Common Era Explained

Common Era (also Current Era[1] or Christian Era[2]),abbreviated as CE, is an alternative designation for the calendar era originally introduced by Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th century, traditionally identified with Anno Domini (abbreviated AD).[3] [4] Dates before the year 1 CE are indicated by the use of BCE, short for Before the Common Era (likewise with CE, sometimes, Before the Current Era or Before the Christian Era).[5] Neither designation uses a year zero,[6] and the two designations are numerically equivalent; thus " CE" corresponds to "AD " and "399 BCE" corresponds to "399 BC".

The expression "Common Era" can be found as early as 1708 in English, and traced back to Latin usage among European Christians to 1615, as vulgaris aerae, and to 1635 in English as Vulgar Era. At those times, the expressions were all used interchangeably with "Christian Era", and "vulgar" meant "not regal" rather than "crudely indecent". Use of the CE abbreviation was introduced by Jewish academics in the mid-19th century. Since the later 20th century, use of CE and BCE has been popularized in academic and scientific publications, and more generally by publishers emphasizing secularism or sensitivity to non-Christians.

The Gregorian calendar, and the year-numbering system associated with it, is the calendar system with most widespread use in the world today. For decades, it has been the de facto global standard, recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations and the Universal Postal Union.

The CE/BCE notation has been adopted by numerous authors and publishers wishing to be"neutral" or "sensitive to non-Christians"[7] [8] because it does not explicitly make use of religious titles for Jesus, such as "Christ" and Domin- ("Lord"), which are used in the BC/AD notation, nor does it give implicit expression to the Christian creed that Jesus was the Christ.[9] [10] [11] Among the reasons given by those who oppose the use of Common Era notation is that it is selective as other aspects of the Western calendar have origins in various belief systems (ex. Thursday is named for Thor), and claims that its propagation is the result of secularization, anti-supernaturalism, religious pluralism, and political correctness.[12] [13]

History

Origins

See also: Anno Domini. The year numbering system used with Common Era notation was devised by the Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year 525 to replace the Diocletian years, because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. He attempted to number years from an event he referred to as the Incarnation of Jesus,although scholars today generally agree that he miscalculated by a small number of years.[14] [15] Dionysius labeled the column of the Easter table in which he introduced the new era "Anni Domini Nostri Jesu Christi."[16] Numbering years in this manner became more widespread with its usage by Bede in England in 731. Bede also introduced the practice of dating years before the supposed year of birth[17] of Jesus, and the practice of not using a year zero.[18] In 1422, Portugal became the last Western European country to switch to the system begun by Dionysius.

Use of the term "vulgar era"

The term "Common Era" is traced back in English to its appearance as "Vulgar Era"[19] to distinguish it from the regnal dating systems typically used in national law.The first use of the Latin equivalent (vulgaris aerae)[20] discovered so far was in a 1615 book by Johannes Kepler.Kepler uses it again in a 1616 table of ephemerides,[21] and again in 1617.[22] A 1635 English edition of that book has the title page in English – so far, the earliest-found usage of Vulgar Era in English.[23] A 1701 book edited by John LeClerc includes "Before Christ according to the Vulgar Æra, 6".[24] A 1716 book in English by Dean Humphrey Prideaux says, "before the beginning of the vulgar æra, by which we now compute the years from his incarnation."[25] [26] A 1796 book uses the term "vulgar era of the nativity".[27]

The first so-far-discovered usage of "Christian Era" is as the Latin phrase aerae christianae on the title page of a 1584 theology book.[28] In 1649, the Latin phrase æræ Christianæ appeared in the title of an English almanac.[29] A 1652 ephemeris is the first instance so-far-found for English usage of "Christian Era".[30]

The English phrase "common Era" appears at least as early as 1708,[31] and in a 1715 book on astronomy is used interchangeably with "Christian Era" and "Vulgar Era".[32] A 1759 history book uses common æra in a generic sense, to refer to the common era of the Jews.[33] The first-so-far found usage of the phrase "before the common era" is in a 1770 work that also uses common era and vulgar era as synonyms, in a translation of a book originally written in German.[34] The 1797 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica uses the terms vulgar era and common era synonymously.[35] In 1835, in his book Living Oracles, Alexander Campbell, wrote: "The vulgar Era, or Anno Domini; the fourth year of Jesus Christ, the first of which was but eight days",[36] and also refers to the common era as a synonym for vulgar era with "the fact that our Lord was born on the 4th year before the vulgar era, called Anno Domini, thus making (for example) the 42d year from his birth to correspond with the 38th of the common era..."[37] The Catholic Encyclopedia (1909) used the terms "Christian, Vulgar or Common Era" interchangeably.[38]

The phrase "common era", in lower case, also appeared in the 19th century in a generic sense, not necessarily to refer to the Christian Era, but to any system of dates in common use throughout a civilization. Thus, "the common era of the Jews",[39] [40] "the common era of the Mahometans",[41] "common era of the world",[42] "the common era of the foundation of Rome".[43] When it did refer to the Christian Era, it was sometimes qualified, e.g., "common era of the Incarnation",[44] "common era of the Nativity",[45] or "common era of the birth of Christ".[46]

An adapted translation of Common Era into Latin as Era Vulgaris was adopted in the 20th century by some followers of Aleister Crowley, and thus the abbreviation "e.v." or "EV" may sometimes be seen as a replacement for AD.[47]

History of the CE/BCE abbreviation

Although Jews have their own Hebrew calendar, they often find it necessary to use the Gregorian Calendar as well.Common Era notation has also been in use for Hebrew lessons for "more than a century".As early as 1825, the abbreviation VE (for Vulgar Era) was in use among Jews to denote years on the Western calendar.[48]

Some Jewish academics were already using the CE and BCE abbreviations by the mid-19th century, such as in 1856, when Rabbi and historian, Morris Jacob Raphall used the abbreviation in his book, Post-Biblical History of The Jews.[49]

The ratio of usage of BCE to BC,[50] CE to AD,[51] Common Era to Anno Domini,[52] and Before Common Era to Before Christ[53] in books has changed dramatically between the years 1800 and 2008, particularly since 1980.

Contemporary usage

Some academics in the fields of theology, education and history have adopted CE and BCE notation, although there is some disagreement.[54] The Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania, which is the leading publishing body of Jehovah's Witnesses, has been using CE and BCE exclusively in its publications (except in quotations) since The Watchtower of 15 April 1964.[55] [56] However, in The Watchtower—Simplified English Edition, "before Christ" is used for dates before the common era; no notation is used for other dates.[57]

More visible uses of Common Era notation have recently surfaced at major museums in the English-speaking world: The Smithsonian Institution prefers Common Era usage, though individual museums are not required to use it.[58] Furthermore, several style guides now prefer or mandate its usage.[59] Even some style guides for Christian churches prefer its use: for example, the Episcopal Diocese Maryland Church News.[60]

In the United States, the usage of the BCE/CE notation in textbooks is growing. Some publications have moved over to using it exclusively. For example, the 2007 World Almanac was the first edition to switch over to the BCE/CE usage, ending a 138-year usage of the traditional BC/AD dating notation. It is used by the College Board in its history tests,[61] and by the Norton Anthology of English Literature.Others have taken a different approach. The US-based History Channel uses BCE/CE notation in articles on non-Christian religious topics such as Jerusalem and Judaism.[62] In June 2006, the Kentucky State School Board reversed its decision that would have included the designations BCE and CE as part of state law, leaving education of students about these concepts a matter of discretion at the local level.[63] [64] [65]

In 2002, the BCE/CE notation system was introduced into the school curriculum in the UK.[66] In 2011 in the UK, the BBC announced it would be using CE/BCE notation on its programmes and website, permitting usage of either notation.[67] Numerous British universities, museums, historians, and book retailers have either dropped BC and AD entirely or are using it alongside the BCE/CE notation.[68] Also in 2011, media reports suggested that the BC/AD notation in Australian school textbooks would be replaced by BCE/CE notation.[69] The story became national news and drew opposition from some politicians and church leaders. Weeks after the story broke, the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority denied the rumour and stated that the BC/AD notation would remain, with CE and BCE as an optional suggested learning activity.[70]

Rationale

Support

Historically, the use of CE in Jewish scholarship was motivated by the desire to avoid the implicit "Our Lord" in the abbreviation AD. Although other aspects of dating systems are based in Christian origins too, AD stands out as a particularly direct reference to Jesus as Lord.

Proponents of the Common Era notation assert that the use of BCE/CE shows sensitivity to those who use the same year numbering system as the one that originated with and is currently used by Christians, but who are not themselves Christian.Former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan argued, "[T]he Christian calendar no longer belongs exclusively to Christians. People of all faiths have taken to using it simply as a matter of convenience. There is so much interaction between people of different faiths and cultures – different civilizations, if you like – that some shared way of reckoning time is a necessity. And so the Christian Era has become the Common Era."[71]

It has been noted that the label Anno Domini is arguably inaccurate; "scholarsgenerally believe that Christ was born some years before A.D. 1, the historical evidence is too sketchy to allow a definitive dating."[72]

Opposition

Some oppose the Common Era notation for explicitly religious reasons. Because the BC/AD notation is based on the traditional year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth, removing reference to him in era notation is offensive to some Christians.[73] The Southern Baptist Convention supports retaining the BC/AD abbreviations as "a reminder of the preeminence of Christ and His gospel in world history". The Southern Baptist Convention has criticized the use of BCE and CE as being the result of "secularization, anti-supernaturalism, religious pluralism, and political correctness" and encourages its members to "retain the traditional method of dating and avoid this revisionism".

There are also secular concerns. English language expert Kenneth G. Wilson speculated in his style guide that "if we do end by casting aside the A.D./B.C. convention, almost certainly some will argue that we ought to cast aside as well the conventional numbering system [that is, the method of numbering years] itself, given its Christian basis."The short lived French Revolutionary Calendar, for example, began with the first year of the First French Republic and rejected the seven day week (with its connections to Genesis) for a ten day week.

Astrobiologist Duncan Steel argues further that if one is going to replace BC/AD with BCE/CE then one should reject all aspects of the dating system (including time of day, days of the week and months of the year), as they all have origins related to pagan, astrological, Jewish, or Christian beliefs. He rejects secular arguments against Christian-based BC/AD as selective. Steel makes note of the consistency of the Quaker system (now rarely used), which removed all such references.

Anthropologist Carol Delaney argues that the substitution of BC/AD to BCE/CE is merely a euphemism that conceals the political implications without modifying the actual source of contention.[74] [75]

Raimon Panikkar contends that using the designation BCE/CE is a "return... to the most bigoted Christian colonialism" towards non-Christians, who do not necessarily consider the time period following the beginning of the calendar to be a "common era".

Some critics assert that the use of identifiers which have common spellings is more ambiguous than the use of identifiers with divergent spellings. Both CE and BCE have in common the letters "CE", which is more likely to cause confusion, they claim, than identifiers with clearly different spelling.

Internet reaction

According to a Los Angeles Times report, it was a student's use of BCE/CE notation, inspired by its use within Wikipedia, which prompted the history teacher Andrew Schlafly to found Conservapedia, a cultural conservative wiki.[76] One of its "Conservapedia Commandments" is that users must always apply BC/AD notation, since its sponsors perceive BCE/CE notation to "deny the historical basis" of the dating system.[77]

Conventions in style guides

The abbreviation BCE, just as with BC, always follows the year number. Unlike AD, which traditionally precedes the year number, CE always follows the year number (if context requires that it be written at all).Thus, the current year is written as in both notations (or, if further clarity is needed, as CE, or as AD), and the year that Socrates died is represented as 399 BCE (the same year that is represented by 399 BC in the BC/AD notation). The abbreviations are sometimes written with small capital letters, or with full stops (e.g., "

BCE" or "C.E.").[78] Style guides for academic texts on religion generally prefer BCE/CE to BC/AD.[79]

The terms "Common Era", "Anno Domini", "Before the Common Era" and "Before Christ" in contemporary English can be applied to dates that rely on either the Julian calendar or the Gregorian calendar.Modern dates are understood in the Western world to be in the Gregorian calendar, but for older dates writers should specify the calendar used. Dates in the Gregorian calendar in the Western world have always used the era designated in English as Anno Domini or Common Era.

Similar conventions in other languages

Several languages other than English also have both religious and non-religious ways of identifying the era used in dates. In some communist states during the Cold War period, usage of non-religious notation was mandated.

The use of these terms persists in contemporary German to some extent, differing regionally and ideologically. In Jewish contexts mostly "v. d. Z" ("vor der Zeitenwende") and "n. d. Z." ("nach der Zeitenwende") is used.

See also

External links

Notes and References

  1. Web site: History of Judaism 63BCE–1086CE. Year 1: CE – What is nowadays called the 'Current Era' traditionally begins with the birth of a Jewish teacher called Jesus. His followers came to believe he was the promised Messiah and later split away from Judaism to found Christianity. 8 February 2005. BBC Team. BBC Religion & Ethics. British Broadcasting Corporation. 2011-05-18.
  2. Web site: calendar, Gregorian. The Astronomical Almanac: Online!. 2010. United States Naval Observatory. 2011-05-18.
  3. Book: Doggett, L. E.. The Gregorian calendar today serves as an international standard for civil use....Years are counted from the initial epoch defined by Dionysius Exiguus. 1992. Calendars. P. K. Seidelmann. Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac. Sausalito, California. University Science Books. 581. 0-935702-68-7.
  4. Web site: Controversy over the use of the"CE/BCE" and "AD/BC" dating notation. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. 2011-11-12.
  5. Two separate systems that also do not use religious titles, the astronomical system and the ISO 8601 standard do use a year zero. The year 1 BCE (identical to the year 1 BC) is represented as 0 in the astronomical system, and as 0000 in ISO 8601. Presently, ISO 8601 dating requires use of the Gregorian calendar for all dates, however; whereas astronomical dating and Common Era dating allow use of the Julian calendar for dates before 1582 CE.
  6. Book: Get Set for Religious Studies. Edinburgh University Press. Corrywright, Dominic. Morgan, Peggy. 2006. 074862032X,9780748620326. 18. Also note where AD (from the Latin 'in the year of our Lord') and BC (before Christ) are used in datings, for although the numerical calculation of this system is now the international convention, the terminology used in religious studies is CE (common era) and BCE (before the common era), which are more neutrally descriptive terms. 2011-05-18.
  7. News: http://web.archive.org/web/20071012132841/http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4155/is_20060527/ai_n16436633. 2008-10-03. BCE date designation called more sensitive. Andrew Herrmann. Chicago Sun-Times. 27 May 2006. Herrmann observes, "The changes – showing up at museums, in academic circles and in school textbooks – have been touted as more sensitive to people of faiths outside of Christianity." However, Herrmann notes, "The use of BCE and CE have rankled some Christians". 2011-05-18.
  8. Anno Domini (which means in the year of the/our Lord)Encyclopedia: Anno Domini. Merriam Webster Online Dictionary. 2003. Merriam-Webster. Etymology: Medieval Latin, in the year of the Lord. 2011-05-18. Translated as "in the year of (Our) Lord" in Blackburn, B & Holford-Strevens, L, (2003), The Oxford Companion to the Year, Oxford University Press, 782.
  9. Web site: Historical background of the use of "CE" and "BCE" to identify dates. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. According to David Barrett et al., editors of the "World Christian Encyclopedia: A comparative survey of churches and religions – AD 30 to 2200," there are 19 major world religions which are subdivided into a total of 270 large religious groups, and many smaller ones. The vast majority do not recognize Yeshua of Nazareth as either God or Messiah. Expecting followers of other religions to imply this status for Yeshua can create ill feeling.. 2011-05-18.
  10. Web site: Common Era and the culture war. Reer R, Jr.. Heustis. 9 September 2007. RenewAmerica. referred to as Year of our Lord, which is an unmistakable reference to the Lord Jesus Christ....Not every person believes that Jesus is the Lord, they argue, and therefore, he should not have to acknowledge Christ's Lordship...Make no mistake about it: Jesus Christ is not only the Lord of Christians – He is also the Lord of all.. 2011-05-18.
  11. Web site: AD and BC become CE/BCE. 19 February 2002. 2011-05-18.
  12. Web site: "CE/BCE" or "AD/BC" dating notation. 2011-05-18.
  13. Doggett, L.E., (1992), "Calendars" in Seidelmann, P.K., The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, Sausalito CA: University Science Books, p. 579.
  14. Book: Bromiley, Geoffrey W.. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. 1995. 0802837816. 9780-802837813. 2011-05-18.
  15. Pedersen, O., (1983), "The Ecclesiastical Calendar and the Life of the Church" in Coyne, G.V. et al. (Eds.) The Gregorian Reform of the Calendar, Vatican Observatory, p. 52.
  16. Bede wrote of the Incarnation of Jesus, but treated it as synonymous with birth. Blackburn, B & Holford-Strevens, L, (2003), The Oxford Companion to the Year, Oxford University Press, 778.
  17. As noted in Zero#History, the use of zero in Western civilization was uncommon before the 12th century.
  18. from the Latin word vulgus, the common people, i.e. those who are not royalty.It is relatively recently the word vulgar has come to mean "crudely indecent". Common fractions are still often referred to as vulgar fractions, without any implication of crudeness.
  19. In Latin, Common Era is written as Vulgaris Aerae. It also occasionally appears as æræ vulgaris, aerae vulgaris, aeram vulgarem, anni vulgaris, vulgaris aerae Christianae, and anni vulgatae nostrae aerae Christianas.
  20. Book: Second use of "vulgaris aerae" (Latin for Common Era) (1616). Plancus. Kepler, Johann. 1616. 2011-05-18.

    Book: Kepler, Johann. Ephemerides novae motuum caelestium, ab Ānno vulgaris aerae MDCXVII en observationibus potissimum Tychonis Brahei hypothesibus physicis, et tabulis Rudolphinis.... Plancus. 1616.

  21. Book: Third use of "vulgaris aerae" (Latin for Common Era) (1617). sumptibus authoris, excudebat Iohannes Plancus. Kepler, Johannes. Fabricus, David. 1617. 2011-05-18. Book: Ephemerides novae motuum coelestium, ab anno vulgaris aerae MDCXVII[-XXXVI].... Part 3 has title: Tomi L Ephemeridvm Ioannis Kepleri pars tertia, complexa annos à M.DC.XXIX. in M.DC.XXXVI. In quibus & tabb. Rudolphi jam perfectis, et sociâ operâ clariss. viri dn. Iacobi Bartschii ... Impressa Sagani Silesiorvm, in typographeio Ducali, svmptibvs avthoris, anno M.DC.XXX.. Johannes Kepler, Jakob Bartsch. Johannes Plancus. 1617.
    • Translation of title (per 1635 English edition): New Ephemerids for the Celestiall Motions, for the Yeeres of the Vulgar Era 1617–1636
  22. Book: Earliest so-far-found use of vulgar era in English (1635). Kepler, Johann. Vlacq, Adriaan. 1635. 2011-05-18.

    Book: Ephemerides of the Celestiall Motions, for the Yeers of the Vulgar Era 1633.... Johann Kepler, Adriaan Vlacq. 1635.

  23. Book: vulgar era in English (1701). Clerc, Jean Le. 1701. 2011-05-18.

    Book: John LeClerc]]

    . The Harmony of the Evangelists. John LeClerc. John LeClerc]]. London. Sam Buckley. 21 February 2007. 5. 1701. Before Christ according to the Vulgar AEra, 6.

  24. Book: Prideaux use of "Vulgar Era" (1716). 1799 reprint. 26 March 2007. reckoning it backward from the vulgar era of Christ's incarnation. Prideaux, Humphrey. 2011-05-18.

    The Old and New Testament Connected in the History of the Jews and Neighbouring Nations. Humphrey Prideaux, D.D.. Humphrey Prideaux. D. Schaw & Co.. Edinburgh. This happened in the seventh year after the building of Rome, and in the second year of the eighth Olympiad, which was the seven hundred forty-seventh year before Christ, i. e. before the beginning of the vulgar æra, by which we now compute the years from his incarnation.. 1. 1. 1716. from Oxford University Press. 1799 (1716 edition not online, 1749 online is Vol 2).

  25. Merriam Webster accepts the date of 1716, but does not give the source. Web site: Merriam Webster Online entry for Vulgar Era. 2011-05-18.
  26. Book: "vulgar era of the nativity" (1796). 13 March 2006. from the University of Michigan. T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies.), Robert Walker (Rector of Shingham. Newton, Sir Isaac. Falconer, Thomas. 1796. 2011-05-18.

    Book: Analysis of Researches Into the Origin and Progress of Historical Time, from the Creation to .... Rev. Robert Walker, Isaac Newton, Thomas Falconer. 1796. T. Cadell Jr. and W. Davies. 10. London. Dionysius the Little brought the vulgar era of the nativity too low by four years..

  27. Web site: 1584 Latin use of aerae christianae. 2011-05-18.

    Book: Grynaeus, Johann Jacob. Johann Jakob Grynaeus

    . De Eucharistica controuersia, capita doctrinae theologicae de quibus mandatu, illustrissimi principis ac domini, D. Iohannis Casimiri, Comites Palatini ad Rhenum, Ducis Bauariae, tutoris & administratoris Electoralis Palatinatus, octonis publicis disputationibus (quarum prima est habita 4 Apr. anno aerae christianae 1584, Marco Beumlero respondente) praeses Iohannes Iacobus Grynaeus, orthodoxae fidei rationem interrogantibus placidè reddidit ; accessit eiusdem Iohannis Iacobi Grynaeus synopsis orationis, quam de disputationis euentu, congressione nona, quae indicit in 15 Aprilis, publicè habuit.. Johann Jakob Grynaeus. Beumler, Marcus. Microform. Latin. Heidelbergae. Typis Iacobi Mylij. 1584. Editio tertia. Irenical theology. 123471534. 4 Apr. anno aerae christianae 1584.

  28. Web site: 1649 use of æræ Christianæ in English book – 1st usage found in English. 2011-05-18.

    Book: WING, Vincent. Speculum uranicum, anni æræ Christianæ, 1649, or, An almanack and prognosication for the year of our Lord, 1649 being the first from bissextile or leap-year, and from the creation of the world 5598, wherein is contained many useful, pleasant and necessary observations, and predictions ... : calculated (according to art) for the meridian and latitude of the ancient borrough town of Stamford in Lincolnshire ... and without sensible errour may serve the 3. kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.. 1649. London. J.L. for the Company of Stationers. anni æræ Christianæ, 1649.

  29. Book: first appearance of "Christian Era" in English (1652). 2011-05-18.

    Book: A celestiall glasse, or, Ephemeris for the year of the Christian era 1652 being the bissextile or leap-year: contayning the lunations, planetary motions, configurations & ecclipses for this present year ... : with many other things very delightfull and necessary for most sorts of men: calculated exactly and composed for ... Rochester. Sliter, Robert. 1652. Printed for the Company of Stationers. London.

  30. Book: first so-far-found use of common era in English (1708). Printed for H. Rhodes. 1708. 2011-05-18. Book: The History of the Works of the Learned. 10. 513. London. 1708. January.
  31. Book: Gregory, David. The Elements of Astronomy, Physical and Geometrical. John Nicholson, John Morphew. 1715. Some say the World was created 3950 Years before the common Æra of Christ. 252. printed for J. Nicholson, and sold by J. Morphew. London. Astronomy. 1. 2011-05-18.

    Before Christ and Christian Era appear on the same page 252, while Vulgar Era appears on page 250

  32. Book: 1759 use of common æra. Printed for C. Bathurst. Sale, George. Psalmanazar, George. Bower, Archibald. Shelvocke, George. Campbell, John. Swinton, John. 1759. 2011-05-18.

    Book: Sale, George. George Sale

    . . George Sale. Psalmanazar, George; Bower, Archibald; Shelvocke, George; Campbell, John; Swinton, John. 1759. at which time they fixed that for their common era. C. Bathurst [etc.]. London. 13. 130.

    In this case, their refers to the Jews.

  33. Book: First-so-far found English usage of "before the common era", with "vulgar era" synonymous with "common era" (1770). Printed by G. Scott, for J. Robson and B. Law. Von), Jakob Friedrich Bielfeld (Freiherr. Hooper, William. 1770. 2011-05-18.

    Book: Hooper, William. Bielfeld, Jacob Friedrich. The Elements of Universal Erudition: Containing an Analytical Abridgment of the Sciences, Polite Arts, and Belles Lettres. 2. 105, 63. 1770. G. Scott, printer, for J Robson, bookseller in New-Bond Street, and B. Law in Ave-Mary Lane. London. in the year of the world 3692, and 312 years before the vulgar era.... The Spanish era began with the year of the world 3966, and 38 years before the common era (p63).

  34. Book: "vulgar era" in 1797 EB. St Peter died in the 66th year of the vulgar era. p. 228 v. 14 pt. 1 P (Peter). 1797. A. Bell and C. Macfarquhar. MacFarquhar, Colin. Gleig, George. 2011-05-18.
    Book: "common era" in 1797 EB. p. 50 v. 14 pt. 1 P (Paul). This happened in the 33rd year of the common era, fome time after our Saviour's death.. 1797. A. Bell and C. Macfarquhar. MacFarquhar, Colin. Gleig, George. 2011-05-18.
    Encyclopedia: Encyclopædia Britannica: Or, A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature (Third Edition in 18 volumes). 1797. v. 14 pt. 1 P. George Gleig. Edinburgh. 9 December 2007.
  35. Book: The Living Oracles, Fourth Edition. 1835. Alexander Campbell. 16–20. 2011-05-18.
  36. Book: The Living Oracles, Fourth Edition. 1835. Alexander Campbell. 15–16. 2011-05-18.
  37. "Foremost among these [various eras] is that which is now adopted by all civilized peoples and known as the Christian, Vulgar or Common Era, in the twentieth century of which we are now living.
  38. Book: "common era of the Jews" (1874). the common era of the Jews places the creation in BC 3760. Encyclopedia, Popular. 1874. 2011-05-18. Book: Conversations Lexicon. The Popular Encyclopedia. Oxford University Press. A. Whitelaw. 1874. 207. V.
  39. Book: "common era of the Jews" (1858). Hence the present year, 1858, in the common era of the Jews, is AM 5618-5619, a difference of more than 200 years from our commonly-received chronology.. Wertheim, MacIntosh & Hunt. 1858. 2011-05-18. Book: The first and second Advent: or, The past and the future with reference to the Jew, the Gentile, and the Church of God. Rev. Bourchier Wrey Savile, MA. 1858. 176. Wertheim, Macintosh and Hunt. London.
  40. Book: "common era of the Mahometans" (1856). Its epoch is the first of March old style. The common era of the Mahometans, as has already been stated, is that of the flight of Mahomet.. Gumpach, Johannes von. 1856. 2011-05-18. Book: 1856. Practical tables for the reduction of Mahometan dates to the Christian calendar. 4. Johannes von Gumpach. Oxford University.
  41. Book: "common era of the world" (1801). F. and C. Rivington. Jones, William. 1801. 2011-05-18. Book: Jones, William. The Theological, Philosophical and Miscellaneous Works of the Rev. William Jones. 1801. London. Rivington.
  42. Book: "common era of the foundation of Rome" (1854). Alexander Fraser Tytler, HON. 1854. 2011-05-18. Book: Universal History: From the Creation of the World to the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century. Alexander Fraser Tytler, Lord Woodhouselee. Fetridge and Company. Boston. 1854. 284.
  43. Book: "common era of the Incarnation" (1833). A. & C. Black. Baynes, Thomas Spencer. 1833. 2011-05-18.

    Book: The Encyclopaedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General Literature. New York. Henry G. Allen and Company. 1833. 9. V. 711.

  44. Book: "common era" "of the Nativity" (1864). It should be observed, however, that these years correspond to 492 and 493, a portion of the annals of Ulster being counted from the Incarnation, and being, therefore, one year before the common era of the Nativity of our Lord.. Hodges, Smith & co.. Todd, James Henthorn. 1864. 2011-05-18. Book: St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland, A Memoir of his Life and Mission. James Henthorn Todd. 1864. 495, 496, 497. Hodges, Smith & Co, Publishers to the University. Dublin.
  45. Book: "common era of the birth of Christ" (1812). printed by A.J. Valpy for T. Payne. 1812. 2011-05-18. Book: Annotations on the Four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles (2nd edition). Heneage Elsley. 1812. 2nd. A. J. Valpy for T. Payne. London. xvi. true.
  46. Web site: What is Thelema?. 2011-05-18.
  47. Web site: Plymouth, England Tombstone inscriptions. Jewish Communities & Records. Here is buried his honour Judah ben his honour Joseph, a prince and honoured amongst philanthropists, who executed good deeds, died in his house in the City of Bath, Tuesday, and was buried here on Sunday, 19 Sivan in the year 5585. In memory of Lyon Joseph Esq (merchant of Falmouth, Cornwall). who died at Bath June AM 5585/VE 1825. Beloved and respected.. 2011-05-18.
    [19 Sivan 5585 [[Anno Mundi|AM]] is June 5, 1825. VE is likely an abbreviation for Vulgar Era.]
  48. The term common era does not appear in this book; the term Christian era [lowercase] does appear a number of times. Nowhere in the book is the abbreviation explained or expanded directly.Book: Search for era in this book.. Moss & Brother. Raphall, Morris Jacob. 1856. 2011-05-18.
  49. Web site: Google Ngram Viewer. 2012-02-26.
  50. Web site: Google Ngram Viewer. 2012-02-26.
  51. Book: Google Ngram Viewer. 2012-02-26.
  52. Book: Google Ngram Viewer. 2012-02-26.
  53. See, for example, the Society for Historical Archaeology states in its more recent style guide "Do not use C.E. (current era) ... or B.C.E.; convert these expressions to A.D. and B.C." Web site: Style Guide. Society for Historical Archaeology. December. 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20070618004627/http://www.sha.org/publications/style_guide.htm#V-d . 2007-06-18. 2011-05-18. . Whereas the American Anthropological Association style guide takes a different approach. Web site: AAA Style Guide. PDF. American Anthropological Society. January. 2003. 2011-05-18.
  54. Watchtower Library 2009, Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.
  55. http://www.google.co.uk/search?as_q=BCE&hl=en&num=100&btnG=Google+Search&as_epq=&as_oq=&as_eq=&lr=&as_ft=i&as_filetype=&as_qdr=all&as_occt=any&as_dt=i&as_sitesearch=watchtower.org%2F&as_rights=&safe=images BCE site:watchtower.org/
  56. For example, see The Watchtower—Simplified English Edition, 15 May 2012, page 17
  57. Web site: World History Standards. 2006-09-09. Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Education. http://classic-web.archive.org/web/20070928000917/http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators/field_trips/standards/world_history_standards.html . 2006-09-06.
    • Submission Guidelines for The Ostracon. The Ostracon – Journal of the Egyptian Studies Society. For dates, please use the now-standard "BCE–CE" notation, rather than "BC–AD." Authors with strong religious preferences may use "BC–AD," however.. 2011-05-18.
    • Author Guidelines. American Journal of Philology. Eras and dates. The journal prefers B.C.E., C.E.. 2011-05-18.
    • Manuscript Submission Guidelines. Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha. we prefer BCE, CE. 2011-05-18.
    • Style Guide. DOC. Canadian Journal of Cultural Studies. Please use BCE (Before Current Era) and CE (Current Era) rather than B.C. and A.D.. 2011-05-18.
  58. Web site: Maryland Church News Submission Guide & Style Manual. Maryland Church News. PDF. 1 April 2005. 2011-05-18.
  59. Web site: AP: World History. 2011-05-18.
  60. Web site: Jerusalem Timeline. History Channel. 2011-05-18.
    Web site: Jerusalem: Biographies. History Channel. 2011-05-18.
  61. Web site: State School Board reverses itself on B.C./A.D. controversy. Family Foundation of Kentucky. 2011-05-18.
  62. Web site: School board keeps traditional historic designations. Joe Biesk. Louisville Courier-Journal. 15 June 2006. 2011-05-18.
  63. Web site: Kentucky Board of Education Report. Kentucky Board of Education Report. 10 June 2006. PDF. 2011-05-18.
  64. News: AD and BC become CE/BCE. 9 February 2002. 2012-02-05.
  65. News: Reality check: has the BBC dropped the terms BC/AD?. 26 September 2011. 2012-02-05.
  66. News: Government to save Year of our Lord from BBC's 'Common Era'. 2 October 2011. 2012-02-05.
  67. News: Australia goes all PC with a ban on BC: Birth of Jesus to be removed as reference point for dates in school history books. 2 September 2011. 2012-02-05.
  68. News: AD/BC rock solid in curriculum. 21 October 2011. 2012-03-04.
  69. Web site: Common values for a common era: Even as we cherish our diversity, we need to discover our shared values. Annan, Kofi A., (then Secretary-General of the United Nations). 28 June 1999. Civilization: The Magazine of the Library of Congress. 2011-05-18.
  70. Book: Doggett, L.. Calendars. Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac. 1992. University Science Books. Sausalito, CA. 0-935702-68-7. P. Kenneth Seidelmann. 579.
  71. News: Altering history? Changes have some asking 'Before what?'. Whitney. Susan. The Deseret News. 2 December 2006. I find this attempt to restructure history offensive," Lori Weintz wrote, in a letter to National Geographic publishers.... The forward to your book says B.C. and A.D. were removed so as to 'not impose the standards of one culture on others.'... It's 2006 this year for anyone on Earth that is participating in day-to-day world commerce and communication. Two thousand six years since what? Most people know, regardless of their belief system, and aren't offended by a historical fact.. 2011-05-18.
  72. Book: Delaney, Carol Lowery. Carol Delaney

    . Investigating Culture: An Experiential Introduction to Anthropology. 86. 2004. Carol Delaney. Blackwell Publishing. 441 pages. 0631222375. I find CE a euphemism because the common era still begins with Christ's birth and,thus, conceals the political implications.. 2011-05-18.

  73. Book: Abraham on Trial: The Social Legacy of Biblical Myth. 1998. Carol Lowery Delaney. 267. Princeton University Press. 352 pages. 0691070504. 2011-05-18.
  74. News: Simon. Stephanie. A conservative's answer to Wikipedia. 22 June 2007. Los Angeles Times. 2011-05-18.
  75. http://www.conservapedia.com/Conservapedia:Commandments Conservapedia Commandments
  76. Web site: Major Rule Changes in The Chicago Manual of Style, Fifteenth Edition. 15th ed.: 2003. University of Chicago Press. Certain abbreviations traditionally set in small caps are now in full caps (AD, BCE, and the like), with small caps an option.. http://web.archive.org/web/20070909071543/http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/about15_rules.html . 2007-09-09. 2011-05-18.
  77. SBL Handbook of Style Society of Biblical Literature 1999 "8.1.2 ERAS - The preferred style is B.C.E. and C.E. (with periods). If you use A.D. and B.C., remember that A.D. precedes the date and B.C. follows it. (For the use of these abbreviations in titles, see §7.1.3.2.)"
  78. See page 149 in Weiße Blätter issue May 1938
  79. News: GERMANY: Jewish Joke. 7 March 1938. 2012-02-05.
  80. Web site: Writing Dates in Spanish. 2012-02-05.
  81. Web site: [https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/webadmin?A2=welsh-termau-cymraeg;982a203b.0610 Welsh-Termau-Cymraeg Archives]. JISCMail. 19 October 2006. 2012-02-29.