Condensation is the change of the physical state of aggregation (or simply state) of matter from gaseous phase into liquid phase. When the transition happens from the gaseous phase into the solid phase directly, bypassing the liquid phase the change is called deposition, which is the opposite of sublimation.
Condensation commonly occurs when a vapor is cooled to its dew point, but the dewpoint can also be reached through compression. The condensed vapor is called a condensate, the laboratory or the industrial equipment used for condensation is called a condenser.
The science of studying the thermodynamic properties of moist air and the interrelationships between these in order to analyze, and predict properties by changing in the conditions of moist air is called psychrometry. The interrelationship can be graphically represented, and prediction carried out graphically by the psychrometric chart Most people think the water is condensation, but condensation is only the process of change.
Water vapor that naturally condenses on cold surfaces into liquid water is called dew. Water vapor will only condense onto another surface when the temperature of that surface is cooler than the temperature of the water vapor. The water molecule brings a parcel of heat with it. In order to have condensed, the molecule tranfers its kinetic energy to the atmosphere. When water vapor condenses into liquid water, the hydrogen bonds form again and release latent heat, which increases the sensible heat and causes the air temperature to rise. Sensible heat is removed from the air and the temperature drops when evaporation is occurring and latent heat is converted to sensible heat and the temperature rises when condensation occurs.
Condensation is a crucial component of distillation, an important application in laboratory and industrial chemistry application.
Because condensation is a naturally occurring phenomenon, it can often be used to generate water in large quantities for human use: Many structures that are made solely for the purpose of collecting water from condensation, such as fog fences, air wells and dew ponds. Such systems can often be used to retain soil moisture in areas where active desertification is occurring—so much so that some organizations educate people living in affected areas about water condensers to help them deal effectively with the situation.
|Solid||Solid-Solid Transformation||Melting||Sublimation||align ="center"||-|
|Plasma||align ="center"||-||align ="center"||-||Recombination/Deionization||N/A|