Düsseldorf Explained

Düsseldorf
Art:City
Lat Deg:51
Lat Min:14
Lon Deg:6
Lon Min:47
Bundesland:North Rhine-Westphalia
Regierungsbezirk:Düsseldorf
Kreis:urban
Höhe:38
Fläche:217
Einwohner:584361
Pop Urban:1220000
Pop Metro:11300000 (Rhein-Ruhr)
Stand:2009-06-30
Pop Ref:[1]
Plz:40001-40629
Plz-Alt:4000
Vorwahl:0211
Kfz:D
Gemeindeschlüssel:05 1 11 000
Nuts:DEA11
Locode:DE DUS
Gliederung:10 districts, 49 boroughs
Adresse:Marktplatz
40213 Düsseldorf
Website:www.Duesseldorf.de
Bürgermeister:Dirk Elbers
Bürgermeistertitel:Oberbürgermeister
Partei:CDU
Ruling Party1:CDU
Ruling Party2:FDP

Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and centre of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.

Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre and renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.[2] [3] [4] Located centrally within the European Megalopolis, the city is headquarter to five Fortune Global 500 and several DAX companies. Messe Düsseldorf organizes nearly one fifth of all world‘s premier trade shows.[5]

Culturally, Düsseldorf is known for its academy of fine arts (Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, e.g. Joseph Beuys, Emanuel Leutze, August Macke, Gerhard Richter, Sigmar Polke and Andreas Gursky), its influence on early electronic music (Kraftwerk) and its large Japanese community. As a city by the river Rhine, Düsseldorf is a stronghold for Rhenish Carnival celebrations. Every year in July more than 4.5 million people visit the city's Largest Fair on the Rhine funfair.[6]

As the seventh most populous city in Germany by population within city limits and an urban population of 1.5 million,[7] Düsseldorf is one of the country's five global cities. The Mercer's 2009 Quality of Living survey of cities with the highest quality of life ranked Düsseldorf sixth worldwide and first in Germany.[8] [9]

History

When the Roman Empire was strengthening its position throughout Europe, a few Germanic tribes clung in marshy territory off the eastern banks of the Rhine River.[10]

In the 7th and 8th centuries, the odd farming or fishing settlement could be found at the point where the small river Düssel flows into the Rhine. It was from such settlements that the city of Düsseldorf grew.

The first written mention of the town of Düsseldorf (then called Dusseldorp in the local Low Rhenish dialect) dates back to 1135. Under Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa the small town of Kaiserswerth to the north of Düsseldorf became a well fortified outpost, where soldiers kept a watchful eye on every movement on the Rhine. Kaiserswerth eventually became a suburb of Düsseldorf in 1929.

In 1186 Düsseldorf came under the rule of Berg. The dukes of Berg moved their seat to the town in 1386. 14 August 1288 is one of the most important dates in the history of Düsseldorf as it was on this day that the sovereign Count Adolf V of Berg granted the village on the banks of the Düssel the Town privileges.

Prior to that announcement, a bloody struggle for power had taken place between the Archbishop of Cologne and the count of Berg, culminating in the Battle of Worringen. The Archbishop of Cologne's forces were wiped out by the forces of the count of Berg who were supported by citizens and farmers of Cologne and Düsseldorf, paving the way for Düsseldorf's elevation to city status, which is commemorated today by a monument on the Burgplatz. In fact, the custom of turning cartwheels is credited to the children of Düsseldorf. There are variations of the origin[11] of the cartwheeling children, but the most famous is the story. Today the symbol (Der Radschläger[11]) represents the story and every year the Düsseldorfers celebrate by having a cartwheeling contest.

After this battle the relationship between the two cities deteriorated, because they were commercial rivals. It is often said that there is a kind of hostility between the citizens of Cologne and Düsseldorf. Today, it finds its expression mainly in a humorous form (especially during the Rhineland Karneval) and in sports.

A market square sprang up on the banks of the Rhine and the square was protected by city walls on all four sides. In 1380, Düsseldorf was made regional capital of the Duchy of Berg. During the following centuries several famous landmarks were built, including the Collegiate Church of St. Lambertus. In 1609, the ducal line of the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg died out, and after a virulent struggle over succession, Jülich and Berg fell to the Wittelsbach Counts of Palatinate-Neuburg, who made Düsseldorf their main domicile, even after they inherited the Electoral Palatinate, in 1685, becoming now Prince-electors as Electors Palatine.

Düsseldorf's growth was even more impressive under the leadership of Johann Wilhelm II (r. 1690-1716) in the 18th century, also known to his people as Jan Wellem. Greatly influenced by his wife Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, the art lover designed a vast art gallery with a huge selection of paintings and sculptures that were housed in the Stadtschloss (city castle).

After the death of childless Jan Wellem, the flourishing royal capital fell on hard times again, especially after Elector Charles Theodore inherited Bavaria and moved the electoral court to Munich. With him he took the art collection, which became part of what is now the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. Destruction and poverty struck Düsseldorf after the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon made Berg a Grand Duchy and Düsseldorf its capital. J. C. C. Devaranne, a leader of Solingen's resistance to Napoleon's conscription decrees, was executed here in 1813. After the defeat of Napoleon, the whole Rhineland including Berg was given to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815. The parliament of the Rhine Province was established in Düsseldorf later.

By the mid-19th century, Düsseldorf enjoyed a revival thanks to the Industrial Revolution as the city boasted 100,000 inhabitants by 1882; the figure doubled in 1892.

In 1920, Düsseldorf became the centre for the General Strike. On 15 April 1920 45 delegates of the German Miners Union were murdered by the Freikorps.[12]

It was a target of strategic bombing during World War II, particularly during the RAF bombing campaign against the Ruhr industry in 1943 when over 700 bombers were used in a single night. Raids continued late into the war. As part of the campaign against German oil facilities, the RAF raid of February 20/21 1945 on the Rhenania Ossag refinery in the Reisholz district of Düsseldorf halted oil production there.

The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Düsseldorf in mid-April 1945. The US 97th Infantry Division easily captured the city 18 April 1945 in the absence of organized German resistance.[13]

In 1946 Düsseldorf was made capital of the new federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The city's reconstruction proceeded at a frantic pace and the economic transformation saw Düsseldorf grow into the wealthy city of trade, administration and service industries that it is today.

Geography

Physical geography

Düsseldorf lies at the centre of the Lower Rhine basin, where the delta of the River Düssel flows into the Rhine. The city lies on the east side of the Rhine, except District 4 (Oberkassel, Niederkassel, Heerdt and Lörick).Across the Rhine, the city of Neuss stands on the delta of the Erft river. Düsseldorf lies southwest of the Ruhr urban area, and in the middle of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.

Düsseldorf is built entirely on alluvium, mud, sand, clay and occasionally gravel. The highest point in Düsseldorf is the top of Sandberg in the far eastern part of the city (Hubbelrath borough) at 165m (541feet). The lowest point is at the far northern end in Wittlaer borough where the Schwarzbach enters the Rhine, with an average elevation of 28m (92feet).

Adjacent cities and districts

The following districts and cities border Düsseldorf (clockwise starting from the north):the City of Duisburg, the District of Mettmann (Ratingen, Mettmann, Erkrath, Hilden, Langenfeld, and Monheim), and the District of Neuss (Dormagen, Neuss, and Meerbusch).

Climate

Like the rest of the lower Rhineland, Düsseldorf has cool winters and warm summers, with an average yearly temperature of 11.5C and about 77cm (30inches) of rainfall. The dominant wind direction is from the south or southeast with velocities in the range of 3 to 4 m/s (7–9 mph), with gusts of 3.5 −4.8 m/s (8–10.7 mph). The wind is calm (defined as being under 2 m/s or 4.5 mph) about 35% of the time, more frequently at night and in the winter.[14]

Demographics

Ten largest groups of foreign residents[15]
Country of OriginPopulation (2008)
Turkey14,721
Greece10,106
Italy6,723
Poland6,560
Serbia (incl. Montenegro)5,919
Japan5,908
Morocco4,907
Russian Federation3,573
3,503
Croatia3,376

With a population of 589,682 within city-limits (30. June 2011),[16] Düsseldorf is Germany's seventh largest city. Düsseldorf's population number surpassed the threshold of 100,000 inhabitants during the height of industrialisation in 1882, and (to-date) peaked with just over 705,000 in 1962. Since then, the city lost residents mainly moving into neighboring municipalities, but since the late 1990s, the city's population is again slowly rising.

A total of 109,883[15] of Düsseldorf's population are foreigners (31. December 2008), the majority of whom come from within Europe (81,742). The largest national minorities are Turks, Greeks, and Italians. Düsseldorf and its surroundings have the third-largest Japanese community in Europe and the largest in Germany (about 11,000 people). Düsseldorf has the third-largest Jewish community in Germany, with about 7,600 members: more than 1% of the city's population.

Government

Mayors

See main article: List of mayors of Düsseldorf.

Districts

See main article: Districts of Düsseldorf. Since 1975, Düsseldorf is divided into ten administrative districts. Each district (Bezirk) has its own elected district council (Bezirksvertretung) and its own district mayor (Bezirksvorsteher). The district councils are advisory only. Each district is further subdivided into boroughs. There are 49 boroughs in Düsseldorf.[17]

District 1 (Stadtbezirk 1)
  • Altstadt, Carlstadt, Derendorf, Golzheim, Pempelfort, Stadtmitte
    District 2 (Stadtbezirk 2)
  • Düsseltal, Flingern-Nord, Flingern-Süd
    District 3 (Stadtbezirk 3)
  • Bilk, Flehe, Friedrichstadt, Hafen, Hamm, Oberbilk, Unterbilk, Volmerswerth
    District 4 (Stadtbezirk 4)
  • Heerdt, Lörick, Niederkassel, Oberkassel
    District 5 (Stadtbezirk 5)
  • Angermund, Kaiserswerth, Kalkum, Lohausen, Stockum, Wittlaer
  • District 6 (Stadtbezirk 6)
  • Lichtenbroich, Mörsenbroich, Rath, Unterrath
    District 7 (Stadtbezirk 7)
  • Gerresheim, Grafenberg, Hubbelrath, Ludenberg
    District 8 (Stadtbezirk 8)
  • Eller, Lierenfeld, Unterbach, Vennhausen
    District 9 (Stadtbezirk 9)
  • Benrath, Hassels, Himmelgeist, Holthausen, Itter, Reisholz, Urdenbach, Wersten
    District 10 (Stadtbezirk 10)
  • Garath, Hellerhof
  • Economy

    Düsseldorf is not only widely known as a centre of German advertising and fashion industries: in the last few years the city on the Rhine has become one of the top telecommunications centres in Germany. There are 18 internet service providers located in the capital of North-Rhine Westphalia. With two of the four big German providers of mobile frequencies, D2 Vodafone and E-Plus, Düsseldorf leads the German mobile phone market. There are also many foreign trading centres in Düsseldorf such as NTT, Ericsson, Sandvik, Nokia and GTS. Eurowings and formerly independent LTU International, are two airlines, with headquarters in the city.[18]

    Many of the internet companies in Düsseldorf have their roots in the world of advertising: there are 400 advertising agencies in Düsseldorf, among them three of the largest in Germany: BBDO Group, Publicis Group and Grey Group. A number of affiliates of foreign agencies deserve mention as well, such as Ogilvy & Mather, Dentsu, Hakuhodo, Digital District and DDB. There are also about 200 publishing houses in Düsseldorf.

    In Düsseldorf there are about 170 national and international financial institutions, and about 130 insurance agencies, and one of the biggest German stock exchanges.Several other major companies have their headquarters in the city: Peek & Cloppenburg (fashion), L'Oréal Germany (Cosmetics and Beauty); Henkel AG & Co. KGaA (Branded Consumer Goods and Industrial technologies); E.ON (energy); ThyssenKrupp (metallurgy); Metro (wholesale, retail); Ergo (insurance); LTU (air transport), Esprit Holdings (fashion, headquarters in Ratingen near Düsseldorf), Cognis (chemicals, headquarter in Monheim near Düsseldorf, but production mainly in Düsseldorf).

    Daimler AG builds the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter and Volkswagen Crafter light commercial vehicles in Düsseldorf.Since the 1960s, there has been a strong relationship between the city and Japan. Many Japanese banks and corporations have their European headquarters in Düsseldorf - so many that Düsseldorf has the third largest Japanese community in Europe, after London and Paris.[19] [20]

    The "Kö", which stands for Königsallee ("King's Avenue"), is a popular shopping destination. Some of the most reputed jewellery shops, designer labels, and galleries have their stores here. The Kö has about the highest rents for shops and bureaus in Germany. Messe Düsseldorf organizes several international congresses and trade fairs throughout the year, most notably boot Düsseldorf Boat Show, drupa Printing & Media and cpd Fashion Show.

    Media

    Important newspapers and journals such as Handelsblatt, Rheinische Post, Wirtschaftswoche, Deutsches Wirtschaftsblatt and VDI-Nachrichten are published in Düsseldorf. Almost all of these papers are available online on the Internet. Renowned filmmaking companies, such as Germany's biggest cinema enterprise, the Riech-Group, and TV channels such as WDR, ZDF, and QVC are also located in Düsseldorf.

    Transport

    Düsseldorf International Airport, also referred to as Rhein-Ruhr Airport, is located eight kilometres (5 mi) from the city centre and can easily be reached by train or the S-Bahn urban railway. There is a long-distance train station served by regional and national services, which is linked to the airport by the SkyTrain, an automatic people mover. Another station situated under the terminal building carries the S-Bahn line (S11) to Düsseldorf Hbf, the city's central station and to Cologne as well as a few selected night services.

    After Frankfurt and Munich, Düsseldorf International is Germany's third largest commercial airport, with 18.6 million passengers annually. The airport offers 180 destinations on 4 continents, and is served by 70 airlines. The airport buildings were partly destroyed by a devastating fire caused by welding works in 1996, killing 17 people. It was completely rebuilt and the Skytrain installed.

    The city is a major hub in the Deutsche Bahn (DB) railway network. More than 1,000 trains stop in Düsseldorf daily. Düsseldorf Hauptbahnhof at Konrad-Adenauer-Platz is located in Düsseldorf-Stadtmitte. Several Rhein-Ruhr S-Bahn lines connect Düsseldorf to other cities of Rhine-Ruhr. Local Düsseldorf Straßenbahn and light rail Düsseldorf Stadtbahn traffic, as well as local bus traffic, is carried out by the city-owned Rheinbahn which operates within the VRR public transport system. The light rail system also serves neighbouring cities and is partially operated underground.

    The Central Station and the Airport Station (Flughafen-Bahnhof) are connected to the national and European high-speed systems (Intercity/Eurocity, IC/EC and InterCityExpress).

    North Rhine-Westphalia has the densest network of autobahns in Germany and Düsseldorf is directly accessible via the A3, A44, A46, A52, A57, A59 and A524.

    Culture and recreation

    Art-loving Elector Jan Wellem and his wife Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici of Tuscany, were the patrons of Düsseldorf's first significant cultural activities in the 17th and 18th centuries. Heinrich Heine, whose 200th birthday was celebrated in 1997, Clara and Robert Schumann as well as Felix Mendelssohn are the most prominent artists related to the city. Artistic impulses were often born in the Academy of Fine Arts and the names of Paul Klee, Joseph Beuys, Gerhard Richter as well as Albert Bierstadt are associated with the institution (Düsseldorf School). The Düsseldorf cultural scene comprises traditional and avant-garde, classical and glamorous. The world famous state art collection of North Rhine-Westphalia, the highly acclaimed Deutsche Oper am Rhein (opera), and the Düsseldorfer Schauspielhaus (theatre), artistic home of Gustaf Gründgens, are major elements of Düsseldorf's reputation as a centre of the fine arts.

    Beer

    Düsseldorf is well known for its Altbier,[21] a hoppy beerwhich translates as old [style] beer, a reference to the pre-lager brewing method of using a warm top-fermenting yeast like British pale ales.[22] Over time the Alt yeast adjusted to lower temperatures, and the Alt brewers would store or lager the beer after fermentation, leading to a cleaner, crisper beer.

    The name "altbier" first appeared in the 19th century to differentiate the beers of Düsseldorf from the new pale lager that was gaining a hold on Germany.[23] Brewers in Düsseldorf used the pale malts that were used for the modern pale lagers, but retained the old ("alt") method of using warm fermenting yeasts.

    The first brewery to use the name Alt was Schumacher which opened in 1838.[24] The founder, Mathias Schumacher, allowed the beer to mature in cool conditions in wooden casks for longer than normal, and laid the foundation for the modern alt - amber coloured and lagered.[25] The result is a pale beer that has some of the lean dryness of a lager but with fruity notes as well.[26]

    At present, there are five brewpubs in Düsseldorf which brew Altbier on premises: Füchschen, Schumacher, Schlüssel, Uerige and the newly opened Brauerei Kürzer. Four of the five are located in the historic center of Düsseldorf (Altstadt); the other (Schumacher) is located between the Altstadt and the main rail station (Hauptbahnhof), and also maintains an establishment in the Altstadt, Goldener Kessel, directly across the street from Schlüssel.

    Each (except Brauerei Kürzer) produces a special, secret, seasonal "Sticke" version in small quantities, though the names vary: Schlüssel spells it "Stike", without the "c", while Schumacher calls its special beer "Latzenbier", meaning "slat beer", possibly because the kegs from which it was poured had been stored on raised shelves.[27] Füchschen's seasonal is its Weihnachtsbier (Christmas beer), available in bottles starting mid-November, and served in the brewpub on Christmas Eve.[28]

    Music and nightlife

    Since the 1950s the "Kom(m)ödchen" has been one of the most prominent political cabarets of Germany.Düsseldorf's most famous contribution to the culture of modern popular music is beyond doubt the avant-garde electronic music band Kraftwerk. Formed by a few Düsseldorf-born musicians, Kraftwerk are internationally known as the most significant band in the history of post-war German music and as pioneers in electronic music.[29] Internationally-known power metal band Warlock was formed in Düsseldorf in 1982. Their frontwoman, Doro Pesch, has had a successful solo career in Europe and Asia since Warlock ended. The punk band Die Toten Hosen, which is famous around the world, also the most popular singers in Germany Westernhagen and Heino come from Düsseldorf. The electronic act D.A.F. was formed in the city in 1978, as well as the electronic/industrial pioneers Die Krupps in 1980. The experimental post-punk group La Düsseldorf was named after the city, for which it paid with a legal case in the early 1980s.In the Oldtown (Altstadt) German and international tourists go out on the main street Bolkerstraße, while the local scene (students and creative people) prefers the bars on Ratinger Straße and Kurze Straße. In May 2011, Germany hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 and the host city was Düsseldorf.

    Carnival

    One of the biggest cultural events in Düsseldorf is the Karneval (also referred to as the "fifth season") which starts every year on 11 November at 11:11 a.m., and reaches its climax on Rosenmontag (Rose Monday), featuring a huge parade through the streets of Düsseldorf. Karneval ends on Aschermittwoch (Ash Wednesday). The Düsseldorf carnival is part of the traditional carnival festivities in the Rhineland.

    Cuisine

    Traditional meals in the region are Rheinischer Sauerbraten (a beef roast and sometimes horse marinated for a few days in vinegar and spices served with gravy and raisins) and Heaven and Earth (Himmel und Äd) (black pudding with stewed apples mixed with mashed potatoes). In winter the people like to eat Muscheln Rheinischer Art (Rhenish-style mussels) as well as Reibekuchen (fried potato pancake served with apple sauce). Also a special meal: Düsseldorfer Senfrostbraten (Steaks roasted with Düsseldorf mustard on top).

    Together with the French city of Dijon, Düsseldorf is known for its mustard served in a traditional pot called "Mostertpöttche", which was eternalised in a still life by Vincent van Gogh in 1884.[30]

    Rivalry with Cologne

    Düsseldorf and Cologne have a "fierce regional rivalry".[31] The rivalry includes carnival parades, football, and beer.[31] People in Cologne prefer Kölsch while people in Düsseldorf prefer Alt.[31] Waiters and patrons will "scorn" and make a "mockery" of people who order Alt beer in Cologne and Kölsch in Düsseldorf.[31] The rivalry has been described as a "love-hate relationship".[31]

    Theatres

    Museums, arts and history institutes, and other attractions

    Parks and gardens

    Sports

    Düsseldorf's football team Fortuna Düsseldorf, the German Champions of 1933, German Cup Winners of 1979, 1980 and European Cup Winners Cup finalists of 1979 competes in the second German league (2. Bundesliga). Their new stadium, the Esprit arena, opened in January 2005 and has a capacity of 54,500. Düsseldorf is one of nine 1974 FIFA World Cup cities and the Rochusclub Düsseldorf has hosted the tennis World Team Cup since 1978.

    Other sports in Düsseldorf are ice hockey (the DEG Metro Stars, former DEG - Düsseldorfer Eislauf Gemeinschaft, which play in the new ISS-Dome) and American football. The Düsseldorf Panther are one of the most successful teams in Germany with six German Bowl titles and the Eurobowl victory in 1995. In addition the Junior-Team is the most successful youth department in Germany with fifteen Junior Bowl victorys. Rhine Fire Düsseldorf was an established team of the NFL Europe and won the World Bowl two times in 1998 and 2000. Düsseldorf has a successful rugby union team (Düsseldorf Dragons), who play in the regional NRW league and consistently finish with a top 3 position.Table tennis is also played (Borussia Düsseldorf - the most successful team in Germany with Timo Boll), as are handball (HSG Düsseldorf), basketball (Düsseldorf Giants), baseball (Düsseldorf Senators) and dancing (Rot-Weiß Düsseldorf).

    Education

    Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf is located in the southern part of the city.It has about 20,000 students and a wide range of subjects in natural sciences, mathematics, computer sciences, philosophy, social sciences, arts, languages, medicine, pharmacy, economy and the law.

    Other academic institutions include

    Notable buildings

    Notable places

    Twin towns – sister cities

    See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany.

    Düsseldorf is twinned with:[34]

    See also

    External links

    Notes and References

    1. Web site: Bevölkerung im Regierungsbezirk Düsseldorf. IT.NRW. German. 2009-06-30.
    2. Web site: Communla Administration of Düsseldorf, 28 of July 2008.. PDF. 2010-04-16.
    3. Web site: Immobilien Zeitung: ''Mehr Räume für die große Modenschau'' vom 28. August 2008, 1st of March 2009.. PDF. 2010-04-16.
    4. Web site: 'Cushman & Wakefield — European Cities Monitor'. 2011-06-04.
    5. Web site: 'Messe Düsseldorf Annual Report'. 2011-06-04.
    6. http://www.deal-magazin.com/index.php?cont=news&news=10153 2010 survey by
    7. 1,525,029 inhabitants for the Düsseldorf Larger Urban Zone
    8. Web site: Mercer's 2009 Quality of Living survey highlights — Global. 2009-04-28. Mercer. 2009-07-07.
    9. News: World's 20 Best Places To Live. Forbes.com. Matt. Woolsey. 2009-04-28.
    10. Weidenhaupt, Hugo: Kleine Geschichte der Stadt Düsseldorf, Triltsch-Verlag, Düsseldorf 1979, ISBN 3-7998-0000-X, (only in German)
    11. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Düsseldorfer_Radschläger
    12. The German Revolution 1917-1923, by Pierre Broué, Ian H. Birchall, Brian Pearce, p278
    13. Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939-1946 (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books, p. 174.
    14. Klimaatlas - NRW (1989): Der Minister für Umwelt, Raumordnung und Landwirtschaft des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalens, Düsseldorf.
    15. Web site: Statistisches Jahrbuch der Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf - Bevölkerung nach Nationalität. Duesseldorf.de. 2009-12-31. 2011-12-03.
    16. Web site: Amtliche Bevölkerungszahlen. Information und Technik Nordrhein-Westfalen. 2011-06-30. 2011-12-03.
    17. Web site: Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf - Aus den Stadtteilen. Duesseldorf.de. 2009-05-05.
    18. "Kontakt." LTU International. Retrieved on 21 June 2009.
    19. Web site: Japanese Düsseldorf - Düsseldorf Travel Guide - VirtualTourist.com. VirtualTourist.com. 2003-02-11. 2009-05-05.
    20. Web site: Japantag in Düsseldorf: Welcome. Japantag-duesseldorf-nrw.de. 2009-05-05.
    21. Web site: studio orange. Altbier. http://web.archive.org/web/20070429113232/http://www.brauer-bund.de/bierfans/sorten/alt.htm. 2007-04-29. Brauer-bund.de. 2009-05-05.
    22. Web site: Michael Jackson's Beer Hunter - Copper-bottom ales halt lager tide in Germany. Beerhunter.com. 2009-07-08.
    23. Web site: Altbier. Germanbeerinstitute.com. 2009-07-08.
    24. Web site: Düsseldorf Breweries. Europeanbeerguide.net. 2009-07-08.
    25. Prost! The Story of German Beer, Horst D. Dornbusch, Brewers Publications, 1997, pp 109 - 110. ISBN 0-937381-55-1
    26. Web site: Düsseldorf Pub Guide: the best beer bars, pubs and brewpubs. Europeanbeerguide.net. 2009-07-08.
    27. Horst Dornbusch, Altbier. Boulder, CO: Brewers Publications
    28. http://web.archive.org/web/20080127112721/http://www.fuechschen.de/htmlGB/start-frames-61.html Fuchschen web page on Weihnachtsbier
    29. [The Guardian]
    30. Web site: Düsseldorf Altstadt: Van Gogh, Stilleben mit ABB-Senf. Duesseldorf-altstadt.blogspot.com. 2007-01-25. 2009-05-05.
    31. News: Giving beer a home in the Rhineland. 28 July 2011. The Local. 28 July 2011.
    32. Web site: Gerresheim Basilica. 2011-06-01.
    33. Web site: St. Suitbertus Basilica. 2011-06-01.
    34. Web site: Twin Towns. www.amazingdusseldorf.com. 2009-10-29.
    35. Web site: Twin City acitivities. http://web.archive.org/web/20071009084809/http://www.haifa.muni.il/Cultures/en-US/city/CitySecretary_ForeignAffairs/EngActs.htm. 2007-10-09. Haifa Municipality. 2008-02-14.