most Influential Languages
  7. Figures from Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs (France) official website
  8. http://www.francophonie.org/IMG/pdf/Synthese-Langue-Francaise-2010.pdf International Organization of the Francophonie report (2010)
  9. Web site: Agora: La francophonie de demain. 2011-06-13.
  10. Web site: Bulletin de liaison du réseau démographie. 2011-06-14.
  11. http://ec.europa.eu/stages/information/faq_en.htm Frequently Asked Questions
  12. Loi constitutionnelle 1992 – French: C'est à la loi constitutionnelle du 25 juin 1992, rédigée dans le cadre de l'intégration européenne, que l'on doit la première déclaration de principe sur le français, langue de la République.
  13. http://www.mercator-research.eu/minority-languages/facts-figures/the-european-charter-for-regional-or-minority-languages-and-education The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages and Education
  14.  – The linguistic situation in Belgium (and in particular various estimations of the population speaking French and Dutch in Brussels) is discussed in detail.
  15. 40%+60%*59%=75.4%
  16. http://www.luxembourg.co.uk/lingua.html Languages in Luxembourg
  17. http://www.fondchanoux.org/risultatisondage_1_0_555.aspx
  18. http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/francophonie/OIF-francophones-est2005.htm Qu'est-ce Que La Francophonie
  19. http://www.stgeorges.co.uk/foreign-languages/french-courses/ Saint George International
  20. http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/francophonie/OIF-francophones-est2005.htm Qu'est-ce Que La Francophonie
  21. http://www.nvtc.gov/lotw/months/november/USlanguages.html National Virtual Translation Center
  22. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/QTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=D&-qr_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U_QTP16&-ds_name=D&-_lang=en U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 3
  23. Book: Ammon, Ulrich. Status and Function of Languages and Language Varieties. International Sociological Association. 1989. Walter de Gruyter. 0899253563. 306–308. November 14, 2011.
  24. http://www.english.rfi.fr/africa/20100319-french-language-growing-especially-africa
  25. Le français à Abidjan : Pour une approche syntaxique du non-standard by Katja Ploog, CNRS Editions, Paris, 2002.
  26. "De plus, le français est également devenu la langue maternelle de plus de 30 % des Librevillois et il est de plus en plus perçu comme une langue gabonaise."
  27. "En Afrique, il est impossible de parler d'une forme unique du français mais..."
  28. http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/France-priorities_1/francophony-french-language_1113/french-language_1934/french-language-in-the-world_3441/the-french-language-in-the-world-an-expanding-community_4289.html France-Diplomatie
  29. "Le français, langue en évolution. Dans beaucoup de pays francophones, surtout sur le continent africain, une proportion importante de la population ne parle pas couramment le français (même s'il est souvent la langue officielle du pays). Ce qui signifie qu'au fur et à mesure que les nouvelles générations vont à l'école, le nombre de francophones augmente : on estime qu'en 2015, ceux-ci seront deux fois plus nombreux qu'aujourd'hui."
  30. c) Le sabir franco-africain: French: "C'est la variété du français la plus fluctuante. Le sabir franco-africain est instable et hétérogène sous toutes ses formes. Il existe des énoncés où les mots sont français mais leur ordre reste celui de la langue africaine. En somme, autant les langues africaines sont envahies par les structures et les mots français, autant la langue française se métamorphose en Afrique, donnant naissance à plusieurs variétés."
  31. République centrafricaine: French: Il existe une autre variété de français, beaucoup plus répandue et plus permissive : le français local. C'est un français très influencé par les langues centrafricaines, surtout par le sango. Cette variété est parlée par les classes non instruites, qui n'ont pu terminer leur scolarité. Ils utilisent ce qu'ils connaissent du français avec des emprunts massifs aux langues locales. Cette variété peut causer des problèmes de compréhension avec les francophones des autres pays, car les interférences linguistiques, d'ordre lexical et sémantique, sont très importantes. (One example of a variety of African French that is difficult to understand for European French speakers).
  32. http://www.iht.com/articles/1993/10/16/lang.php French Declines in Indochina, as English Booms
  33. http://www.ifpindia.org/-Pondicherry-.html French Institute of Pondicherry
  34. http://books.google.com/books?id=pya2KY8upAUC&pg=PA2&dq=french+language+diplomacy+17+century&hl=en&ei=EAoJTvv4M-Tw0gHN2NGDCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false The French language today: a linguistic introduction
  35. http://blog.heykiki.com/post/4367386781/why-you-should-learn-to-speak-french Why you should learn French
  36. http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/article_imprim.php3?id_article=15179 French, an international language
  37. Fonétik.fr writing system proposal.
  38. Ortofasil writing system proposal.
  39. Alfograf writing system proposal.
  40. Ortograf.net writing system proposal.
  41. Walter & Walter 1998.
  42. . See also the English Wikipedia article on Welsh language, especially the section "Counting system" and its note on the influence of Celtic in the French counting system.