British Virgin Islands Explained

Conventional Long Name:Virgin Islands[1]
Common Name:British Virgin Islands
National Motto:"Vigilate"(Latin)
"Be Vigilant"
National Anthem:"God Save the Queen"
Official Languages:English
Ethnic Groups:83.36% Afro-Caribbean, 7.28% White (mostly British and Portuguese), 5.38% Multiracial (mostly Puerto Rican), 3.14% East Indian, 0.84% Others
Capital:Road Town
Latd:18
Latm:25.883
Latns:N
Longd:64
Longm:37.383
Longew:W
Government Type:British Overseas Territory (constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democratic dependency)
Demonym:Virgin Islander
Leader Title1:Monarch
Leader Name1:H.M. Queen Elizabeth II
Leader Title2:Governor
Leader Name2:William Boyd McCleary
Leader Title3:Deputy Governor
Leader Name3:Vivian Inez Archibald
Leader Title4:Premier
Leader Name4:Orlando Smith
Sovereignty Type:British Overseas Territory
Established Event1:Separate
Established Date1:1960
Established Event2:Autonomous territory
Established Date2:1967
Area Rank:216th
Area Magnitude:1 E8
Area Km2:153
Area Sq Mi:59
Percent Water:1.6
Population Estimate:27,800 (2012 est.)[2]
Population Census:27,000[3]
Population Census Year:2005
Population Census Rank:212th
Population Density Km2:260
Population Density Sq Mi:673
Population Density Rank:68th
Gdp Ppp:$853.4 million[4]
Gdp Ppp Per Capita:$43,366
Currency:U.S. dollar
Currency Code:USD
Time Zone:AST
Utc Offset:-4
Time Zone Dst:not observed
Utc Offset Dst:-4
Cctld:.vg
Calling Code:+1-284
Drives On:left

The Virgin Islands, often called the British Virgin Islands (BVI), is a British overseas territory located in the Caribbean to the east of Puerto Rico. The islands make up part of the Virgin Islands archipelago, the remaining islands constituting the U.S. Virgin Islands.

The official name of the country is still simply the "Virgin Islands", but the prefix "British" is often used to distinguish it from the neighbouring American territory which changed its name from the "Danish West Indies" to "Virgin Islands of the United States" in 1917. British Virgin Islands government publications had traditionally continued to commence with "The Territory of the Virgin Islands", and passports simply refer to the "Virgin Islands", but recently, more legislation now refers to the country as the "British Virgin Islands".[5]

The British Virgin Islands consist of the main islands of Tortola, Virgin Gorda, Anegada, and Jost Van Dyke, along with over fifty other smaller islands and cays. About 15 of the islands are inhabited. The capital, Road Town, is situated on Tortola, the largest island, which is approximately 20km long and 5km wide. The islands have a population of about 27,800, of whom approximately 23,000 live on Tortola.

History

See main article: History of the British Virgin Islands.

The Virgin Islands were first settled by the Arawak from South America around 100 BC (though there is some evidence of Amerindian presence on the islands as far back as 1500 BC).[6] The Arawaks inhabited the islands until the 15th century when they were displaced by the more aggressive Caribs, a tribe from the Lesser Antilles islands, after whom the Caribbean Sea is named.

The first European sighting of the Virgin Islands was by Christopher Columbus in 1493 on his second voyage to the Americas. Columbus gave them the fanciful name Santa Ursula y las Once Mil Vírgenes (Saint Ursula and her 11,000 Virgins), shortened to Las Vírgenes (The Virgins), after the legend of Saint Ursula.

The Spanish Empire claimed the islands by discovery in the early 16th century, but never settled them, and subsequent years saw the English, Dutch, French, Spanish and Danish all jostling for control of the region, which became a notorious haunt for pirates. There is no record of any native Amerindian population in the British Virgin Islands during this period, although the native population on nearby St. Croix was decimated.

The Dutch established a permanent settlement on the island of Tortola by 1648. In 1672, the English captured Tortola from the Dutch, and the English annexation of Anegada and Virgin Gorda followed in 1680. Meanwhile, over the period 1672 - 1733, the Danish gained control of the nearby islands of St. Thomas, St. John and St. Croix.

The British islands were considered principally a strategic possession, but were planted when economic conditions were particularly favourable. The British introduced sugar cane which was to become the main crop and source of foreign trade, and slaves were brought from Africa to work on the sugar cane plantations. The islands prospered economically until the middle of the Nineteenth Century, when a combination of the abolition of slavery in the Territory, a series of disastrous hurricanes, and the growth in the sugar beet crop in Europe and the United States[7] significantly reduced sugar cane production and led to a period of economic decline.

In 1917, the United States purchased St. John, St. Thomas and St. Croix from Denmark for US$25 million, renaming them the United States Virgin Islands.

The British Virgin Islands were administered variously as part of the British Leeward Islands or with St. Kitts and Nevis, with an Administrator representing the British Government on the Islands. The island gained separate colony status in 1960 and became autonomous in 1967. Since the 1960s, the islands have diversified away from their traditionally agriculture-based economy towards tourism and financial services, becoming one of the wealthiest areas in the Caribbean.

Geography

See main article: Geography of the British Virgin Islands.

The British Virgin Islands comprise around sixty tropical Caribbean islands, ranging in size from the largest, Tortola 20km long and 5km wide, to tiny uninhabited islets. They are located in the Virgin Islands archipelago, a few miles east of the U.S. Virgin Islands. The North Atlantic Ocean lies to the north of the islands, and the Caribbean Sea lies to the south. Most of the islands are volcanic in origin and have a hilly, rugged terrain. Anegada is geologically distinct from the rest of the group and is a flat island composed of limestone and coral.

In addition to the four main islands of Tortola, Virgin Gorda, Anegada, and Jost Van Dyke, other islands include:

See also Islands of the British Virgin Islands.

Climate

The British Virgin Islands enjoy a tropical climate, moderated by trade winds. Temperatures vary little throughout the year. In the capital, Road Town, typical daily maxima are around 32°C in the summer and 29°C in the winter. Typical daily minima are around 24°C in the summer and 21°C in the winter. Rainfall averages about 1150mm per year, higher in the hills and lower on the coast. Rainfall can be quite variable, but the wettest months on average are September to November and the driest months on average are February and March. Hurricanes occasionally hit the islands, with the hurricane season running from June to November.

Politics

See main article: Politics of the British Virgin Islands. Executive authority in British Virgin Islands is vested in The Queen and is exercised on her behalf by the Governor of the British Virgin Islands. The Governor is appointed by the Queen on the advice of the British Government. Defence and Foreign Affairs remain the responsibility of the United Kingdom.

A new constitution was adopted in 2007 (the Virgin Islands Constitution Order, 2007)[8] and came into force when the Legislative Council was dissolved for the 2007 general election. The Head of Government under the new constitution is the Premier (prior to the new constitution the office was referred to as Chief Minister), who is elected in a general election along with the other members of the ruling government as well as the members of the opposition. A Cabinet is nominated by the Premier and appointed by the Governor. The Legislature consists of the Queen (represented by the Governor) and a unicameral House of Assembly made up of 13 elected members plus the Speaker and the Attorney-General.

The current Governor is William Boyd McCleary (since 2010). The current Premier is Orlando Smith (since 9 November 2011).

Subdivisions

See main article: Districts of the British Virgin Islands. The British Virgin Islands is divided into 9 electoral districts. Eight of the nine districts are partly or wholly on Tortola, and encompass nearby neighbouring islands. Only the ninth district (Virgin Gorda and Anegada) does not include any part of Tortola. The Territory is also technically divided into 5 administrative districts (one for each of the four largest islands, and then a fifth for all other islands), and into 6 civil registry districts (three for Tortola, Jost Van Dyke, Virgin Gorda and Anegada) although these have little practical relevance today.

Law and criminal justice

See main article: Law of the British Virgin Islands.

The British Virgin Islands are a major target for drug traffickers, who use the area as a gateway to the United States. According to the Foreign & Commonwealth Office, "Problems associated with drug trafficking are potentially the most serious threat to stability in the BVI".[9] In August of 2011 a joint raid between the American DEA and local British Virgin Islands police arrested a number of residents who are accused of being involved in major drugs transshipments.[10]

Economy

See main article: Economy of the British Virgin Islands.

As an offshore financial centre,[11] the British Virgin Islands enjoys one of the more prosperous economies of the Caribbean region, with a per capita average income of around $38,500 (2004 est.)[12]

The "twin pillars" of the economy are tourism and financial services. Politically, tourism is the more important of the two, as it employs a greater number of people within the Territory, and a larger proportion of the businesses in the tourist industry are locally owned, as are a number of the highly tourism-dependent sole traders (for example, taxi drivers and street vendors). Economically however, financial services associated with the territory's status as an offshore financial centre are by far the more important. 51.8% of the Government's revenue comes directly from licence fees for offshore companies, and considerable further sums are raised directly or indirectly from payroll taxes relating to salaries paid within the trust industry sector (which tend to be higher on average than those paid in the tourism sector).

Tourism accounts for 45% of national income. The islands are a popular destination for U.S. citizens. In 2006 a total of 825,603 people visited the islands (of whom 443,987 were cruise ship passengers). Tourists frequent the numerous white sand beaches, visit The Baths on Virgin Gorda, snorkel the coral reefs near Anegada, or experience the well-known bars of Jost Van Dyke. The BVI are known as one of the world's greatest sailing destinations, and charter sailboats are a very popular way to visit less accessible islands. Every year since 1972 the BVI has hosted the Spring Regatta, which is a seven-day collection of sailing races throughout the islands. A substantial number of the tourists who visit the BVI are cruise ship passengers, although they produce far lower revenue per head than charter boat tourists and hotel based tourists. They are nonetheless important to the substantial (and politically important) taxi driving community.

Substantial revenues are also generated by the registration of offshore companies. As of June 2008, 823,502 companies were so registered (of which 445,865 were 'active'). In 2000 KPMG reported in its survey of offshore jurisdictions for the United Kingdom government that over 41% of the world's offshore companies were formed in the British Virgin Islands. Since 2001, financial services in the British Virgin Islands have been regulated by the independent Financial Services Commission. While at one time the BVI was well regarded as a good domicile for captive insurance services, this changed beginning in recent years with the change of insurance regulators in 2007 and the government's increasing pressure to hire only locals ("belongers") in the insurance industry. Official reports from the Financial Services Commission reflect as of June 30, 2010 only 207 captives in the BVI. Informed sources report that the actual number is closer to 100, with the 50% decline over the last four years attributable to the lack of ability within the FSC in administering insurance companies. Beginning in 2008 there was a mass exodus of captives for better staffed jurisdictions like Anguilla.

Agriculture and industry account for only a small proportion of the islands' GDP. Agricultural produce includes fruit, vegetables, sugar cane, livestock and poultry, and industries include rum distillation, construction and boat building.

The official currency of the British Virgin Islands has been the US dollar since 1959, a currency also used by the United States Virgin Islands.

The British Virgin Islands is heavily dependant on migrant workers, and over 50% of all workers on the islands are of a foreign descent. The national labour-force is estimated at 12,770, of whom approximately 59.4% work in the service sector but less than 0.6% are estimate to work in agriculture (the balance in industry).[13]

Demographics

See main article: Demographics of the British Virgin Islands.

The population of the Islands is around 21,730 in 2003. The majority of the population (83%) are Afro-Caribbean, descended from the slaves brought to the islands by the British. Other large ethnic groups include those of British and other European origin.

The 2004 Census reports:

The islands are heavily dependent upon migrant labour. In 2004, migrant workers accounted for 50% of the total population. 32% of workers employed in the British Virgin Islands work for the Government.

Religion

The islands are overwhelmingly Christian (84%) with the largest individual Christian denominations being Methodist (23%), Anglican (12%), Church of God (11%) and Catholic (9%).[14] Muslims constitute approximately 1.2% of the population according to Word Religion Database 2005.[15]

Transport

See main article: Transport in the British Virgin Islands.

There are 113km of roads. The main airport (Terrance B. Lettsome International Airport, also known as Beef Island Airport) is located on Beef Island, which lies off the eastern tip of Tortola and is accessible by the Queen Elizabeth II Bridge. American Eagle, Cape Air, LIAT and Air Sunshine are amongst the airlines offering scheduled service. Virgin Gorda and Anegada have their own smaller airports. Island Birds Air Charter flies directly to all three islands from any major airport. The main harbour is in Road Town. There are also ferries that operate within the British Virgin Islands and to the neighboring United States Virgin Islands. As in the UK, cars in the British Virgin Islands drive on the left side of the road, however they differ in that they are left-hand drive, as well. The roads are often quite steep and winding, and ruts can be a problem when it rains.

Education

The British Virgin Islands operates several government schools as well as private schools. There is also a community college, H. Lavity Stoutt Community College, that is located on the eastern end of Tortola. This college was named after Honourable Lavity Stoutt (Chief Minister).[16]

The literacy rate in the British Virgin Islands is a relatively high 98%.[17]

Sport

See also: Cricket in the West Indies.

Because of its location and climate the British Virgin Islands has long been a haven for sailing enthusiasts. Sailing is regarded as one of the foremost sports in all of the BVI. Calm waters and steady breezes provide some of the best sailing conditions in the Caribbean.[18] Many sailing events are held in the waters of this country, the largest of which is a week-long series of races called the Spring Regatta.

This is the premier sailing event of the Caribbean, with several races hosted each day. Boats include everything from full-size mono-hull yachts to dinghies. Captains and their crews come from all around the globe to attend these races. The Spring Regatta is part race, part party, part festival. There are races, games, and music during the day, and some crazy partying at night. The Spring Regatta is normally held during the first week of April http://www.vacationtortola.com/Yacht-Races.html.

Culture

See main article: Culture of the Virgin Islands.

Language

See main article: Virgin Islands Creole. The primary language is English, although there is a local dialect. Spanish is spoken by immigrants from the Dominican Republic.

Music

See main article: Music of the Virgin Islands.

The traditional music of the British Virgin Islands is called fungi after the local cornmeal dish with the same name, often made with okra. The special sound of fungi is due to a unique local fusion between African and European music. It functions as a medium of local history and folklore and is therefore a cherished cultural form of expression that is part of the curriculum in BVI schools. The fungi bands, also called "scratch bands", use instruments ranging from calabash, washboard, bongos and ukulele, to more traditional western instruments like keyboard, banjo, guitar, bass, triangle and saxophone. Apart from being a form of festive dance music, fungi often contains humorous social commentaries, as well as BVI oral history.[19] The popular singer Iyaz is from the British Virgin Islands. In the music video for his song Replay he had the flag of the British Virgin Islands in the background.

See also

Notes

  1. The Virgin Islands Constitution Order 2007 (which refers to the territory as the "Virgin Islands" (not, for the avoidance of doubt, as the "British Virgin Islands")
  2. http://www.bviplatinum.com/news.php?page=Article&articleID=1331602904
  3. http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/travel-and-living-abroad/travel-advice-by-country/country-profile/north-central-america/british-virgin-islands/
  4. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vi.html
  5. The Interpretation Act (Cap 136) (1985) defines the "Territory" as simply the "Virgin Islands"; but the Insolvency Act, 2003 defines a "foreign company" as 'a body corporate that is incorporated, registered or formed outside the British Virgin Islands.
  6. Wilson, Samuel M. ed. The Indigenous People of the Caribbean. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997. ISBN 0-8130-1692-4
  7. In the United Kingdom, a major market for sugar from the Territory, the Sugar Duties Act 1846 also created a considerable downward effect on the price of Caribbean sugar cane.
  8. http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/em2007/uksiem_20071678_en.pdf Virgin Islands Constitution Order 2007
  9. http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/travel-and-living-abroad/travel-advice-by-country/country-profile/north-central-america/british-virgin-islands/ British Virgin Islands Country Profile
  10. Web site: Thirteen Indicted for Airdropping Multi-Hundred Kilogram Quantities of Cocaine in the Caribbean Sea and for Money Laundering Offenses. US Justice Department. 2011-08-25. 2012-03-19.
  11. Web site: Islands resent crackdown of the tax havens by G-20. Ben Fox. Associated Press. May 9, 2009. 2011-10-11.
  12. CIA. [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vi.html Economy: British Virgin Islands]. The World Factbook, CIA publications, 19 December. 2006. Retrieved 25 December. 2006.
  13. Web site: British Virgin Islands - workforce. The Times. 2012-03-19.
  14. Web site: National Population Census Report 2001 - The British Virgin Islands. Caribbean Community Secretariat. 2009. 2012-03-07. pdf.
  15. cited in Web site: Mapping the Global Muslim Population. Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. 2009. 2012-03-07. pdf.
  16. http://www.bvi.gov.vg/products.asp?iProd=35&iCat=12&hierarchy=0 British Virgin Islands Schools
  17. Web site: British Virgin Islands - workforce. The Times. 2012-03-19.
  18. Web site: The Best Sailing.
  19. Penn, Dexter J.A. Music of the British Virgin Islands: Fungi. Retrieved 13 January 2008.

References

  1. The Virgin Islands Constitution Order 2007 (which refers to the territory as the "Virgin Islands" (not, for the avoidance of doubt, as the "British Virgin Islands")
  2. http://www.bviplatinum.com/news.php?page=Article&articleID=1331602904
  3. http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/travel-and-living-abroad/travel-advice-by-country/country-profile/north-central-america/british-virgin-islands/
  4. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vi.html
  5. The Interpretation Act (Cap 136) (1985) defines the "Territory" as simply the "Virgin Islands"; but the Insolvency Act, 2003 defines a "foreign company" as 'a body corporate that is incorporated, registered or formed outside the British Virgin Islands.
  6. Wilson, Samuel M. ed. The Indigenous People of the Caribbean. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997. ISBN 0-8130-1692-4
  7. In the United Kingdom, a major market for sugar from the Territory, the Sugar Duties Act 1846 also created a considerable downward effect on the price of Caribbean sugar cane.
  8. http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/em2007/uksiem_20071678_en.pdf Virgin Islands Constitution Order 2007
  9. http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/travel-and-living-abroad/travel-advice-by-country/country-profile/north-central-america/british-virgin-islands/ British Virgin Islands Country Profile
  10. Web site: Thirteen Indicted for Airdropping Multi-Hundred Kilogram Quantities of Cocaine in the Caribbean Sea and for Money Laundering Offenses. US Justice Department. 2011-08-25. 2012-03-19.
  11. Web site: Islands resent crackdown of the tax havens by G-20. Ben Fox. Associated Press. May 9, 2009. 2011-10-11.
  12. CIA. [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vi.html Economy: British Virgin Islands]. The World Factbook, CIA publications, 19 December. 2006. Retrieved 25 December. 2006.
  13. Web site: British Virgin Islands - workforce. The Times. 2012-03-19.
  14. Web site: National Population Census Report 2001 - The British Virgin Islands. Caribbean Community Secretariat. 2009. 2012-03-07. pdf.
  15. cited in Web site: Mapping the Global Muslim Population. Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. 2009. 2012-03-07. pdf.
  16. http://www.bvi.gov.vg/products.asp?iProd=35&iCat=12&hierarchy=0 British Virgin Islands Schools
  17. Web site: British Virgin Islands - workforce. The Times. 2012-03-19.
  18. Web site: The Best Sailing.
  19. Penn, Dexter J.A. Music of the British Virgin Islands: Fungi. Retrieved 13 January 2008.

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