|Official Name:||City of Charlotte|
|Nickname:||"The Queen City", "The QC", "The Hornet's Nest", "Crown Town"|
|Subdivision Name2:||Mecklenburg County|
|Leader Name:||Pat McCrory, (R)|
|Area Magnitude:||1 E8|
|Area Total Km2:||629.0|
|Area Total Sq Mi:||280.5|
|Area Land Km2:||627.5|
|Area Land Sq Mi:||279.9|
|Area Water Km2:||1.6|
|Area Water Sq Mi:||0.6|
|Population As Of:||2007|
|Population Total:||671,588 (19th)|
|Population Density Km2:||971.3|
|Utc Offset Dst:||-4|
|Area Code:||704, 980|
|Blank Name:||FIPS code|
|Blank Info:||37-12000Web site: States Census Bureau] American FactFinder]. 2008-01-31.|
|Blank1 Name:||GNIS feature ID|
|Blank1 Info:||1019610Web site: Board on Geographic Names. United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25.|
Charlotte () is the largest city in the state of North Carolina and the seat of Mecklenburg County. The 19th largest city in the United States. In 2007, Charlotte's population was estimated to be 671,588. A resident of Charlotte is referred to as a Charlottean.
Nicknamed the Queen City, Charlotte (as well as the county containing it) is named in honor of the German Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg, who had become queen consort of British King George III the year before the city's founding. A second nickname derives from later in the 18th century. During the American Revolutionary War, British commander General Cornwallis occupied the city but was driven out soon afterwards by hostile residents, prompting him to write that Charlotte was "a hornet's nest of rebellion," leading to another city nickname: The Hornet's Nest.
In 2007, the Charlotte metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1,897,034. The Charlotte metropolitan area is part of a wider thirteen-county labor market region or combined statistical area that has an estimated population (as of 2007) of 2,277,074. In 2008, Charlotte was chosen the "Best Place to Live in America" by relocate-america.com in its annual ranking, based on factors including employment opportunities, crime rates, and housing affordability. It was also named #8 of the 100 "Best Places to Live and Launch" by CNNMoney.com - cities picked for their vibrant lifestyles and opportunities for new businesses.
The area that is now Charlotte was first settled in 1755 when Thomas Polk (uncle of United States President James K. Polk), who was traveling with Thomas Spratt and his family, stopped and built his house of residence at the intersection of two Native American trading paths between the Yadkin and Catawba rivers. One of the paths ran north-south and was part of the Great Wagon Road; the second path ran east-west along what is now modern-day Trade Street. In the early part of the 18th century, the Great Wagon Road led settlers of Scots-Irish and German descent from Pennsylvania into the Carolina foothills. Within the first decades following Polk's settling, the area grew to become the community of "Charlotte Town," which officially incorporated as a town in 1768. The crossroads, perched atop a long rise in the Piedmont landscape, became the heart of modern Uptown Charlotte.
In 1770, surveyors marked off the new town's streets in a grid pattern for future development. The east-west trading path became Trade Street, and the Great Wagon Road became Tryon Street, in honor of William Tryon, a royal governor of colonial North Carolina. The intersection of Trade and Tryon is known as "Trade & Tryon" or simply "The Square." It is more properly called Independence Square.
Both the town (now a city) and its county (originally a part of Anson County) are named for Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the German-born wife of British King George III. The town name was chosen in hopes of winning favor with the crown, but tensions between the United Kingdom and Charlotte Town began to grow as King George imposed unpopular laws on the citizens in response to the townspeople's desire for independence. On May 20, 1775, the townsmen allegedly signed a proclamation later known as the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, a copy of which was sent, though never officially presented, to the Continental Congress a year later. The date of the declaration appears on the North Carolina state flag. Eleven days later, the same townsmen met to create and endorse the Mecklenburg Resolves, a set of laws to govern the newly independent town.
Charlotte was a site of encampment for both American and British armies during the Revolutionary War and, during a series of skirmishes between British troops and Charlotteans, the village earned the lasting nickname "Hornet's Nest" from frustrated Lord General Charles Cornwallis. An ideological hotbed of revolutionary sentiment during the Revolutionary War and for some time afterwards, the legacy endures today in the nomenclature of such landmarks as Independence Boulevard, Independence High School, Independence Center, Freedom Park, Freedom Drive, and the former NBA team Charlotte Hornets.
Churches, including Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, Episcopalians, Lutherans, and Catholics, began to form in the early 1800s, eventually giving Charlotte its nickname "The City of Churches."
In 1792 the eastern half of Mecklenburg county made up of small rural independent farmers tired of traveling all day by horse and buggie to the townseat of Charlotettown decided to go to Raleigh and seceed to form its own county in the state legislature where they garnered a tie vote that was broken by an ex naturalized Frenchman eastern NC legislator named Stephen Cabarrus who broke the tie vote. Cabarrus was thought to have been paid under the table by this new county and allegedly jailed and hanged for horse thievery years later. The new county was named for Cabarrus and town of Concord or agreement. Oddly in 1799 or years before as many believe, in Cabarrus allegedly a 12-year-old Conrad Reed brought home a large gold rock he found in Little Meadow Creek, weighing about 17 pounds, which the family used as a bulky doorstop. Three years later, a jeweler determined that it was near solid gold, and bought it for a paltry $3.50. The first verified gold find in the fledgling United States, young Reed's discovery became the genesis of the nation's first gold rush. Many veins of gold were found in the area throughout the 1800s and even into the early 1900s, thus the founding of the Charlotte Mint in 1837 for minting local gold. The state of North Carolina "led the nation in gold production until the California Gold Rush of 1848," although the total volume of gold mined in the Charlotte area was dwarfed by subsequent rushes. Charlotte's city population at the 1880 Census grew to 7,084. Some locally based groups still pan for gold occasionally in local (mostly rural) streams and creeks. The Reed Gold Mine operated until 1912. The Charlotte Mint was active until 1861, when Confederate forces seized the mint at the outbreak of the Civil War. The mint was not reopened at the end of the war, but the building survives today, albeit in a different location, now housing the Mint Museum of Art.
The city's first boom came after the Civil War, as a cotton processing center and a railroad hub. Population leapt again during World War I, when the U.S. government established Camp Greene north of present-day Wilkinson Boulevard. Many soldiers and suppliers stayed after the war, launching an ascent that eventually overtook older and more established rivals along the arc of the Carolina Piedmont.
The city's modern-day banking industry achieved prominence in the 1970s and 1980s, largely under the leadership of financier Hugh McColl. McColl transformed North Carolina National Bank (NCNB) into a formidable national player that, through a series of aggressive acquisitions, eventually became Bank of America. Another bank, First Union, experienced similar growth, and is now known as Wachovia after a merger. Today, measured by control of assets, Charlotte is the second largest banking headquarters in the United States after New York City.
In 1989, the city took a direct hit from Hurricane Hugo. Passing through Charlotte as a Category 1 hurricane with wind gusts over 100 mph (160 km/h) in some locations, Hugo caused massive property damage and knocked out electrical power to 98% of the population. Many residents were without power for several weeks and cleanup took months to complete. The city is just over 200 miles inland, and many residents from coastal areas in both Carolinas often wait out hurricanes in Charlotte. The city was caught unprepared, as almost no one expected a storm to strike with hurricane force this far inland. Over 80,000 trees were destroyed in Charlotte.
In December 2002, Charlotte (and much of central North Carolina) was hit by a massive ice storm (which some dubbed, "Hugo on Ice") that knocked out power to over 1.3 million Duke Energy customers. According to a Duke Energy representative: "This ice storm surpasses the damage from Hurricane Hugo in 1989, which had 696,000 outages." During an abnormally cold December, many were without power for more than two weeks. Much of the damage was caused by Bradford pear trees which, still having leaves on December 4, split apart under the weight of the ice.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 242.9 square miles (629 square kilometers). Out of that, 242.3 sq. mi. (627.5 km²) of it is land and 0.6 sq. mi. (1.6 km²) of it is water. The total area is 0.25% water.
Charlotte constitutes most of Mecklenburg County in the Carolina Piedmont. Uptown/downtown Charlotte sits atop a long rise between two creeks and was built on the gunnies of the St. Catherine's and Rudisill gold mines. There is much disagreement about the use of the interchangeable terms "Uptown" and "Downtown" for the center city area. Prior to the late 1980s, the term "Downtown" was always used as a reference for Charlotte's center city area and many area residents still use the "Downtown" term. On February 14, 1987, the Charlotte Observer began calling the center city area "Uptown" in order to help promote a positive image of the area.
Charlotte's elevation is 748 feet above sea level (at Charlotte/Douglas International Airport).
A 2007 American Lung Association report ranks Charlotte as having the 16th highest levels of smog among U.S. cities; however, the region's air quality has improved significantly in recent years, and is expected to continue to do so, even with increasing travel.
Charlotte is located in North America's humid subtropical climate zone. On average it receives 44 inches of rain and 4 inches of snow per year. The city has cool to cold winters and warm, humid summers. In January, morning lows average around 0 °C (32 °F) and afternoon highs average 11 °C (51 °F). In July, lows average 22 °C (71 °F) and highs average 32 °C (90 °F). The highest recorded temperature was 40 °C (104 °F) on September 6, 1954 and during the August 2007 Southeastern heat wave. The lowest recorded temperature was -21 °C (-6 °F) in January 1985. Charlotte's location puts it in the direct path of subtropical moisture from the Gulf as it heads up the eastern seaboard along the jet stream, thus the city receives ample precipitation throughout the year but also a very large number of clear, sunny, and pleasantly warm days. On average, Charlotte receives about 1105.3 mm (43.52 in) of precipitation annually, including about 4 inches of snow and more frequent ice-storms.
|Avg high [°F](°C)||51 (11)||56 (13)||64 (18)||73 (23)||80 (27)||87 (31)||90 (32)||88 (31)||82 (28)||73 (23)||63 (17)||54 (12)||72 (22)|
|Avg low temperature [°F](°C)||32 (0)||34 (1)||42 (6)||49 (9)||58 (14)||66 (19)||71 (22)||69 (21)||63 (17)||51 (16)||42 (6)||35 (2)||51 (11)|
|Rainfall (inches)(millimeters)||4.00 (101.6)||3.55 (90.2)||4.39 (111.5)||2.95 (74.9)||2.66 (93)||3.42 (86.9)||3.79 (96.3)||3.72 (94.5)||3.83 (97.3)||3.66 (93)||3.36 (85.3)||3.18 (80.8)||43.52 (1105.3)|
See main article: Charlotte neighborhoods.
Spanning Uptown to Ballantyne, Charlotte has 199 neighborhoods. In the next few years, uptown will undergo a massive construction phase with buildings from Bank of America, Wachovia and multiple condos. Ride the Charlotte Trolley http://www.charlottetrolley.org/news.php?w_url it is a replica streetcar system that operates on the LYNX line between the South End and Uptown. The Trolley stops at LYNX Light Rail stations in Uptown and South End as well as stops at Atherton Mill, and Tremont and 9th Street. You will be able to get a beautiful view of this wonderful city. Elizabeth Avenue will also be under construction for a shopping center and residence buildings.
Charlotte has become a major U.S. financial center, and the nation's largest financial institution by assets, (Bank of America), calls the city home. The city was formerly the corporate home of Wachovia, until its purchase by Wells Fargo in 2008. Wachovia was originally from Winston-Salem, NC where it had been headquartered for a century. Wachovia moved to Charlotte in the 1990s when it was taken over by the Charlotte based First Union. Due in large part to the purchase of GoldenWest Financial in 2006, Wachovia was hit hard by the mortgage crisis and, when on the verge of collapse, was forced to sell to Wells Fargo. Citi Bank filed a lawsuit claiming they had first rights to purchase Wachovia and the outcome of that lawsuit has not yet been determined despite the legal close of the Wachovia-Wells Fargo merger. Wells Fargo continues to operate Wachovia out of Charlotte, as a wholly-owned subsidiary. Wells Fargo has decided to make Charlotte its east coast headquarters. Bank of America's headquarters, along with other regional banking and financial services companies, are located primarily in the uptown financial district. Thanks in large part to the expansion of the city's banking industry, the Charlotte skyline has mushroomed in the past two decades and boasts the Bank of America Corporate Center, the tallest skyscraper between Philadelphia and Atlanta. The 60-story postmodern gothic tower, designed by renowned architect Cesar Pelli, stands 871 feet tall and was completed in 1992.
The following Fortune 500 companies are headquartered in the Charlotte metropolitan area, in order of their rank: Bank of America, Lowe's in suburban Mooresville, Nucor (steel producer), Duke Energy, Sonic Automotive, Family Dollar, Goodrich Corporation, and SPX Corporation (industrial technology). Other major companies headquartered in the Metro Charlotte include Time Warner Cable (a business unit of Fortune 500 company Time Warner), Continental Tire North America (formerly Continental/General Tire), Muzak, Belk, Harris Teeter, Meineke Car Care Centers, Lance, Inc, Bojangles', Carlisle Companies, LendingTree, Compass Group USA, Food Lion, and the Carolina Beverage Corporation (makers of Cheerwine, Sun Drop, and others) in suburban Salisbury, North Carolina. Charlotte is home to several large shopping malls, with Carolina Place Mall and SouthPark Mall being the largest. Also, neighboring Gastonia is home to the Parkdale Mills world headquarters. Concord Mills Mall is also the largest shopping outlet in the state and one of the largest in the nation and single biggest draw in NC and its exterior is lined with many trendy colorful restaurants that parallel Myrtle Beach.
Charlotte is also a major center in the US motorsports industry, with NASCAR having multiple offices in and around Charlotte. Approximately 75% of the NASCAR industry's employees and drivers are based within two hours of downtown Charlotte. Charlotte is also the future home of the NASCAR Hall of Fame, expected to be completed in 2009. The already large presence of the racing technology industry along with the newly built NHRA premier dragstip, zMAX Dragway at Concord which is located just north of Charlotte in Concord, NC, is influencing some of the top professional drag racers to move their shops from more expensive areas like California to the Charlotte area as well.
The center city/uptown area of Charlotte has seen remarkable growth over the last decade. Numerous residential units continue to be built uptown, including over 20 skyscapers either under construction, recently completed, or in the planning stage. Many new restaurants, bars and clubs now operate in the Uptown area. Several projects are transforming the Midtown Charlotte/Elizabeth area.
Charlotte has a council-manager form of government. The Mayor and city council are elected every two years, with no term limits. The mayor is ex officio chairman of the city council, and only votes in case of a tie. Unlike other mayors in council-manager systems, Charlotte's mayor has the power to veto ordinances passed by the council; vetoes can be overridden by a two-thirds majority of the council. The council appoints a city manager to serve as chief administrative officer.
Unlike other cities and towns in North Carolina, elections are held on a partisan basis. The current mayor of Charlotte is Pat McCrory, of the Republican Party. McCrory has served as mayor since his election in 1995. Charlotte holds elections for mayor every two years, with the next election in 2009.
Although it has elected Republican mayors since 1987, Charlotte tends to lean Democratic. However, voters are friendly to moderates of both parties. Republican strength is concentrated in the southeastern portion of the city, while Democratic strength is concentrated in the south-central, eastern and northern areas.
The city council comprises 11 members (7 from districts and 4 at-large). The Democrats currently control the council with an advantage of 7-to-4. While the city council is responsible for passing ordinances, many policy decisions must be approved by the North Carolina General Assembly as well, since North Carolina municipalities do not have home rule. Since the 1960s, however, municipal powers have been broadly construed.
Charlotte is split between three congressional districts on the federal level--the 8th, represented by Democrat Larry Kissell; the 9th, represented by Republican Sue Myrick; and the 12th, represented by Democrat Mel Watt.
The Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department (CMPD) is a combined jurisdiction agency. The CMPD has law enforcement jurisdiction in both the City of Charlotte and the unincorporated areas of the County of Mecklenburg; however, several smaller towns, such as Matthews, maintain their own law enforcement agencies for their own jurisdictions. The Department consists of approximately 1600 sworn, armed, law enforcement officers, and several hundred civilian support personnel. The Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department divides the city into 13 geographic areas, which vary in size both geographically and by the number of officers assigned to each division.
Charlotte has a crime rate above the national average. The total crime index for Charlotte is 648.0 crimes committed per 100,000 residents as of 2007. The national average is 320.9 per 100,000 residents. The Charlotte-Gastonia Metropolitan Statistical Area ranked as the 12th "Most Dangerous Metro Area", by Morgan Quitno Press for the year of 2006.
According to the Congressional Quarterly Press; '2008 City Crime Rankings: Crime in Metropolitan America, Charlotte, North Carolina ranks as the 62nd most dangerous city larger than 75,000 inhabitants. However, the entire Charlotte-Gastonia Metropolitan Statistical Area ranked as 27th most dangerous out of 338 metro areas.
The city's public school system, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools, is the second largest in North Carolina and 20th largest in the nation. About 132,000 students are taught in 161 separate elementary, middle and high schools.
Charlotte's largest higher education institution, the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, is located in University City, as the northeastern portion of Charlotte is called. At 23,000 students and counting, it is the fastest-growing university in the state system and the fourth largest. The area is also home to University Research Park, a 3,200 acre (13 km²) research and corporate park. Central Piedmont Community College has multiple campuses, all in the Charlotte metro area, and is the largest community college in North Carolina or South Carolina. Charlotte is home to a number of notable private universities and colleges such as Johnson & Wales University, Queens University of Charlotte, Johnson C. Smith University, a separate branch of Pfeiffer University, and a nationally ranked liberal arts college, Davidson College; the latter being 20 miles north of Charlotte. Belmont Abbey College is located across the Catawba River in neighboring Gaston County
In fall 2006 the city was excited to have its first law school, the Charlotte School of Law, open its doors. The school recently moved into a new state-of-the-art facility just outside the west side of uptown in the historic Bryant Park district.
See also: List of schools in Charlotte.
The Public Library of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County serves the Charlotte area with a large collection (over 1.5 million) of books, CDs and DVDs at 19 locations in the city of Charlotte. There are also branches in the surrounding townships of Matthews, Mint Hill, Huntersville, Cornelius and Davidson. All locations provide free access to Internet-enabled computers and WiFi and a library card from one location is accepted at all 24 locations.
Although the Library's roots go back to the Charlotte Literary and Library Association, founded on January 16 1891, the state-chartered Carnegie Library which opened on the current North Tryon site of the Main Library was the first non-subscription library opened to members of the public in the city of Charlotte. The philanthropist Andrew Carnegie donated $25,000 dollars for a library building on the condition that the city of Charlotte donate a site, and $2500 per year for books and salaries, and that the state grant a charter for the library. All conditions were met, and the Charlotte Carnegie Library opened in a imposing classical building on July 2, 1903.
The 1903 state charter also required that a library be opened for the disenfranchised African-American population of Charlotte. This was completed in 1905, with opening of the Brevard Street Library for Negroes, an independent library in Brooklyn, a historically black area of the city of Charlotte, on the corner of Brevard and East Second Street (now Martin Luther King Blvd.) The Brevard Street Library was the first library for free blacks in the state of North Carolina, some sources say in the southeast. This library was closed in 1961 when the Brooklyn neighborhood in Second Ward was redeveloped, but its role as a cultural center for African-Americans in Charlotte is continued by the Beatties Ford branch, the West branch and the Belmont Center branch of the current library system, as well as by Charlotte's African-American Cultural Center.
|colspan=2 bgcolor="#ccccff" align="center"||Historical populations  |
As of 2006, census estimates show there are 671,588 people living within Charlotte's city limits, and 1,027,445 in Mecklenburg County. The Combined Statistical Area of Charlotte-Gastonia-Concord, NC-SC had a population of 2,891,604 in 2006 Figures from the more comprehensive 2000 census show Charlotte's population density to be 861.9/km² (2,232.4/sq mi). There are 230,434 housing units at an average density of 951.2/sq mi (367.2/km²). 
According to the 2007 American Community Survey, the city's population was:
The median income for a household in the city is $48,670, and the median income for a family is $59,452. Males have a median income of $38,767 versus $29,218 for females. The per capita income for the city is $29,825. 10.6% of the population and 7.8% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 13.8% of those under the age of 18 and 9.7% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
The birthplace of Billy Graham, Charlotte was and still is locally known as the "The City of Churches." Of those who practice a religion, most Charlotteans are Christians of various Protestant denominations. Throughout much of its history Presbyterian churches were the most prominent in Charlotte (Charlotte is the historic seat of Southern Presbyterianism), but the changing demographics of the city's rapidly increasing population have brought scores of new denominations and faiths to the city. The Billy Graham Evangelistic Association, Wycliffe Bible Translators' JAARS Center, and SIM Missions Organization also make their homes in Charlotte. In total, Charlotte proper lays claim to more than 700 places of worship.
The Baptist Peace Fellowship of North America is headquartered in Charlotte, and both Reformed Theological Seminary and Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary have campuses there; more recently, the Religious Studies academic departments of Charlotte's local colleges and universities have also grown considerably.
Charlotte is the seat of the bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Charlotte. The largest Christian congregation within Charlotte is that of St. Matthew Catholic Church. The Traditional Latin Mass is offered by the Society of St. Pius X at St. Anthony Catholic Church in nearby Mount Holly. The Traditional Latin Mass is also offered at St. Ann, Charlotte, a church under the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Charlotte. The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church (AME Zion) is headquartered in Charlotte.
The Salvation Army's headquarters for the North and South Carolina Division is located in Charlotte, as well as many local corps community centers and Boy's and Girl's Clubs.
See main article: Media in Charlotte, North Carolina.
See main article: Charlotte Sports.
|Carolina Panthers||Football||1995||National Football League||Bank of America Stadium|
|Charlotte Bobcats||Basketball||2004||National Basketball Association||Time Warner Cable Arena|
|Charlotte Checkers||Ice hockey||1993||ECHL||Time Warner Cable Arena|
|Charlotte Knights||Baseball||1976||International League||Knights Stadium, Fort Mill, SC|
|Charlotte Eagles||Soccer||1993||USL-2||Waddell Stadium|
|Charlotte Lady Eagles||Soccer||1993||W-League||Waddell Stadium|
|Carolina Speed||Indoor football||2006||American Indoor Football Association||Bojangles' Coliseum|
|Charlotte Rugby Football Club||Rugby union||1989||Rugby Super League||Skillbeck Athletic Grounds|
|Charlotte Roller Girls||Flat Track Roller Derby||2006||Women's Flat Track Derby Association||Grady Cole Center|
See also: LYNX Rapid Transit Services. The Charlotte Area Transit System (CATS) is the agency responsible for operating mass transit in Charlotte, and Mecklenburg County.CATS operates light rail transit, historical trolleys, express shuttles, and bus service serving Charlotte and its immediate suburbs. The LYNX light rail system comprises a 9.6-mile line north-south line known as the Blue Line. Bus ridership continues to grow (66% since 1998), but more slowly than operations increases which have risen 170% in that same time when adjusted for inflation. The 2030 Transit Corridor System Plan looks to supplement established bus service with light rail & commuter rail lines as a part of a system dubbed LYNX.
Charlotte's central location between the population centers of the northeast and southeast has made it a transportation focal point and primary distribution center, with two major interstate highways, I-85 and I-77, intersecting near the city's center. Charlotte's beltway, designated I-485 and simply called "485" by locals, is partially completed but stalled for funding. The new projection has it slated for completion by 2013. Upon completion, 485 will have a total circumference of approximately 67 miles (108 km). Within the city, the I-277 loop freeway encircles Charlotte's downtown (usually referred to by its two separate sections, the John Belk Freeway and the Brookshire Freeway) while Charlotte Route 4 links major roads in a loop between I-277 and I-485.
Charlotte/Douglas International Airport is the 30th busiest airport in the world, as measured by traffic It is served by many domestic airlines, as well as international airlines Air Canada and Lufthansa, and is a hub of US Airways. Nonstop flights are available to many destinations across the United States, as well as flights to Canada, Central America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Mexico.
Charlotte is served daily by three Amtrak routes.
The Crescent train connects Charlotte with New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Charlottesville, and Greensboro to the north, and Greenville, Atlanta, Birmingham and New Orleans to the south.
The city is currently planning a new centralized multimodial train station called the Gateway Station. It is expected to house the future LYNX Purple Line, the new Greyhound bus station, and the Crescent line that passes through Uptown Charlotte.