French Polynesia Explained

Native Name:
Conventional Long Name:French Polynesia
Common Name:French Polynesia
Demonym:French Polynesian
Flag Caption:Overseas collectivity flag
National Motto:"Tahiti Nui Māre'are'a"
(Tahitian)
"Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité"
(French)
National Anthem:La Marseillaise
Official Languages:French
Capital:Papeetē
Ethnic Groups:(in 1988, last ethnic census)[1]
66.5% unmixed Polynesians;
7.1% Polynesians with light European and/or East Asian mixing;
11.9% Europeans (mostly French);
9.3% Demis (mixed European and Polynesian descent);
4.7% East Asians (mostly Chinese)
Latd:17
Latm:34
Latns:S
Longd:149
Longm:36
Longew:W
Largest City:Fa'a'a
Government Type:Dependent territory
Leader Title1:President of France
Leader Name1:Nicolas Sarkozy
Leader Title2:President
of French Polynesia
Leader Name2:
Oscar Temaru
Leader Title3:High Commissioner
Leader Name3:
Richard Didier
Area Rank:173rd
Area Magnitude:1 E9
Area Km2:4,167
Area Sq Mi:1,609
Percent Water:12
Population Estimate:267,000[2]
Population Estimate Rank:177th
Population Estimate Year:Jan. 1, 2010
Population Census:259,596[3]
Population Census Rank:177th
Population Census Year:Aug. 2007
Population Density Km2:63
Population Density Sq M:164
Population Density Rank:130th
Gdp Nominal:US$5.65 billion[4]
Gdp Nominal Rank:not ranked
Gdp Nominal Year:2006
Gdp Nominal Per Capita:US$21,999
Gdp Nominal Per Capita Rank:not ranked
Sovereignty Type:Overseas collectivity of France
Established Event1:Protectorate
Established Date1:1842
Established Event2:Overseas territory
Established Date2:1946
Established Date3:2004
Hdi:n/a
Hdi Rank:n/a
Hdi Year:n/a
Hdi Category:n/a
Currency:CFP franc
Currency Code:XPF
Utc Offset:-10, −9:30, -9
Drives On:right
Cctld:.pf
Calling Code:+689

French Polynesia (; French: Polynésie française, ; Tahitian: Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an overseas country of the French Republic (pays d'outre-mer). It is made up of several groups of Polynesian islands, the most famous island being Tahiti in the Society Islands group, which is also the most populous island and the seat of the capital of the territory (Papeetē). Although not an integral part of its territory, Clipperton Island was administered from French Polynesia until 2007.

History

The island groups that make up French Polynesia were not officially united until the establishment of the French protectorate in 1889. The first of these islands to be settled by indigenous Polynesians were the Marquesas Islands in AD 300 and the Society Islands in AD 800. The Polynesians were organized in loose chieftainships.[5]

European communication began in 1521 when the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sighted Pukapuka in the Tuāmotu-Gambier Archipelago. Dutchman Jakob Roggeveen came across Bora Bora in the Society Islands in 1722, and the British explorer Samuel Wallis visited Tahiti in 1767. The French explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville visited Tahiti in 1768, while the British explorer James Cook visited in 1769. Christian missions began with Spanish priests who stayed in Tahiti for a year from 1774; Protestants from the London Missionary Society settled permanently in Polynesia in 1797.[5] [6]

King Pōmare II of Tahiti was forced to flee to Mo'orea in 1803; he and his subjects were converted to Protestantism in 1812. French Catholic missionaries arrived on Tahiti in 1834; their expulsion in 1836 caused France to send a gunboat in 1838. In 1842, Tahiti and Tahuata were declared a French protectorate, to allow Catholic missionaries to work undisturbed. The capital of Papeetē was founded in 1843. In 1880, France annexed Tahiti, changing the status from that of a protectorate to that of a colony.[7]

In the 1880s, France claimed the Tuamotu Archipelago, which formerly belonged to the Pōmare Dynasty, without formally annexing it. Having declared a protectorate over Tahuata in 1842, the French regarded the entire Marquesas Islands as French. In 1885, France appointed a governor and established a general council, thus giving it the proper administration for a colony. The islands of Rimatara and Rūrutu unsuccessfully lobbied for British protection in 1888, so in 1889 they were annexed by France. Postage stamps were first issued in the colony in 1892. The first official name for the colony was Établissements de l'Océanie (Settlements in Oceania); in 1903 the general council was changed to an advisory council and the colony's name was changed to Établissements Français de l'Océanie (French Settlements in Oceania).[8]

In 1940 the administration of French Polynesia recognised the Free French Forces and many Polynesians served in World War II. Unknown at the time to French and Polynesians, the Konoe Cabinet in Imperial Japan on 16 September 1940 included French Polynesia among the many territories which were to become Japanese possessions in the post-war world[9] – though in the course of the war in the Pacific the Japanese were not able to launch an actual invasion of the French islands.

In 1946, Polynesians were granted French citizenship and the islands' status was changed to an overseas territory; the islands' name was changed in 1957 to Polynésie Française (French Polynesia). In 1962, France's early nuclear testing ground of Algeria became independent and the Maruroa atoll in the Tuamotu Archipelago was selected as the new testing site; tests were conducted underground after 1974.[10] In 1977, French Polynesia was granted partial internal autonomy; in 1984, the autonomy was extended. French Polynesia became a full overseas collectivity of France in 2004.[6] [11]

In September 1995, France stirred up widespread protests by resuming nuclear testing at Fangataufa atoll after a three-year moratorium. The last test was on 27 January 1996. On 29 January 1996, France announced that it would accede to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, and no longer test nuclear weapons.[12]

Politics

See main article: Politics of French Polynesia. Politics of French Polynesia takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic French overseas collectivity, whereby the President of French Polynesia is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Assembly of French Polynesia (the territorial assembly).

Political life in French Polynesia has been marked by great instability since the mid-2000s. On 14 September 2007, the pro-independence leader Oscar Temaru, 63, was elected president of French Polynesia for the 3rd time in 3 years (with 27 of 44 votes cast in the territorial assembly).[13] He replaced former President Gaston Tong Sang, opposed to independence, who lost a no-confidence vote in the Assembly of French Polynesia on 31 August after the longtime former president of French Polynesia, Gaston Flosse, hitherto opposed to independence, sided with his long enemy Oscar Temaru to topple the government of Gaston Tong Sang. Oscar Temaru, however, had no stable majority in the Assembly of French Polynesia, and new territorial elections were held in February 2008 to solve the political crisis.The party of Gaston Tong Sang won the territorial elections, but that did not solve the political crisis: the two minority parties of Oscar Temaru and Gaston Flosse, who together have one more member in the territorial assembly than the political party of Gaston Tong Sang, allied to prevent Gaston Tong Sang from becoming president of French Polynesia. Gaston Flosse was then elected president of French Polynesia by the territorial assembly on February 23, 2008 with the support of the pro-independence party led by Oscar Temaru, while Oscar Temaru was elected speaker of the territorial assembly with the support of the anti-independence party led by Gaston Flosse. Both formed a coalition cabinet. Many observers doubted that the alliance between the anti-independence Gaston Flosse and the pro-independence Oscar Temaru, designed to prevent Gaston Tong Sang from becoming president of French Polynesia, could last very long.[14]

At the French municipal elections held in March 2008, several prominent mayors who are member of the Flosse-Temaru coalition lost their offices in key municipalities of French Polynesia, which was interpreted as a disapproval of the way Gaston Tong Sang, whose party French Polynesian voters had placed first in the territorial elections the month before, had been prevented from becoming president of French Polynesia by the last minute alliance between Flosse and Temaru's parties. Eventually, on 15 April 2008 the government of Gaston Flosse was toppled by a constructive vote of no confidence in the territorial assembly when two members of the Flosse-Temaru coalition left the coalition and sided with Tong Sang's party. Gaston Tong Sang was elected president of French Polynesia as a result of this constructive vote of no confidence, but his majority in the territorial assembly is very narrow. He offered posts in his cabinet to Flosse and Temaru's parties which they both refused. Gaston Tong Sang has called all parties to help end the instability in local politics, a prerequisite to attract foreign investors needed to develop the local economy.

Despite a local assembly and government, French Polynesia is not in a free association with France, like the Cook Islands with New Zealand or the Federated States of Micronesia with the United States. As a French overseas collectivity, the local government has no competence in justice, education, security and defense, directly provided and administered by the French State, the Gendarmerie and the French Military. The highest representative of the State in the territory is the High Commissioner of the Republic in French Polynesia (French: Haut commissaire de la République).

French Polynesia also sends two deputies to the French National Assembly, one representing the Leeward Islands administrative subdivision, the Austral Islands administrative subdivision, the commune (municipality) of Mo'orea-Mai'ao, and the westernmost part of Tahiti (including the capital Papeetē), and the other representing the central and eastern part of Tahiti, the Tuāmotu-Gambier administrative division, and the Marquesas Islands administrative division. French Polynesia also sends one senator to the French Senate.

French Polynesians vote in the French presidential elections and at the 2007 French presidential election, in which the pro-independence leader Oscar Temaru openly called to vote for the Socialist candidate Ségolène Royal while the parties opposed to independence generally supported the center-right candidate Nicolas Sarkozy, the turnout in French Polynesia was 69.12% in the first round of the election and 74.67% in the second round. French Polynesians voters placed Nicolas Sarkozy ahead of Ségolène Royal in both rounds of the election (2nd round: Nicolas Sarkozy 51.9%; Ségolène Royal 48.1%).[15]

Administration

Between 1946 and 2003, French Polynesia had the status of an overseas territory (French: territoire d'outre-mer, or TOM). In 2003 it became an overseas collectivity (French: collectivité d'outre-mer, or COM). Its statutory law of 27 February 2004 gives it the particular designation of overseas country inside the Republic (French: pays d'outre-mer au sein de la République, or POM), but without legal modification of its status.

Administrative divisions

See main article: Administrative divisions of French Polynesia. French Polynesia has five administrative subdivisions (French: subdivisions administratives):

Geography

See main article: Geography of French Polynesia. The islands of French Polynesia have a total land area of 4,167 square kilometres (1,622 sq. mi) scattered over 2,500,000 square kilometres (965,255 sq. mi) of ocean. There are around 130 islands in French Polynesia.[16] The highest point is Mount Orohena on Tahiti.

It is made up of six groups of islands. The largest and most populated island is Tahiti, in the Society Islands.

The island groups are:

Aside from Tahiti, some other important atolls, islands, and island groups in French Polynesia are: Ahē, Pora Pora, Hiva 'Oa, Huahine, Mai'ao, Maupiti, Meheti'a, Mo'orea, Nuku Hiva, Ra'iātea, Taha'a, Te Ti'aroa, Tupua'i, and Tūpai.

Top 3 largest communes
CommuneIslandPopulation
FaaaTahiti29,900
PapeeteTahiti26,300
MahinaTahiti14,500

Economy

See main article: Economy of French Polynesia. The GDP of French Polynesia in 2006 was 5.65 billion US dollars at market exchange rates, the fifth-largest economy in Oceania after Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, and New Caledonia.[4] The GDP per capita was 21,999 US dollars in 2006 (at market exchange rates, not at PPP), lower than in Hawai'i, Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia, but higher than in all the independent insular states of Oceania.[4]

French Polynesia has a moderately developed economy, which is dependent on imported goods, tourism, and the financial assistance of mainland France. Tourist facilities are well developed and are available on the major islands. Also, as the noni fruit from these islands is discovered for its medicinal uses, people have been able to find jobs related to this agricultural industry.

The legal tender of French Polynesia is the CFP Franc.

Agriculture: coconuts, vanilla, vegetables, fruits.

Natural resources: timber, fish, cobalt.

In 2008 French Polynesia's imports amounted to 2.2 billion US dollars and exports amounted to 0.2 billion US dollars.[17] The major export of French Polynesia is their famous black Tahitian pearls which accounted for 55% of exports (in value) in 2008.[17]

Demographics

See main article: Demographics of French Polynesia. Total population on 1 January 2010 was 267,000 inhabitants,[2] up from 259,596 at the August 2007 census.[3] At the 2007 census, 68.6% of the population of French Polynesia lived on the island of Tahiti alone.[3] The urban area of Papeetē, the capital city, has 131,695 inhabitants (2007 census).

At the 2007 census, 87.3% of people living in French Polynesia were born in French Polynesia, 9.3% were born in metropolitan France, 1.4% were born in overseas France outside of French Polynesia, and 2.0% were born in foreign countries.[18] At the 1988 census, the last census which asked questions regarding ethnicity, 66.5% of people were ethnically unmixed Polynesians, 7.1 % were Polynesians with light European and/or East Asian mixing, 11.9% were Europeans (mostly French), 9.3% were people of mixed European and Polynesian descent, the so-called Demis (literally meaning "Half"), and 4.7% were East Asians (mainly Chinese).[1]

The Europeans, the Demis and the East Asians are essentially concentrated on the island of Tahiti, particularly in the urban area of Papeetē, where their share of the population is thus much greater than in French Polynesia overall.[1] Race mixing has been going on for more than a century already in French Polynesia, resulting in a rather mixed society. For example Gaston Flosse, the long-time leader of French Polynesia, is a Demi (European father from Lorraine and Polynesian mother).[19] His main opponent and former president, Gaston Tong Sang is a member of the East Asian (in his case Chinese) community.[20] Oscar Temaru, the current president, is ethnically Polynesian (father from Tahiti, mother from the Cook Islands),[21] but he has admitted to also have Chinese ancestry.[22]

Despite a long tradition of race mixing, racial tensions have been growing in recent years, with politicians using a xenophobic discourse and fanning the flame of racial tensions.[22] [23] The pro-independence politicians have long pointed the finger at the European community (Oscar Temaru, pro-independence leader and former president of French Polynesia, was for example found guilty of "racial discrimination" by the criminal court of Papeetē in 2007 for having referred to the Europeans living in French Polynesia as "trash", "waste").[24] More recently, the Chinese community which controls many businesses in French Polynesia has been targeted in verbal attacks by the newly allied Gaston Flosse and Oscar Temaru in their political fight against Gaston Tong Sang, whose Chinese origins they emphasize in contrast with their Polynesian origins, despite the fact that they both have mixed origins (European and Polynesian for Flosse; Polynesian and Chinese for Temaru).[25]

In April 2008, after the government of Gaston Flosse was toppled in the Assembly of French Polynesia and Gaston Tong Sang became the new president of French Polynesia, two French Polynesian labor union leaders made anti-Chinese remarks ("I'm not hiding from the fact that I wouldn't like our country to be ruled by someone who's not a Polynesian"; "a Chinese only thinks of the business leaders, because he is a businessman").[26] These anti-Chinese remarks caused a political furor and were widely condemned in French Polynesia.[27]

Historical population

1907191119211926193119361941194619511956
30,60031,90031,60035,90040,40044,00051,20058,20063,30076,323
196219711977198319881996200220072010
84,551119,168137,382166,753188,814219,521245,516259,596267,000
Official figures from past censuses.[28] [29] [30]

Languages

French is the only official language of French Polynesia.[31] An organic law of 12 April 1996 states that "French is the official language, Tahitian and other Polynesian languages can be used." At the 2007 census, among the population whose age was 15 and older, 68.5% of people reported that the language they speak the most at home is French, 29.9% reported that the language they speak the most at home is any of the Polynesian languages (four-fifth of which Tahitian), 1.0% reported a Chinese language (half of which Hakka), and 0.6% another language.[32]

At the same census, 94.7% of people whose age was 15 or older reported that they could speak, read and write French, whereas only 2.0% reported that they had no knowledge of French.[32] 74.6% of people whose age was 15 or older reported that they could speak, read and write one of the Polynesian languages, whereas 13.6% reported that they had no knowledge of any of the Polynesian languages.[32]

Religion

Christianity is the main religion of the islands, a majority (54%) belonging to various Protestant churches and a large minority (30%) being Roman Catholic. Slightly more than 50% of French Polynesia's population belongs to the Maohi Protestant Church, the largest Protestant denomination.[33] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints had 20,282 members as of 2009.[34] Jehovah's Witnesses -according to the 2009 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses- had 2,248 publishers in Tahiti as of 2009.

Transportation

See main article: Transportation in French Polynesia. There are 53 airports in French Polynesia; 46 are paved.[35] The Faaa International Airport is the only international airport in French Polynesia. Each island has its own airport that serves flights to other islands. Air Tahiti is the main airline that flies around the islands.

Notable people

Music

See main article: Music of French Polynesia. French Polynesia came to the forefront of the world music scene in 1992, with the release of The Tahitian Choir's recordings of unaccompanied vocal Christian music called himene tārava, recorded by French musicologist Pascal Nabet-Meyer. This form of singing is common in French Polynesia and the Cook Islands, and is distinguished by a unique drop in pitch at the end of the phrases, which is a characteristic formed by several different voices; it is also accompanied by steady grunting of staccato, nonsensical syllables.

See also

References

Bibliography

. Captain James Cook. Richard Hough. 1995. W W Norton. 0393036804.

External links

Government
General information
Travel

Notes and References

  1. Web site: Frontières ethniques et redéfinition du cadre politique à Tahiti. PDF. 31 May 2011.
  2. Web site: Bilan, principaux indicateurs et estimations de population (Ensemble Polynésie). Institut Statistique de Polynésie Française (ISPF). 21 January 2011.
  3. Web site: Population légale au 20 août 2007. Institut Statistique de Polynésie Française (ISPF). 13 January 2009.
  4. Web site: La Production Intérieure Brute et le Produit Intérieur Brut. Institut Statistique de Polynésie Française (ISPF). 14 September 2009.
  5. Web site: History of Polynesia, before 1797. Alexander. Ganse. 20 October 2007.
  6. Web site: History of French Polynesia. History of Nations. 20 October 2007.
  7. Web site: History of French Polynesia, 1797 to 1889. Alexander. Ganse. 20 October 2007.
  8. Web site: History of French Polynesia, 1889 to 1918. Alexander. Ganse. 20 October 2007.
  9. The Japanese claim to the French Pacific islands, along with many other vast territories, appears in the 16 September 1940 "Sphere of survival for the Establishment of a New Order in Greater East Asia by Imperial Japan", published in 1955 by Japan's Foreign Ministry as part of the two-volume "Chronology and major documents of Diplomacy of Japan 1840–1945" – here quoted from "Interview with Tetsuzo Fuwa: Japan's War: History of Expansionism", Japan Press Service, July 2007
  10. Web site: History of Polynesia, 1939 to 1977. Alexander. Ganse. 20 October 2007.
  11. Web site: History of French Polynesia, 1977 to present. Alexander. Ganse. 20 October 2007.
  12. News: New York Times. France Ending Nuclear Tests That Caused Broad Protests. Craig R. Whitney. 30 January 1996. 20 October 2007.
  13. News: BBC NEWS, French Polynesia gets new leader. BBC News. 14 September 2007. 31 May 2011.
  14. http://www.rfo.fr/article1437.html
  15. Web site: POLYNESIE FRANCAISE (987) (résultats officiels). Government of France. Minister of the Interior. 14 September 2007.
  16. [Kingfisher plc|Kingfisher]
  17. Web site: La Polynésie française en 2008. PDF. Institut d'émission d'Outre-Mer (IEOM). 14 September 2009.
  18. Web site: Recensement 2007 – Migrations : Chiffres clés. Institut Statistique de Polynésie Française (ISPF). 15 November 2008.
  19. http://www.minorites.org/article.php?IDA=2364 Flosse s'efface après 20 ans de règne sur la Polynésie
  20. http://polynesie.rfo.fr/article340.html Victoire de Gaston Tong Sang
  21. Web site: TUNUI. Portrait du Président Oscar Manutahi TEMARU. Teaomaohi.pf. 22 February 1999. 31 May 2011.
  22. Web site: Logiques " autonomiste " et " indépendantiste " en Polynésie française. Conflits.org. 31 May 2011.
  23. Web site: Temaru-Flosse: le rebond du nationalisme tahitien. Rue89.com. 19 January 2011. 31 May 2011.
  24. http://www.pacificmagazine.net/news/2007/07/12/temaru-found-guilty-of-racial-discrimination Temaru Found Guilty Of "Racial Discrimination"
  25. http://polynesie.rfo.fr/article349.html Politique : Toujours pas de gouvernement
  26. http://www.pacificmagazine.net/news/2008/04/18/anti-chinese-remarks-cause-a-political-furor Anti-Chinese Remarks Cause A Political Furor
  27. http://www.tahitipresse.pf/index.cfm?snav=see&presse=23774 Propos "anti-chinois": les réactions se multiplient
  28. Web site: 2002 census. . Legifrance.gouv.fr. 31 May 2011.
  29. http://www.ispf.pf/(qbjrtn454t2i14453i3q5pi4)/stat/demo/rp2002/retro/tables/retro1.xls 1971, 1977, 1983, 1988, and 1996 censuses
  30. http://www.persee.fr/showPage.do?zoom=0&urn=pop_0032-4663_1972_num_27_4_15221&pageId=pop_0032-4663_1972_num_27_4_T1_0704_0000 Censuses from 1907 to 1962 in Population, 1972, #4–5, pp. 705–706, published by INED
  31. http://polynesie.rfo.fr/infos/actualites/langues-le-tahitien-reste-interdit-a-lassemblee-de-polynesie_37394.html Le tahitien reste interdit à l'assemblée de Polynésie
  32. Web site: Recensement 2007 – Langues : Chiffres clés. Institut Statistique de Polynésie Française (ISPF). 15 November 2008.
  33. News: http://www.webcitation.org/64LUkdnR5. Tahitipresse. 2010-07-26. 2011-12-31.
  34. http://newsroom.lds.org/ldsnewsroom/eng/statistical-information LDS Newsroom Statistical Information
  35. Web site: [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fp.html CIA – The World Factbook]. Cia.gov. 31 May 2011.