Black people explained

Black people is a term usually referring to a racial group of humans with a dark skin color, but the term has also been used to categorise a number of diverse populations into one common group. Some definitions of the term include only people of relatively recent Sub Saharan African descent (see African diaspora), while others extend the term to any of the populations characterized by dark skin color, a definition that also includes certain populations in Oceania, Southeast Asia, [1] [2] southern South Asia, and the southern Middle East[3] .

Dark skin

The evolution of dark skin is intrinsically linked to the loss of body hair in humans.By 1.2 million years ago, all people having descendants today had the same receptor protein of today's Africans; their skin was dark, and the intense sun killed off the progeny with any lighter skin that resulted from mutational variation in the receptor protein.[4] This is significantly earlier than the speciation of Homo sapiens from Homo erectus some 250,000 years ago.

Dark skin helps protect against skin cancer that develops as a result of ultraviolet light radiation, causing mutations in the skin. Furthermore, dark skin prevents an essential B vitamin, folate, from being destroyed. Therefore, in the absence of modern medicine and diet, a person with dark skin in the tropics would live longer, be healthier and likelier to reproduce than a person with light skin. White Australians have some of the highest rates of skin cancer as evidence of this expectation.[5] Conversely, as dark skin prevents sunlight from penetrating the skin it hinders the production of vitamin D3. Hence when humans migrated to less sun-intensive regions in the north, low vitamin D3 levels became a problem and lighter skin colors started appearing. The people of Europe, who have low levels of melanin, naturally have an almost colorless skin pigmentation, especially when untanned. This low level of pigmentation allows the blood vessels to become visible and gives the characteristic pale pink color of white people. The primary difference in skin color between blacks and whites is however a minor genetic difference accounting for just one letter in 3.1 billion letters of DNA.[6]

In sub-Saharan Africa

See also: Demographics of Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa is a common if imprecise term that encompasses African countries located south of the Saharan Desert. It is commonly used to differentiate the region culturally, ecologically, politically and, more controversially, racially, from other parts of the continent. Because the indigenous people of this region are primarily dark-skinned, it is sometimes used as a euphemism for "Black Africa".[7] Some criticize the use of the term, because, having become in many quarters synonymous with Black Africa, it can leave the mistaken impression that there are not indigenous Black populations in North Africa. Furthermore, the Sahara cuts across countries such as Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad, and Sudan, leaving some parts of them in North Africa and some in sub-Saharan Africa.

Owen 'Alik Shahadah argues that the term sub-Saharan Africa has racist overtones:

However, some black Africans prefer to be culturally distinguished from those who live in the north of the continent.[8]

South Africa

In South Africa during the apartheid era, the population was classified into four groups: Black, White, Asian (mostly Indian), and Coloured. The Coloured group included people of mixed Bantu, Khoisan, and European descent (with some Malay ancestry, especially in the Western Cape). The Coloured definition occupied an intermediary position between the Black and White definitions in South Africa.

The apartheid bureaucracy devised complex (and often arbitrary) criteria in the Population Registration Act to determine who belonged in which group. Minor officials administered tests to enforce the classifications. When it was unclear from a person's physical appearance whether a person was to be considered Colored or Black, the "pencil test" was employed. This involved inserting a pencil in a person's hair to determine if the hair was kinky enough for the pencil to get stuck.[9]

During the apartheid era, the Coloureds were oppressed and discriminated against. However, they did have limited rights and overall had slightly better socioeconomic conditions than Blacks. In the post-apartheid era the government's policies of affirmative action have favored Blacks over Coloureds. Some South Africans categorized as Black openly state that Coloureds did not suffer as much as they did during apartheid. The popular saying by Coloured South Africans to illustrate this dilemma is:

Other than by appearance, Coloureds can be distinguished from Blacks by language. Most speak Afrikaans or English as a first language, as opposed to Bantu languages such as Zulu or Xhosa. They also tend to have more European-sounding names than Bantu names.[10]

In 2008, the High Court in South Africa has ruled that Chinese South Africans are to be reclassified as black people.[11]

In the Arab World

See also: Afro-Arab. Black African and Near Eastern peoples have interacted since prehistoric times.[12] [13] Some historians estimate that as many as 14 million black slaves crossed the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Sahara Desert in the Arab slave trade from 650 to 1900 CE.[14] [15]

The Afro-Asiatic languages, which include Semitic languages such as Arabic and Hebrew, are believed by some scholars to have originated in Ethiopia.[16] This is because the region has very diverse language groups in close geographic proximity, often considered a telltale sign for a linguistic geographic origin.

In more recent times, about 1000 CE, interactions between blacks and Arabs resulted in the incorporation of extensive Arabic vocabulary into Swahili, which became a useful lingua franca for merchants. Some of this because of the slave trade; the history of Islam and slavery shows that the major juristic schools traditionally accepted the institution of slavery.[17] As a result, Arab influence spread along the east coast of Africa and to some extent into the interior (see East Africa). Timbuktu was a trading outpost that linked west Africa with Berber, Arab, and Jewish traders throughout the Arab World. As a result of these interactions many Arab people in the Middle East have black ancestry and many blacks on the east coast of Africa and along the Sahara have Arab ancestry.[18]

According to Dr. Carlos Moore, resident scholar at Brazil's Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Afro-multiracials in the Arab world self-identify in ways that resemble Latin America. He claims that black-looking Arabs, much like black-looking Latin Americans, consider themselves white because they have some distant white ancestry.[19]

Moore also claims that a film about Egyptian President Anwar Sadat had to be canceled when Sadat discovered that an African-American had been cast to play him. In fact, the 1983 television movie Sadat, starring Louis Gossett, Jr., was not canceled. The Egyptian government refused to let the drama air in Egypt, partially on the grounds of the casting of Gossett.[20] The objections, however, did not come from Sadat, who had been assassinated two years earlier.

Sadat's mother was a black Sudanese woman and his father was a lighter-skinned Egyptian. In response to an advertisement for an acting position he remarked, "I am not white but I am not exactly black either. My blackness is tending to reddish".[21]

Fathia Nkrumah was another Egyptian intimately tied with black Africa. She was the late wife of Ghanaian revolutionary Kwame Nkrumah, whose marriage was seen as helping plant the seeds of cooperation between Egypt and other African countries as they struggled for independence from European colonization, which in turn helped advance the formation of the African Union.[22]

In general, Arabs had a more positive view of black women than black men, even if the women were of slave origin. More black women were enslaved than men, and, because the Qur'an was interpreted to permit sexual relations between a male master and his female slave outside of marriage,[23] [24] many mixed race children resulted. When an enslaved woman became pregnant with her Arab captor's child, she became “umm walad” or “mother of a child”, a status that granted her privileged rights. The child would have prospered from the wealth of the father and been given rights of inheritance.[25] Because of patrilineality, the children were born free and sometimes even became successors to their ruling fathers, as was the case with Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur, (whose mother was a Fulani concubine), who ruled Morocco from 1578-1608. Such tolerance, however, was not extended to wholly black persons, even when technically "free," and the notion that to be black meant to be a slave became a common belief.[26] The term "abd," (Arabic: عبد,) "slave," remains a common term for black people in the Middle East, often though not always derogatory.[27]

In the Ottoman Empire

Turkey

See also: Afro-Turks. Beginning several centuries ago, a number of sub-Saharan Africans were brought by slave traders during the Ottoman Empire to plantations between Antalya and Istanbul in modern-day Turkey.[28] Some of their descendants remain, mixed with the rest of the population in these areas, and many migrated to larger cities. Some came from the island of Crete following the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1923.[29]

Cyprus

During the Ottoman rule, black African slaves (usually transferred over Egypt) were brought to Cyprus and sold to Muslim families. Many of their descendants rose to prominent positions and assimilated into the Turkish Cypriot community, creating a sizeable multiracial population today.[30]

Balkans

Ulcinj in Montenegro had its own black community - descendent of the Ottoman slave trade that had flourished here.[31] The Ottoman Army counted thousands of black African soldiers in its ranks. The army sent to Balkans during the Austro-Turkish War of 1716–18 included 24,000 men from Africa.[32]

In the Americas

Approximately 12 million Africans were shipped to the Americas during the Atlantic slave trade from 1492 to 1888. Today their descendants number approximately 150 million,[33] most of whom live in the United States, the Caribbean and Latin America, including Brazil. Many have a multiracial background of African, Amerindian, European and Asian ancestry. The various regions developed complex social conventions with which their multi-ethnic populations were classified.

United States

See main article: African American.

See also: African immigration to the United States.

In the first 200 years that blacks had been in the United States, they commonly referred to themselves as Africans. In Africa, people primarily identified themselves by tribe or ethnic group (closely allied to language) and not by skin color. Individuals would be Asante, Igbo, Bakongo or Wolof. But when Africans were brought to the Americas they were forced to give up their ethnic affiliations for fear of uprisings. The result was the Africans had to intermingle with other Africans from different ethnic groups. This is significant as Africans came from a vast geographic region, the West African coastline stretching from Senegal to Angola and in some cases from the south east coast such as Mozambique. A new identity and culture was born that incorporated elements of the various tribal groups and of European cultural heritage, resulting in fusions such as the Black church and Black English. This new identity was now based on skin color and African ancestry rather than any one tribal group.[34]

In March 1807, Britain, which largely controlled the Atlantic, declared the trans-atlantic slave trade illegal, as did the United States. (The latter prohibition took effect January 1, 1808, the earliest date on which Congress had the power to do so under Article I, Section 9 of the United States Constitution.)

By that time, the majority of blacks were U.S.-born, so use of the term "African" became problematic. Though initially a source of pride, many blacks feared its continued use would be a hindrance to their fight for full citizenship in the US. They also felt that it would give ammunition to those who were advocating repatriating blacks back to Africa. In 1835 black leaders called upon black Americans to remove the title of "African" from their institutions and replace it with "Negro" or "Colored American". A few institutions however elected to keep their historical names such as African Methodist Episcopal Church. "Negro" and "colored" remained the popular terms until the late 1960s.[35]

The term black was used throughout but not frequently as it carried a certain stigma.In his 1963 "I Have a Dream" speech,[36] Martin Luther King, Jr. uses the terms Negro 15 times and black 4 times. Each time he uses black it is in parallel construction with white (e.g., black men and white men).[37] With the successes of the civil rights movement a new term was needed to break from the past and help shed the reminders of legalized discrimination. In place of Negro, black was promoted as standing for racial pride, militancy and power. Some of the turning points included the use of the term "Black Power" by Kwame Toure (Stokely Carmichael) and the release of James Brown's song "Say It Loud - I'm Black and I'm Proud".

In 1988 Jesse Jackson urged Americans to use the term African American because the term has a historical cultural base. Since then African American and black have essentially a coequal status. There is still much controversy over which term is more appropriate. Some strongly reject the term African American in preference for black citing that they have little connection with Africa. Others believe the term black is inaccurate because African Americans have a variety of skin tones.[38] Surveys show that when interacting with each other African Americans prefer the term black, as it is associated with intimacy and familiarity. The term "African American" is preferred for public and formal use.[39] The appropriateness of the term "African American" is further confused, however, by increases in black immigrants from Africa, the Caribbean and Latin America. The more recent black immigrants may sometimes view themselves, and be viewed, as culturally distinct from native descendants of African slaves.[40]

The U.S. census race definitions says a black is a person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as "Black, African Am., or Negro," or who provide written entries such as African American, Afro American, Kenyan, Nigerian, or Haitian. However, the Census Bureau notes that these classifications are socio-political constructs and should not be interpreted as scientific or anthropological.[41]

A considerable portion of the U.S. population identified as black actually have some Native American or European American ancestry. For instance, genetic studies of African American people show an ancestry that is on average 17-18% European.[42]

One drop rule

Historically, the United States used a colloquial term, the one-drop rule, to designate a black person as any person with any known African ancestry.[43] Outside of the US, some other countries have adopted the practice, but the definition of who is black and the extent to which the one drop "rule" applies varies from country to country.

The one drop rule may have originated as a means of increasing the number of black slaves[44] and been maintained as an attempt to keep the white race pure.[45] . One of the results of the one drop rule was uniting the African American community and preserving an African identity.[43] Some of the most prominent civil rights activists were multiracial, and advocated equality for all.

President Barack Obama self-identifies as black and African American interchangeably. According to a Williams Identity Survey conducted by Zogby International interactive poll conducted November 1-2, 2006, among those who voted, 55 percent of whites voters and 61 percent of Hispanics voters classified him as biracial instead of black after being told that his mother is white, and 66% of Black voters classified Obama as black.[46] Another poll conducted by the same group returned results that forty-two percent of African-Americans voters described Tiger Woods as black, as did 7% of white voters.[47]

Blackness

The concept of blackness in the United States has been described as the degree to which one associates themselves with mainstream African American culture and values. This concept is not so much about skin color or tone but more about culture and behavior. Blackness can be contrasted with "acting white" where black Americans are said to behave with assumed characteristics of stereotypical white Americans, with regard to fashion, dialect and taste in music.[48]

The notion of blackness can also be extended to non-black people. Toni Morrison once described Bill Clinton as the first black president,[49] because of his warm relations with African Americans, his poor upbringing and also because he is a jazz musician. Christopher Hitchens was offended by the notion of Clinton as the first black president noting "we can still define blackness by the following symptoms: alcoholic mothers, under-the-bridge habits...the tendency to sexual predation and shameless perjury about the same"[50] Some black activists were also offended, claiming Clinton used his knowledge of black culture to exploit black people like no other president before[51] for political gain, while not serving black interests. They note his lack of action during the Rwanda genocide[52] and his welfare reform which led to the worst child poverty since the 1960s[53] along with the fact that the number of blacks in jail increased during his administration.[54]

The question of blackness also arose in Democrat Barack Obama's 2008 presidential campaign. Commentators such as Time magazine have questioned whether Obama, who was elected the first black President of the United States, is black enough, as his mother is white American, and his father is a black Kenyan immigrant. Obama refers to himself interchangeably as black and African American.[55]

Race in Brazil

See main article: Race in Brazil. The topic of race in Brazil is a complex and diverse one. A Brazilian child was never automatically identified with the racial type of one or both parents, nor were there only two categories to choose from. Between a pure black and a very light mulatto over a dozen racial categories would be recognized in conformity with the combinations of hair color, hair texture, eye color, and skin color. These types grade into each other like the colors of the spectrum, and no one category stands significantly isolated from the rest. That is, race referred to appearance, not heredity.[56]

There is some disagreement among scholars over the effects of social status on racial classifications in Brazil. It is generally believed that upward mobility and education results in reclassification of individuals into lighter skinned categories. The popular claim is that in Brazil poor whites are considered black and wealthy blacks are considered white. Some scholars disagree arguing that whitening of one's social status may be open to people of mixed race, but a typically black person will consistently be identified as black regardless of wealth or social status.[57] [58]

Statistics

Demographics of Brazil
YearWhiteBrownBlack
183524.4%18.2%51.4%
200053.7%38.5%6.2%
From the year 1500 to 1850 an estimated 3.5 million Africans were forcibly shipped to Brazil.[57] An estimated 80 million Brazilians, almost half the population, are at least in part descendants of these Africans. Brazil has the largest population of Afro-descendants outside of Africa. In contrast to the US there were no segregation or anti-miscegenation laws in Brazil and as a result intermarriage has affected a large majority of the Brazilian population. Even much of the white population has either African or Amerindian blood. According to the last census 54% identified themselves as white, 6.2% identified themselves as black and 39.5% identified themselves as Pardo (brown)- a broad multiracial category.[59]

A philosophy of whitening emerged in Brazil in the 19th century. Until recently the government did not keep data on race. However, statisticians estimate that in 1835 half the population was black, one fifth was Pardo (brown) and one fourth white. By 2000 the black population had fallen to only 6.2% and the Pardo had increased to 40% and white to 55%. Essentially most of the black population was absorbed into the multiracial category by intermarriage.[56] A recent study found that at least 29% of the middle class white Brazilian population had some recent African ancestry.[60]

Race relations

Because of the ideology of miscegenation, Brazil has avoided the polarization of Society into black and white. The bitter and sometimes violent racial tensions that divide the US are notably absent in Brazil.However the philosophy of the racial democracy in Brazil has drawn criticism from some quarters. Brazil has one of the largest gaps in income distribution in the world. The richest 10% of the population earn 28 times the average income of the bottom 40%. The richest 10 percent is almost exclusively white. One-third of the population lives under the poverty line of which blacks and other non-whites account for 70 percent of the poor.[61]

In the US blacks earn 75% of what whites earn, in Brazil non-whites earn less than 50% of what whites earn. Some have posited that Brazil does in fact practice the one drop rule when social economic factors are considered. This because the gap income between blacks and other non-whites is relatively small compared with the large gap between whites and non-whites. Other factors such as illiteracy and education level show the same patterns.[62] Unlike in the US where African Americans were united in the civil rights struggle, in Brazil the philosophy of whitening has helped divide blacks from other non-whites and prevented a more active civil rights movement.

Though Afro-Brazilians make up half the population there are very few black politicians. The city of Salvador, Bahia for instance is 80% Afro-Brazilian but has never had a black mayor. Critics indicate that in US cities like Detroit and New Orleans that have a black majority, have never had white mayors since first electing black mayors in the 1970s.[63]

Non-white people also have limited media visibility. The Latin American media, in particular the Brazilian media, has been accused of hiding its black and indigenous population. For example the telenovelas or soaps are said to be a hotbed of white, largely blonde and blue/green-eyed actors who resemble Scandinavians or other northern Europeans more than they resemble the typical whites of Brazil, who are mostly of Southern European descent.[64] [65] [66]

These patterns of discrimination against non-whites have led some to advocate for the use of the Portuguese term 'negro' to encompass non-whites so as to renew a black consciousness and identity, in effect an African descent rule.[67]

In Asia and Australasia

In South Asia, there are several communities of Black African descent, generally called Siddis or Sheedis.

There are several groups of dark-skinned people who live in various parts of Asia, Australia and Oceania. They include the Indigenous Australians, the Melanesians (now divided into Austronesian-speaking populations and Papuans, and including the great genetic diversity of New Guinea), the Andamanese people of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of the Indian Ocean, the Semang people of the Malay peninsula, the Aeta people of Luzon, the Ati of Panay, the Vedda people of Sri Lanka[68], and various indigenous peoples sometimes collectively known as Negritos.

By their external physical appearance (phenotype) such people resemble Black Africans with dark skin and sometimes tightly coiled hair. There have been suggestions of a Black African origin. However, in the case of the Andamanese people, a study conducted by the NCBI indicated that the Andamanese people posessed closer affinities with the Southeast Asian population than with the Black African population. [69]

In Europe

See main article: Afro-European.

For many centuries throughout the Age of Discovery and the colonial empires, black people came from the colonies to the "mother country", either voluntarily (sometimes for education) or under duress (sometimes as slaves). Even prior to that, the Arab slave trade brought large numbers of Africans to the furthest reaches of Europe; for example, Peter the Great took as a protégé Abram Petrovich Gannibal, whose descendants number poet Alexandr Pushkin and Hugh Grosvenor, heir apparent to Britain's wealthiest aristocrat.[70] Most of the black people living in Europe, however, have their origins in relatively recent waves of immigration. Since the decolonisation of the mid-twentieth century, substantial black populations have moved to certain countries in Europe; other European countries have very few black people. At present, black people have limited visibility in mainstream European society, except in a handful of roles such as sporting activities.

Britain

See also: Black British population, British African-Caribbean community and Black British

According to National Statistics, as of the 2001 census, there are over a million black people in the United Kingdom; 1% of the total population describe themselves as "Black Caribbean", 0.8% as "Black African", and 0.2% as "Black other".[71] The largest single number comes from Nigeria, just over 88,000[72] . Britain encouraged workers from the Caribbean after World War II; the first symbolic movement was those who came on the ship the Empire Windrush. The preferred official umbrella term is "black and minority ethnic" (BME), but sometimes the term "black" is used on its own, to express unified opposition to racism, as in the Southall Black Sisters, which started with a mainly British Asian constituency. Black Britons tend to live in the cities, whereas the white population is moving more to suburbs and the countryside (see white flight). The total Black British population is currently thought to be much higher with around 2 million Nigerians in the country alone.[73]

Eastern Europe

As African states became independent in the 1960s, the Soviet Union offered them the chance to study in Russia; over 40 years, 400,000 African students came, and many settled there.[74] [75] This extended beyond the Soviet Union to many countries of the Eastern bloc.

Russia

A cultural classification of people as "black" exists in Russia. Certain groups of people who are ethnically different, and generally darker, than ethnic Russians are pejoratively referred to as "blacks" (chernye), and face specific sorts of social exclusion (see Racism in Russia). Roma, Georgians, and Tatars fall into this category.[76] Those referred to as "black" are from the former Soviet republics, predominantly peoples of the Caucasus, e.g. Chechens.[77] Although "Caucasian" is used in American English to mean "white people", in Russian  - and most other varieties of English  - it only refers to the Caucasus, not European people in general.

See also: Negroid and mulatto people of Russia in russian Wikipedia.

Debates on race

In Afrocentrism

See main article: Afrocentrism and Ancient Egyptian race controversy. A controversy over the skin color and ethnic origins of the ancient Egyptians was sparked as part of the Afrocentric debate.[78] Afrocentrist scholars such as Cheikh Anta Diop contend that ancient Egypt was primarily a "black civilization". One source cited in support of their argument is Herodotus, who wrote around 450 B.C. that "Colchians, Ethiopians and Egyptians have thick lips, broad nose, woolly hair and they are burnt of skin."[79] However, Classical scholar Frank Snowden, Jr. cautions against the reliance on accounts by ancient writers to describe the physical characteristics of other ancient peoples, as they held different connotations from those of modern-day terminology in the West. He also points out that other ancient writers clearly distinguished between Egyptians and Ethiopians.[80]

Keita and Boyce confront this issue in a 1996 article entitled, "The Geographical Origins and Population Relationships of Early Ancient Egyptians". As anthropologists, they point out the danger in relying on ancient interpretation to reveal for us the biological make up of a population. In any case they contend, the relevant data indicates greater similarity between Egyptians and Ethiopians than the former group with the Ancient Greeks.[81]

Ancient Egyptians are often portrayed in modern media as Caucasians, and many people, Afrocentrists in particular, have been critical of this.[82] According to Egyptologists, ancient Egypt was a multicultural society of Middle Eastern, Northeast African, and Saharan influences.[78] [83] Anthropological and archaeological evidence shows that an Africoid element was evident in ancient Egypt,[84] which was predominant in Abydos in the First dynasty of Egypt.[85] [86]

Hamitic race

According to some historians, the tale in Genesis 9 in which Noah cursed the descendants of his son Ham with servitude was a seminal moment in defining black people, as the story was passed on through generations of Jewish, Christian and Islamic scholars.[87] According to columnist Felicia R. Lee, "Ham came to be widely portrayed as black; blackness, servitude and the idea of racial hierarchy became inextricably linked." Some people believe that the tradition of dividing humankind into three major races is partly rooted in tales of Noah's three sons repopulating the Earth after the Deluge and giving rise to three separate races.[88]

The biblical passage, Book of Genesis 9:20-27, which deals with the sons of Noah, however, makes no reference to race. The reputed curse of Ham is not on Ham, but on Canaan, one of Ham's sons. This is not a racial but geographic referent. The Canaanites, typically associated with the region of the Levant (Palestine, Lebanon, etc) were later subjugated by the Hebrews when they left bondage in Egypt according to the Biblical narrative.[89] [90] The alleged inferiority of Hamitic descendants also is not supported by the Biblical narrative, nor claims of three races in relation to Noah's sons. Shem for example seems a linguistic not racial referent. In short the Bible does not define blacks, nor assign them to racial hierarchies.[90]

Historians believe that by the 19th century, the belief that blacks were descended from Ham was used by southern United States whites to justify slavery.[91] According to Benjamin Braude, a professor of history at Boston College:

Author David M. Goldenberg contends that the Bible is not a racist document. According to Goldenberg, such racist interpretations came from post-biblical writers of antiquity like Philo and Origen of Alexandria, who equated blackness with darkness of the soul.[92]

See also

Notes and References

  1. Various isolated populations in Southeast Asia sometimes classified as black include the Austronesians and Papuans, the Andamanese islanders, the Semang people of the Malay peninsula, the Aeta people of Luzon, and some other small populations of indigenous peoples.
  2. black. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Retrieved April 13, 2007, from Dictionary.com website
  3. http://www.andaman.org/BOOK/chapter47/text47.htm
  4. Rogers. Alan R.. Iltis, David; Wooding, Stephen. Genetic variation at the MC1R locus and the time since loss of human body hair. Current Anthropology. 45. 1. 105–8. 2008-07-22. 10.1086/381006. February. 2004. 193553649. The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. 0011-3204.
  5. Web site: Australia Struggles with Skin Cancer.
  6. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/12/15/AR2005121501728_pf.html "Scientists find DNA change accounting for white skin"
  7. Lansana. Keita. Race, Identity and Africanity: A Reply to Eboussi Boulaga. CODESRIA Bulletin, Nos. 1 & 2. 16. 2004. Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa.
  8. Book: Keith B., Richburg. Out of America: A Black Man Confronts Africa. Harvest/HBJ Book. Reprint edition (July 1, 1998). 0156005832.
  9. News: Nullis. Clare. Township tourism booming in South Africa. The Associated Press. 2007.
  10. News: du Preez. Max. Coloureds - the most authentic SA citizens. The Star. 2006-04-13.
  11. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/africa/article4168245.ece We agree that you are black, South African court tells Chinese
  12. http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?ReportId=70522 Mauritania: Fair elections haunted by racial imbalance
  13. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6510675.stm Remembering East African slave raids
  14. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-85410331.html The Unknown Slavery: In the Muslim world, that is  - and it's not over
  15. http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24156 Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History
  16. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0011-3204%28199802%2939%3A1%3C139%3ATALPAI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage The Afroasiatic Language Phylum: African in Origin, or Asian?
  17. Lewis 1994, Ch.1
  18. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1180338 Extensive Female-Mediated Gene Flow from Sub-Saharan Africa into Near Eastern Arab Populations
  19. Web site: Musselman. Anson. The Subtle Racism of Latin America. UCLA International Institute.
  20. http://www.hollywood.com/celebrity/Louis_Gossett_Jr/192411 Louis Gosset Jr.
  21. http://books.google.com/books?id=PoW4pO4q9VwC&printsec=frontcover#PPP1,M1 Anwar Sadat: Visionary Who Dared By Joseph Finklestone
  22. http://ausummit-accra.org.gh/index1.php?linkid=289&adate=04%2F07%2F2007&archiveid=140&page=1 African Union Summit
  23. See Tahfeem ul Qur'an by Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi, Vol. 2 pp. 112-113 footnote 44; Also see commentary on verses : Vol. 3, notes 7-1, p. 241; 2000, Islamic Publications
  24. [Tafsir ibn Kathir]
  25. Web site: "Slavery in Arabia". "Owen 'Alik Shahadah".
  26. Web site: Hunwick. John. Arab Views of Black Africans and Slavery. PDF.
  27. News: Theola. Labbé. Omar Fekeiki. A Legacy Hidden in Plain Sight. Washington Post. 2004-01-11. 2008-01-29.
  28. http://www.afro-turk.org/index.php/ayvalikin-renkli-dernegi Ayvalık’ın renkli derneği, retrieved 28 August 2008
  29. http://www.todayszaman.com/tz-web/detaylar.do?load=detay&link=141522 Turks with African ancestors want their existence to be felt, Today's Zaman, 11 May 2008, Sunday, retrieved 28 August 2008
  30. http://www.toplumpostasi.net/printa.php?col=85&art=1113 Cyprus' Dark Secret
  31. http://www.cyber-adventures.com/yugo.html Yugoslavia - Montenegro and Kosovo - The Next Conflict?
  32. http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/russia2.html African Slave Trade in Russia
  33. http://www.hunter.cuny.edu/galci/Archive.htm "Community Outreach" Seminar on Planning Process for SANTIAGO +5
  34. Web site: Shahadah. Owen 'Alik. Owen 'Alik Shahadah. Linguistics for a new African reality.
  35. http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/1594200831/ African American Journeys to Africa page63-64
  36. I Have a Dream. Martin Luther King, Jr.. Google Video. Washington, D.C.. August 28, 1963.
  37. Smith. Tom W.. Changing Racial Labels: From "Colored" to "Negro" to "Black" to "African American". The Public Opinion Quarterly. 56. 4. 496–514. 0033-362X. 192150485. Winter, 1992. Oxford University Press. 10.1086/269339. PDF.
  38. News: McWhorter. John H.. Why I'm Black, Not African American. Los Angeles Times. 2004-09-08.
  39. Book: Miller, Pepper. Kemp, Herb. What's Black About? Insights to Increase Your Share of a Changing African-American Market. Paramount Market Publishing, Inc. 2006. 0972529098. 61694280.
  40. News: 'African American' Becomes a Term for Debate. Swarns. Rachel L.. 2004-08-29. The New York Times. 2008-07-22.
  41. http://www.census.gov/mso/www/c2000basics/00Basics.pdf 2000 US Census basics
  42. http://www.isteve.com/2002_How_White_Are_Blacks.htm How White Are Blacks? How Black Are Whites? by Steve Sailer
  43. Web site: James. F. Davis. Who is Black? One Nation's Definition. PBS.
  44. [Clarence Page]
  45. Web site: Presenting the Triumph of the One-Drop Rule. Sweet. Frank. Backintyme Essays. The One-Drop Rule. 2006-04-01. 2008-07-22.
  46. News: Obama and 'one drop of non-white blood'. BBS News. 2007-04-13.
  47. Web site: White. John Kennet. Barack Obama and the Politics of Race. Catholic University of America.
  48. News: Acting White. Edler. Melissa. Spring 2007. Kent State Magazine. 2008-07-22.
  49. News: Blacks and Bill Clinton. Hansen. Suzy. 2002-02-20. Salon. 2008-07-22.
  50. No One Left to Lie to by Christopher Hitchens, 1999, pg 47
  51. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go1637/is_200204/ai_n6880693 Find Articles 404 File not found
  52. News: US chose to ignore Rwandan genocide. Carroll. Rory. 2004-03-31. The Guardian. 2008-07-22.
  53. Web site: Clinton's welfare reform has increased child poverty. Roberts. Larry. 1999-06-02. World Socialist Web Site. 2008-07-22.
  54. Web site: Soul Brother? Clinton and Black Americans. Gray. Kevin A.. 2002-12-07. Counterpunch. 2008-07-22.
  55. News: A Transcript Excerpt Of Steve Kroft’s Interview With Sen. Obama. Kroft. Steve. 2007-02-11. CBS News. 2008-07-22.
  56. Thomas E.. Skidmore. Fact and Myth: Discovering a Racial Problem in Brazil. Working Paper. 173. April. 1992. PDF.
  57. Book: Edward E., Telles. Race in Another America: The Significance of Skin Color in Brazil. 95–98. Princeton University Press. 2004. 0691118663.
  58. Edward E.. Telles. Racial Ambiguity Among the Brazilian Population. Ethnic and Racial Studies. 25. 415–441. 3 May 2002. California Center for Population Research. 10.1080/01419870252932133. PDF.
  59. Web site: [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html#People CIA World Factbook: Brazil].
  60. http://www.funpecrp.com.br/gmr/year2007/vol2-6/gmr0330_full_text.htm Sex-biased gene flow in African Americans but not in American Caucasians
  61. Web site: Barrolle. Melvin Kadiri. African 'Americans' in Brazil. New America Media.
  62. Web site: Roland. Edna Maria Santos. The Economics of Racism: People of African Descent in Brazil.
  63. Charles Whitaker, "Blacks in Brazil: The Myth and the Reality," Ebony, February 1991
  64. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3069253/site/newsweek/%5B/url%5D Soap operas on Latin TV are lily white
  65. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A19009-2000Aug1&notFound=true The Blond, Blue-Eyed Face of Spanish TV
  66. http://www.boston.com/news/globe/living/articles/2004/08/19/pride_or_prejudice/ Skin tone consciousness in Asian and Latin American populations
  67. http://www.newamerica.net/publications/articles/2006/brazil_separates_into_a_world_of_black_and_white Brazil Separates Into a World of Black and White
  68. http://www.andaman.org/BOOK/chapter6/text6.htm Chapter 6: The Negrito Race
  69. Kumarasamy. Thangaraj. Singh, Lalji; Reddy, Alla G.; Rao, V. Raghavendra; Sehgal, Subhash C.; Underhill, Peter A.; Pierson, Melanie; Frame, Ian G.; Hagelberg, Erika. Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. Current Biology. 13. 2. 86–93. 2003-01-21. 10.1080/00438240600564987. 112009350. 0960-9822. PDF.
  70. http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/specials/rich_list/ Sunday Times Rich List 2007 - Business
  71. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=273 National Statistics Online
  72. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/born_abroad/countries/html/overview.stm BBC NEWS | UK | Born Abroad | Countries of birth
  73. http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/about-the-fco/country-profiles/sub-saharan-africa/nigeria?profile=intRelations&pg=4 http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/about-the-fco/country-profiles/sub-saharan-africa/nigeria?profile=intRelations&pg=4
  74. http://www.mediarights.org/film/black_russians MediaRights: Film: Black Russians
  75. http://www.africana.ru/Golden/info/black_russians_project_engl.htm Лили Голден и Лили Диксон. Телепроект "Черные русские": синопсис. Info on "Black Russians" film project in English
  76. The Unmaking of Soviet Life: Everyday Economies After Socialism By Caroline Humphrey Cornell University 2002 p36-37
  77. Lisa Taylor, Emergency—Explosion of State and Popular Racism follows Moscow Blasts, International Solidarity with Workers in Russia (ISWoR), 13 September 1999.
  78. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/afrocent_roth.html Building bridges to Afrocentrism
  79. Web site: Huge Ancient Egyptian Photo Gallery.
  80. Book: Snowden, Jr., Frank M.. Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers (eds.). Black Athena Revisited. Chapel Hill. University of North Carolina Press. 1996. 113–14. ....the Afrocentrists are mistaken in assuming that the terms Afri (Africans) and various color adjectives for dark pigmentation as used by Greeks and Romans are always the classical equivalents of Negores or blacks in modern usage.... That the pigmentation of the Egyptians was seen as lighter than that of Ethiopians is also attested by the adjective subfusucli ("somewhat dark") which Ammianus Marcellinus (22.16.23) chose to describe the Egyptians.....
  81. Book: Keita, Boyce, Shomarka, A.J.. Theodore Celenko(ed). Egypt in Africa. Chapel Hill. Indianapolis Museum of Art. 1996. 25–27. ....The descriptions and terms of ancient Greek writers have sometimes been used to comment on Egyptian origins. This is problematic since the ancient writers were not doing population biology. However, we can examine one issue. The Greeks called all groups south of Egypt "Ethiopians." Were the Egyptians more related to any of these "Ethiopians" than to the Greeks? As noted, cranial and limb studies have indicated greater similarity to Somalis, Kushites and Nubians, all "Ethiopians" in ancient Greek terms......
  82. Web site: The Identity Of Ancient. PDF.
  83. http://homelink.cps-k12.org/teachers/filiopa/files/AC383EB269C648AAAA659593B9FC358C.pdf Were the Ancient Egyptians black or white
  84. Basil Davidson. The Nile.
  85. Studies and Comments on Ancient Egyptian Biological Relationships, by S.O.Y. Keita, History in Africa, 20: 129-154 (1993)
  86. Keita. S.O.Y.. Further studies of crania from ancient northern Africa: an analysis of crania from First Dynasty Egyptian tombs. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 1992. March. 87. 3. 245–254. 2007-09-23. The predominant craniometric pattern in the Abydos [First Dynasty] royal tombs is "southern" (tropical African variant)... However, lower Egyptian, Maghrebian, and European patterns are observed also, thus making for great diversity... The centroid values of the various upper Egyptian series viewed collectively are seen to vary over time. The general trend from Badari to Nakada times, and then from the Nakadan to the First Dynasty epochs demonstrate change toward the northern-Egyptian centroid value on Function I with similar values on Function 11. This might represent an average change from an Africoid (Keita, 1990) to a northern-Egyptian-Maghreb modal pattern.... This northern modal pattern, which can be called coastal northern African, is noted in general terms to be intermediate, by the centroid scores of Function I, to equatorial African and northern European phenotypes.. 10.1002/ajpa.1330870302.
  87. Bernard Lewis, Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry, (Oxford University Press, 1982), pp. 28-117
  88. Web site: The Descendants of Noah.
  89. Book: Redford, Donald B.. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. 23–87. Princeton University Press. 1993. 0691000867.
  90. Book: Goldenberg, David M.. The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Princeton University Press. New Ed edition (July 18, 2005). 0691123705.
  91. Felicia R. Lee, Noah's Curse Is Slavery's Rationale, Racematters.org, November 1, 2003
  92. Goldenberg, D. M. (2005) The Curse of Ham: Race & Slavery in Early Judaism, Christian, Princeton University Press