A barangay (Filipino: baranggay, ), also known by its former Spanish adopted name, the barrio, is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward. Barangays are further subdivided into smaller areas called Puroks (English: Zone). A sitio is a territorial enclave inside a barangay, especially in rural areas. Municipalities and cities are composed of barangays. In place names barangay is sometimes abbreviated as "Brgy." or "Bgy.". As of December 31, 2006 there are a total of 41,995 barangays throughout the Philippines.
See also: History of the Barangay before Hispanization. When the first Spaniards arrived in the 16th century, they found the Filipinos having a civilization of their own and living in well-organized independent villages called barangays. The name barangay originated from balangay, a Malay word meaning "sailboat".
The term barangay was adopted and barangay structure defined in the modern context during the administration of President Ferdinand Marcos, replacing the old barrios and municipal councils. The barangays were eventually codified under the 1991 Local Government Code.
Historically, a barangay is a relatively small community of around 50 to 100 families. Most villages have only thirty to one hundred houses and the population varies from one hundred to five hundred persons. According to Legazpi, he found communities with twenty to thirty people only. Many coastal villages in the Visayan region consisted of no more than eight to ten houses. The word itself is derived from an ancient Malayo-Polynesian boat called a balangay. It is commonly believed that in pre-colonial Philippines, each original coastal “barangay” formed as a result of settlers arriving by boat from other places in Southeast Asia.
Most were coastal or riverine in nature. This is because the principal sources of protein come from the seas and rivers, most of the people relying more on fishing for supply of food. Also, people travelled mostly by water. The movement of the population was up and down rivers and along the coasts, trails always followed river systems. Rivers were also a major source of water for bathing, washing, and drinking. Moreover, coastal villages are more accessible to traders where an economic activity is developed. Business with traders meant contact with other cultures and civilizations like the Chinese, Indian, and Arabian. Thus, the coastal communities in Manila, Iloilo and Panay, Cebu, Jolo, and Butuan attained a higher cultural level.
Upon the arrival of the Spanish, several ancient barangays were combined to form towns. Every barangay within a town was headed by the cabeza de barangay (barangay chief), who formed part of the elite ruling class of the municipalities of Spanish Philippines.  The post was at first inherited from the first datus who became cabezas de barangay, but then was made into an elected post after the Spanish Regime. The primary job of the cabeza de barangay was to collect taxes (called tribute) from the residents.
When the Americans arrived, the term barrio went into prominence, as the barangays were called by that name. The term was kept for much of the twentieth century until President Ferdinand Marcos ordered the renaming of the barrios back to barangay. The name has stuck ever since, though some people still use the old term. The municipal council was abolished upon transfer of powers to the barangay system.Marcos used to call the barangay part of Philippine participatory democracy. Most of his writings involving the New society he envisioned praised the role of baranganic democracy in nation building.
After Edsa Revolution, and the Drafting of 1987 constitution, the Municipal Council was restored, making the Barangay the smallest local government in Philippine Politics.
The modern barangay is headed by an elected official, the Punong Barangay (barangay chief/captain), who is aided by sangguniang barangay members (barangay kagawads or counselors), also elected. Barangay elections are hotly contested.
The barangay is governed from the barangay hall. A barangay tanod (watchman) forms policing functions within the barangay. The number of barangay tanods differ from one barangay to another; they help maintain law and order in the neighborhoods throughout the Philippine islands. Elections for the post of Punong Barangay and barangay kagawads are usually held every three years, unless suspended or postponed by Congress.
A barangay is led and governed by its barangay officials. The "barangay officials" is considered as a Local Government Unit (LGU) same as the Provincial and the Municipal Government. It is composed of a Punong Barangay, seven (7) Barangay Councils or Barangay Kagawad, and a Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) Chairman which is considered as a member of the Council. Thus, there are eight (8) members of the Legislative Council in a barangay. Each member has its own respective committee where they are Chairmen of those committees. The Committees are the following: (1) Peace and Order Committee, (2) Appropriations, Finance and Ways and Means Committee, (3) Education Committee, (4) Health Committee, (5) Agriculture Committee, (6) Tourism Committee, (7) Infrastructure Committee, and (8) Youth and Sports Committee. There are three (3) appointed members of each committee.