Bangalore Explained

Native Name:Bangalore
Type:Metropolitan city
Known As:Silicon Valley of India, Garden City, Pub City
Type 2:capital
Skyline Caption:Clockwise from top: UB City, Infosys, Glass house at Lal Bagh, Vidhana Soudha, Shiva statue, Bagmane Tech Park
Locator Position:left
Latd:12
Latm:58
Lats:0
Latns:N
Longd:77
Longm:34
Longs:0
Longew:E
State Name:Karnataka
District:Bangalore Urban
Region:Bayaluseeme
Leader Title 1:Mayor
Leader Name 1:Sharadamma[1]
Leader Title 2:Commissioner
Leader Name 2:Shankarlinge Gowda[2]
Altitude:920
Climate:BW
Population As Of:2011
Population Rank:3rd
Population Total:8425970
Population Total Cite:[3]
Population Metro:8499399
Population Metro As Of:2011
Population Metro Cite:[4]
Population Metro Rank:5th
Area Magnitude:8
Area Total:741.0
Area Total Cite:[5]
Area Telephone:91-(0)80-XXXX XXXX
Postal Code:560 xxx
Vehicle Code Range:KA 01, KA 02, KA 03, KA 04, KA 05, KA 41, KA 50, KA 51, KA 53
Unlocode:IN BLR
Website:www.bbmp.gov.in/
Website Caption:www.bbmp.gov.in/
Inset Map Marker:yes

Bangalore, also called Bengaluru is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is nicknamed the Garden City for its beautiful gardens and parks and was once called a pensioner's paradise.[6] Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India's third most populous city[7] and fifth-most populous urban agglomeration. Bangalore is well known as a hub for India's information technology sector.

Today as a large city and growing metropolis, Bangalore is home to many well-recognized colleges and research institutions in India. Numerous public sector heavy industries, software companies, aerospace, telecommunications, and defence organisations are located in the city. Bangalore is known as the Silicon Valley of India because of its position as the nation's leading IT exporter.[8] [9] [10] A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is a major economic and cultural hub and the second fastest growing major metropolis in India.[11] It is also placed in Forbes magazine's list: "The Next Decade's Fastest-Growing Cities".[12]

Etymology

The name Bangalore is an anglicised version of the town's name in the Kannada language, Bengaḷūru. The earliest reference to the name "Bengaluru" was found in a ninth century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a "vīra gallu" (Kannada: ವೀರಗಲ್ಲು) (literally, "hero stone", a rock edict extolling the virtues of a warrior). In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengaluru" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890. It states that the place was part of the Ganga Kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Halegannada (Old Kannada).[13] An article, published in The Hindu, states:

An inscription, dating back to 890 CE, shows Bangalore is over 1,000 years old. But it stands neglected at the Parvathi Nageshwara Temple in Begur near the city... written in Hale Kannada (Old Kannada) of the 9th century CE, the epigraph refers to a Bengaluru war in 890 in which Buttanachetty, a servant of Nagatta, died. Though this has been recorded by historian R. Narasimhachar in his Epigraphia of Carnatica (Vol. 10 supplementary), no efforts have been made to preserve it.[14]

An apocryphal, though popular, anecdote recounts that the 11th century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman who served him boiled beans. The grateful king named the place "benda-kaal-uru" (Kannada: ಬೆಂದಕಾಳೂರು) (literally, "town of boiled beans"), which eventually evolved into "Bengalūru".[15]

On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to Bengaluru. On 27 September 2006, the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change, which was accepted by the Government of Karnataka and it was decided to officially implement the name change from 1 November 2006. However, this process has been currently stalled due to delays in getting clearances from the Union Home Ministry.

History

See main article: History of Bangalore. After centuries of the rule of the Western Gangas, Bangalore was captured by the Cholas in 1024 which later passed on to the Chalukya-cholas in 1070. In 1116 the Hoysala Empire, overthrew the Cholas and extended its rule over Bangalore. Modern Bangalore was founded by a vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, Kempe Gowda I, who built a mud-brick fort and a Nandi Temple in the proximity of modern Bangalore in 1537. Yelahanka is one of the oldest towns in Karnataka and it is believed that it has a history of more than 500 years. It is the home town for the ruling king called Kempegowda (under a provision given by Krishnadevaraya) who built Bangalore City. Kempe Gowda referred to the new town as his "gandubhūmi" or "Land of Heroes".[16]

Within Bangalore, the town was divided into smaller divisions – each called a "pete" . The town had two main streets – Chikkapete Street, which ran east-west, and Doddapete Street, which ran north-south. Their intersection formed the Doddapete Square — the heart of Bangalore. Kempe Gowda's successor, Kempe Gowda II, built four towers that marked Bangalore's boundary. Myth says that the city would befall great calamity if it extended beyond these four towers.[17] During the Vijayanagara rule, Bangalore was also referred to as "Devarāyanagara" and "Kalyānapura" ("Auspicious City").After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire, Bangalore's rule changed hands several times. In 1638, a large Bijapur army led by Ranadulla Khan and accompanied by Shahji Bhonsle defeated Kempe Gowda III and Bangalore was given to Shahaji as a jagir. In 1687, the Mughal general Kasim Khan defeated Ekoji I/Venkoji, son of Shahaji, and then sold Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673–1704) of Mysore for 300,000 rupees.[18] After the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II in 1759, Hyder Ali, Commander-in-Chief of the Mysore Army, proclaimed himself the de facto ruler of Mysore. The kingdom later passed to Hyder Ali's son Tippu Sultan, known as the Tiger of Mysore.

Bangalore fort was captured by the British armies under Lord Cornwallis on 21 March 1791 during the Third Anglo-Mysore War and formed a centre for British resistance against Tippu Sultan,[19] being incorporated into the British Indian Empire after Tippu Sultan was defeated and killed in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799). The British returned administrative control of the Bangalore "pētē" to the Maharaja of Mysore, choosing only to retain the Cantonment under their jurisdiction. The 'Residency' of Mysore State was first established in Mysore in 1799 and later shifted to Bangalore in the year 1804. It was abolished in the year 1843 only to be revived in 1881 at Bangalore and to be closed down permanently in 1947, with Indian independence. The British, found it easier to recruit employees in the Madras Presidency and relocate them to cantonment area during this period. The Kingdom of Mysore relocated its capital from Mysore city to Bangalore in 1831.[20] Two important developments during this period contributed to the rapid growth of the city: the introduction of telegraph connections and a rail connection to Madras in 1864.

In the 19th century, Bangalore essentially became a twin city, with the "pētē", whose residents were predominantly Kannadigas, and the "cantonment" created by the British, whose residents were predominantly Tamils.[21] Bangalore was hit by a plague epidemic in 1898 that dramatically reduced its population. New extensions in Malleswaram and Basavanagudi were developed in the north and south of the pētē. Telephone lines were laid to help co-ordinate anti-plague operations, and a health officer was appointed to the city in 1898. In 1906, Bangalore became the first city in India to have electricity, powered by the hydroelectric plant situated in Shivanasamudra. Bangalore's reputation as the Garden City of India began in 1927 with the Silver Jubilee celebrations of the rule of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. Several projects such as the construction of parks, public buildings and hospitals were instituted to beautify the city. After Indian independence in August 1947, Bangalore remained in the new Mysore State of which the Maharaja of Mysore was the Rajapramukh.[22]

Public sector employment and education provided opportunities for Kannadigas from the rest of the state to migrate to the city. Bangalore experienced rapid growth in the decades 1941–51 and 1971–81, which saw the arrival of many immigrants from northern Karnataka. By 1961, Bangalore had become the sixth largest city in India, with a population of 1,207,000.[23] In the decades that followed, Bangalore's manufacturing base continued to expand with the establishment of private companies such as MICO (Motor Industries Company), which set up its manufacturing plant in the city. Bangalore experienced a growth in its real estate market in the 1980s and 1990s, spurred by capital investors from other parts of the country who converted Bangalore's large plots and colonial bungalows into multi-storied apartments.[24] In 1985, Texas Instruments became the first multinational corporation to set up base in Bangalore. Other information technology companies followed suit and by the end of the 20th century, Bangalore had firmly established itself as the Silicon Valley of India.

Geography

See main article: Bangalore Metropolitan Environment. Bangalore lies in the southeast of the South Indian state of Karnataka. It is in the heart of the Mysore Plateau (a region of the larger Precambrian Deccan Plateau) at an average elevation of 920 m (3,018 ft). It is positioned at and covers an area of 741 km² (286 mi²).[25] The majority of the city of Bangalore lies in the Bangalore Urban district of Karnataka and the surrounding rural areas are a part of the Bangalore Rural district. The region consisting the Bangalore Urban and Rural districts is known as the Bangalore (region). The Government of Karnataka has carved out the new district of Ramanagara from the old Bangalore Rural district.

The topology of Bangalore is flat except for a central ridge running NNE-SSW. The highest point is Vidyaranyapura Doddabettahalli, which is 962 m (3,156 ft) and lies on this ridge.[26] No major rivers run through the city, though the Arkavathi and South Pennar cross paths at the Nandi Hills, 60 km (37 mi.) to the north. River Vrishabhavathi, a minor tributary of the Arkavathi, arises within the city at Basavanagudi and flows through the city. The rivers Arkavathi and Vrishabhavathi together carry much of Bangalore's sewage. A sewerage system, constructed in 1922, covers 215 km² (133 mi²) of the city and connects with five sewage treatment centres located in the periphery of Bangalore.[27]

In the 16th century, Kempe Gowda I constructed many lakes to meet the town's water requirements. The Kempambudhi Kere, since overrun by modern development, was prominent among those lakes. In the earlier half of 20th century, the Nandi Hills waterworks was commissioned by Sir Mirza Ismail (Diwan of Mysore, 1926–41 CE) to provide a water supply to the city. Currently, the river Kaveri provides around 80% of the total water supply to the city with the remaining 20% being obtained from the Thippagondanahalli and Hesaraghattareservoirs of the Arkavathi river.[28] Bangalore receives 800 million litres (211 million US gallons) of water a day, more than any other Indian city.[29] However, Bangalore sometimes does face water shortages, especially during the summer season- more so in the years of low rainfall. A random sampling study of the Air Quality Index (AQI) of twenty stations within the city indicated scores that ranged from 76 to 314, suggesting heavy to severe air pollution around areas of traffic concentration.[30]

Bangalore has a handful of freshwater lakes and water tanks, the largest of which are Madivala tank, Hebbal lake, Ulsoor lake and Sankey Tank. Groundwater occurs in silty to sandy layers of the alluvial sediments. The Peninsular Gneissic Complex (PGC) is the most dominant rock unit in the area and includes granites, gneisses and migmatites, while the soils of Bangalore consist of red laterite and red, fine loamy to clayey soils.[30]

Vegetation in the city is primarily in the form of large deciduous canopy and minority coconut trees. Though Bangalore has been classified as a part of the seismic zone II (a stable zone), it has experienced quakes of magnitude as high as 4.5.[31]

Climate

Bangalore experiences a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) with distinct wet and dry seasons. Due to its high elevation, Bangalore usually enjoys a more moderate climate throughout the year, although occasional heat waves can make things very uncomfortable in the summer. The coolest month is January with an average low temperature of 15.1 °C and the hottest month is April with an average high temperature of 33.6 °C.[32] The highest temperature ever recorded in Bangalore is 38.9 °C(recorded in March 1931) and the lowest ever is 7.8 °C (recorded in January 1884).[33] Winter temperatures rarely drop below 12 °C (54 °F), and summer temperatures seldom exceed 34–35 °C (<100 °F). Bangalore receives rainfall from both the northeast and the southwest monsoons and the wettest months are September, October and August, in that order.[32] The summer heat is moderated by fairly frequent thunderstorms, which occasionally cause power outages and local flooding. The heaviest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is 179mm recorded on 1 October 1997.[34]

Civic administration

See also: Infrastructure in Bangalore.

Bangalore City officials
Municipal Commissioner:Shankarlinge Gowda
Chief Commissioner of Income Tax:K Satya Narayana[35]
Mayor:Sharadamma
Police Commissioner:Jyothi Prakash Mirji

The Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP, Greater Bangalore Municipal Corporation) is in charge of the civic administration of the city. It was formed in 2007 by merging 100 wards of the erstwhile Bangalore Mahanagara Palike, with seven neighbouring City Municipal Councils, one Town Municipal Council and 110 villages around Bangalore. The BBMP is run by a city council composed of 250 members, including 198 councillors representing each of the wards of the city and 52 other elected representatives, consisting of members of Parliament and the state legislature.[36] Elections to the council are held once every five years, with results being decided by popular vote. Members contesting elections to the council usually represent one or more of the state's political parties. A mayor and deputy mayor are also elected from among the elected members of the council.[36] Elections to the BBMP were held on 28 March 2010, after a gap of three and a half years since the expiry of the previous elected body's term, and the Bharatiya Janata Party was voted into power – the first time it had ever won a civic poll in the city.[37]

Bangalore's rapid growth has created several problems relating to traffic congestion and infrastructural obsolescence that the Bangalore Mahanagara Palike has found challenging to address. A 2003 Battelle Environmental Evaluation System (BEES) evaluation of Bangalore's physical, biological and socioeconomic parameters indicated that Bangalore's water quality and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were close to ideal, while the city's socioeconomic parameters (traffic, quality of life) scored poorly.[38] The unplanned nature of growth in the city resulted in massive traffic gridlocks that the municipality attempted to ease by constructing a flyover system and by imposing one-way traffic systems. Some of the flyovers and one-ways mitigated the traffic situation moderately but were unable to adequately address the disproportionate growth of city traffic.[38] In 2005 both the Central Government and the State Government allocated considerable portions of their annual budgets to address Bangalore's infrastructure.[39] The BBMP works with the Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) and the Agenda for Bengaluru Infrastructure and Development Task Force (ABIDe) to design and implement civic projects. Bangalore generates about 3,000 tonnes of solid waste per day, of which about 1,139 tonnes are collected and sent to composting units such as the Karnataka Composting Development Corporation. The remaining solid waste collected by the municipality is dumped in open spaces or on roadsides outside the city.[40]

The Bangalore City Police (BCP) has six geographic zones, includes the Traffic Police, the City Armed Reserve, the Central Crime Branch and the City Crime Record Bureau and runs 86 police stations, including two all-women police stations.[41] As capital of the state of Karnataka, Bangalore houses important state government facilities such as the Karnataka High Court, the Vidhana Soudha (the home of the Karnataka state legislature) and Raj Bhavan (the residence of the Governor of Karnataka). Bangalore contributes three members to the lower house of the Parliament of India, the Lok Sabha, and 28 members to the Karnataka State Assembly.[42]

Electricity in Bangalore is regulated through the Bangalore Electricity Supply Company (BESCOM),[43] while water supply and sanitation facilities are provided by the Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB).[44]

Economy

See main article: Economy of Bangalore.

See also: Housing in Bangalore and Bangalore Metropolitan Environment. Bangalore's economy (2006–07 Net District Income) makes it one of the major economic centres in India,[45] with the value of city's exports totalling in 2004–05.[46] With an economic growth of 10.3%, Bangalore is the fastest growing major metropolis in India,[47] and is also the country's fourth largest fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) market.[48] With a per capita income of in 2006–07,[45] the city is the third largest hub for high net worth individuals and is home to over 10,000 dollar millionaires and about 60,000 super-rich people who have an investable surplus of and respectively.[49]

The headquarters of several public sector undertakings such as Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) and Hindustan Machine Tools (HMT) are located in Bangalore. In June 1972 the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was established under the Department of Space and headquartered in the city.

Bangalore is called the Silicon Valley of India because of the large number of information technology companies located in the city which contributed 33% of India's IT exports in 2006–07.[50] Bangalore's IT industry is divided into three main clusters — Software Technology Parks of India (STPI); International Tech Park, Bangalore (ITPB); and Electronics City. UB City, the headquarters of the United Breweries Group, is a high-end commercial zone. Infosys and Wipro, India's second and third largest software companies are headquartered in Bangalore, as are many of the global SEI-CMM Level 5 Companies.

The growth of IT has presented the city with unique challenges. Ideological clashes sometimes occur between the city's IT moguls, who demand an improvement in the city's infrastructure, and the state government, whose electoral base is primarily the people in rural Karnataka.[51] The encouragement of high-tech industry in Bangalore, for example, has not favoured local employment development, but has, instead, increased land values and forced out small enterprise.[52] The state has also resisted the massive investments required to reverse the rapid decline in intra-city transport which has already begun to drive new and expanding businesses to other centres across India.[53] Bangalore is a hub for biotechnology related industry in India and in the year 2005, around 47% of the 265 biotechnology companies in India were located here; including Biocon, India's largest biotechnology company.

Infosys, Cognizant, Wipro, iGate, Tata Consultancy Services, Accenture, Nokia Siemens Networks and US based companies like Texas Instruments, Google, IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Honeywell, Yahoo, Oracle Corporation, Cisco, Microsoft, Intuit and Intel have their research and development centres along with their corporate offices in Bangalore.

Transport

Air

Bangalore is served by the Bengaluru International Airport which started operations from 24 May 2008. The city was earlier served by the HAL Airport which was India's fourth busiest airport.[54] [55] [56] Kingfisher Airlines has its registered office in Bangalore.[57] It is now the fourth busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic and the number of air traffic movements (ATMs) with about 280 per day.[58] The airport is around 40 km from the city centre. The most hassle-free way to commute is by taxi. Meru cabs and Easy cabs have taxis present in the rank at the airport. There are also certain private cab companies.

Rail

A rapid transit system called the Namma Metro is being built. A 7 km stretch from Bayappanahalli to MG Road was opened to public on 20 October 2011.[59] Once completed, this will encompass a 42.3km elevated and underground rail network comprising 41 stations. It is expected to connect central locations in Bangalore to Devanahalli and the Chikballapur regions.[60] This much-delayed project is the city’s primary response to the worsening intra-city transport infrastructure which has become a major deterrent to continued business growth.[53]

Bangalore comes under the South Western Railway zone of the Indian Railways. Bangalore City Railway station and Yesvantpur Junction connect it to the rest of the country through the Indian Railways. The Bangalore Rajdhani Express connects the city to New Delhi, the capital of India. Bangalore is also connected by rail to most cities in Karnataka, as well as Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and other major cities in India.[61] The sprawling Rail Wheel Factory is Asia's second largest manufacturer of Wheel & Axle for Railways and headquartered in Yelahanka, Bangalore.

Road

Three-wheeled, green and black auto-rickshaws, referred to as autos, are a popular form of transport. They are metered and can accommodate up to three passengers. Taxi services within Bangalore is provided by several operators. Taxis, commonly called City Taxis, are usually available only on call. Taxis are metered and are generally more expensive than auto-rickshaws.

Buses operated by Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) are an important means of public transport available in the city, and are highly reliable.[62] While commuters can buy tickets on boarding these buses, BMTC also provides an option of a bus pass to frequent users.[62] BMTC runs air-conditioned luxury buses on major routes, and also operates shuttle services from various parts of the city to the Bengaluru International Airport.[63] The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation operates 6,918 buses on 6,352 schedules, connecting Bangalore with other parts of Karnataka as well as other states. The main bus depots that BMTC maintains are the Kempegowda Bus Station, locally known as "Majestic", Shantinagar Bus Depot, and Shivajinagar Bus Depot.

Demographics

With an estimated population of 8.5 million in 2011,[4] Bangalore is the third most populous city in India and the 28th most populous city in the world.[64] Bangalore was the fastest-growing Indian metropolis after New Delhi between 1991–2001, with a growth rate of 38% during the decade. Residents of Bangalore are referred to as Bangaloreans in English Bengaloorinavaru in Kannada.[65]

The cosmopolitan nature of the city has resulted in the migration of people from other states to Bangalore, which has in recent years given rise to tensions between immigrants and locals.[66] Scheduled Castes and Tribes account for 14.3% of the city's population. Besides Kannada, other major languages spoken in the city are Tamil, Telugu, Hindi, English.[67] A good number of Konkani speakers have settled in Bangalore since last century from Canara districts of Karnataka and Goa.[68] Similarly, Marathi is spoken by a small but significant minority of the society.[69]

According to the 2001 census of India, 79.4% of Bangalore's population is Hindu, roughly the same as the national average.[70] Muslims comprise 13.4% of the population, which again is roughly the same as the national average, while Christians and Jains account for 5.8% and 1.1% of the population, respectively, double that of their national averages. Anglo-Indians also form a substantial group within the city. Women make up 47% of Bangalore's population. The city has a literacy rate of 89%.[71] Roughly 10% of Bangalore's population lives in slums[72] —a relatively low proportion when compared to other cities in the developing world such as Mumbai (50%) and Nairobi (60%).[73] The 2008 National Crime Records Bureau statistics indicate that Bangalore accounts for 8.5% of the total crimes reported from 35 major cities in India.[74]

Culture

See main article: Culture of Bangalore.

Dasara, a traditional celebration of the old Kingdom of Mysore, is the state festival and is celebrated with great vigour.

Bangalore is known as the Garden City of India because of its greenery and the presence of many public parks, including the Lal Bagh and Cubbon Park.

The city celebrates its most important and oldest festival, "Karaga Shaktyotsava" or Bangalore Karaga. Deepavali, the "Festival of Lights", transcends demographic and religious lines and is another important festival. Other traditional Indian festivals such as Ganesh Chaturthi, Ugadi, Sankranthi, Eid ul-Fitr, and Christmas are also celebrated.

Bangalore is home to the Kannada film industry, which churns out about 80 Kannada movies each year.[75]

The diversity of cuisine is reflective of the social and economic diversity of Bangalore. Roadside vendors, tea stalls, and South Indian, North Indian, Chinese and Western fast food are all very popular in the city. Udupi restaurants are very popular and serve predominantly vegetarian, regional cuisine. Bangalore has a wide and varied mix of restaurant types and cuisines and Bangaloreans deem eating out as an intrinsic part of their culture, so much that Bangalore Restaurant Week – an event that involved some of the best restaurants in Bangalore – was held between 12 to 21 November 2010.

Bangalore is also a major center of Indian classical music and dance. Classical music and dance recitals are widely held throughout the year and particularly during the Ramanavami and Ganesha Chaturthi festivals. The Bengaluru Gayana Samaja has been at the forefront of promoting classical music and dance in the city.

The city has a vibrant English and regional language theatre scene with organisations such as Ranga Shankara and Chowdiah Memorial Hall leading the way. Bangalore is also sometimes called as the "Pub Capital of India" and is one of the premier places to hold international rock concerts.[76]

Sister cities

Bangalore is currently twinned with three sister cities:[77] [78]

CityRegionCountry
Minsk Minsk Region Belarus
San Francisco United States
Cleveland United States

Sports

Cricket is the most popular sport in Bangalore. A significant number of national cricketers have come from Bangalore, including former Indian cricket team captains Rahul Dravid and Anil Kumble. Some of the other players who have represented India include Javagal Srinath, Gundappa Vishwanath, Syed Kirmani, E. A. S. Prasanna, Venkatesh Prasad, Sunil Joshi, Robin Uthappa, Vinay Kumar, Roger Binny and Abhimanyu Mithun. Many children play gully cricket on the roads and in the city's many public fields. Bangalore's main international cricket stadium is the M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, which has a seating capacity of 55,000[79] and has hosted matches during the 1987 Cricket World Cup, 1996 Cricket World Cup and the 2011 Cricket World Cup. The Chinnaswamy Stadium is also the home of India's National Cricket Academy.

The Indian Premier League franchise Bangalore Royal Challengers, the Premier Hockey League franchise Bangalore Hi-fliers, and the Karnataka Premier League franchisees Bangalore Brigadiers and Provident Bangalore are based in the city. India's Davis Cup team members, Mahesh Bhupathi[80] and Rohan Bopanna[81] also reside in Bangalore. The city hosts the Women's Tennis Association (WTA) Bangalore Open tournament annually. Beginning September 2008, Bangalore has also been hosting the Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open ATP tournament annually.[82] Bangalore is also home to the Bangalore Rugby Football Club (B.R.F.C)

Bangalore has a number of elite clubs, like Century Club, The Bangalore Golf Club, the Bowring Institute and the exclusive Bangalore Club, which counts among its previous members Winston Churchill and the Maharaja of Mysore.[83] The Hindustan Aeronautics Limited SC is based in Bangalore. Other sports personalities from Bangalore include national swimming champion Nisha Millet, world snooker champion, Pankaj Advani and former All England Open badminton champion Prakash Padukone.

Education

See also: Education in India and List of educational institutions in Bangalore. Until the early 19th century, education in Bangalore was mainly run by religious leaders and restricted to students of that religion.[84] The western system of education was introduced during the rule of Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar, when two schools were established in Bangalore. Subsequently, Wesleyan Mission established a school in 1851 and the Bangalore High School which was started by the Government in 1858.[85]

In post-independent India, schools for young children are mainly based on the kindergarten form of education. Primary and secondary education in Bangalore is offered by various schools which are affiliated to one of the boards of education, such as the Secondary School Leaving Certificate (SSLC), ICSE, CBSE, IB and NIOS.[86] Schools in Bangalore are either government run or are private (both aided and un-aided by the government). After completing their secondary education, students either attend Pre University (PUC) or continue High School in one of three streams – Arts, Commerce or Science. Alternatively, students may also enroll in Diploma courses. Upon completing the required coursework, students enroll in general or professional degrees in universities. The Bangalore University,established in 1886, provides affiliation to about 500 colleges, with a total student enrolment exceeding 300,000. The university has two campuses within Bangalore – Jnanabharathi and Central College.

Indian Institute of Science, which was established in 1909 in Bangalore, is the premier institute for scientific research and study in India.[87] Nationally renowned professional institutes such as the National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS), National Institute of Design (NID), National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT), National Law School of India University (NLSIU), the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore (IIM-B), the Indian Statistical Institute and International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore (IIIT-B) are located in Bangalore.[87] The city is also home to the premier mental health institution in India National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS). Bangalore also has some of the best medical colleges in the country, like St. John's Medical College (SJMC) and Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute (BMCRI).

Media

The first printing-press was established in Bangalore in the year 1840. In 1859, punjab kesri became the first English bi-weekly newspaper to be published in Bangalore[88] and in 1860, Mysore Vrittanta Bodhini became the first Kannada newspaper to be circulated in Bangalore. Currently, Vijaya Karnataka and The Times of India are the most widely circulated Kannada and English newspapers in Bangalore respectively, closely followed by the Prajavani and Deccan Herald both owned by the Printers (Mysore) Limited – the largest print media house in Karnataka.[89]

Bangalore got its first radio station when All India Radio, the official broadcaster for the Indian Government, started broadcasting from its Bangalore station on 2 November 1955.[90] The radio transmission was AM, until in 2001, Radio City became the first private channel in India to start transmitting FM radio from Bangalore.[91] In recent years, a number of FM channels have started broadcasting from Bangalore.[92] The city also has India's Oldest Amateur (Ham) Radio Club – Bangalore Amateur Radio Club VU2ARC[93] [94] celebrating its Golden Jubilee along with Hamfest India HFI 2009 this November[95] amongst various clubs for HAM radio enthusiasts.[96] There are two operational community radio stations in Bangalore called Radio Active and Ramana Voices, managed by Mahaveer Jain College and Shree Ramana Maharishi Academy of the Blind (SRMAB), respectively. The latter is being co-managed by a media advocacy group in Bangalore called VOICES.

Bangalore has a number of newspapers and magazines that cater to the varied interests. number of news channels operate in the city, as well as in the state too. Magazines like Open and 080 cater to lifestyle, citizen issues and fashion, newspapers like Mid-Day, Bangalore Mirror, Vijaya Karnataka provide localised news updates. On the web, Explocity provides listings information. Deccan Herald, The Times of India and The Hindu provide e-paper services.

Bangalore got its first look at television when Doordarshan established a relay centre here and started relaying programs from 1 November 1981.[97] A production center was established in the Doordarshan's Bangalore office in 1983, thereby allowing the introduction of a news program in Kannada on 19 November 1983.[97] Doordarshan also launched a Kannada satellite channel on 15 August 1991 which is now named DD Chandana.[97] The advent of private satellite channels in Bangalore started in September 1991 when Star TV started to broadcast its channels.[98] Though the number of satellite TV channels available for viewing in Bangalore has grown over the years,[99] the cable operators play a major role in the availability of these channels, which has led to occasional conflicts. Direct To Home services are also available in Bangalore now.[100]

The first Internet service provider in Bangalore was STPI, Bangalore which started offering internet services in early 1990s.[101] This Internet service was however restricted to corporates, until VSNL started offering dial-up internet services to the general public at the end of 1995.[102] Currently, Bangalore has the largest number of broadband Internet connections in India.

See also

Further reading

External links

Notes and References

  1. News: Bangalore mayor: I want your support, not sympathy. 9 May 2011. DNA India. 1 May 2011.
  2. News: Now, Shankarlinge Gowda appointed new commissioner of BBMP. 29 November 2011. DNA India. 29 November 2011.
  3. Web site: Cities having population 1 lakh and above. censusindia. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 17 October 2011.
  4. Web site: Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above. Censusindia. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 17 October 2011.
  5. Web site: Greater Bangalore: Emerging Urban Heat Island. Ramachandra T. V.; Uttam Kumar. GIS Development. Jan 2010. 25 January 2012.
  6. Web site: Bangalore – It is life in rush hour. The Tribune — Tribuneindia.com. 13 January 2007. 26 January 2011.
  7. Web site: India: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population. World Gazetteer.
  8. Web site: Bangalore: Growth Opportunities in the Silicon Valley of India. 20 August 2009. Internationalisation Advisory.
  9. Web site: Location Roadmap for IT-BPO Growth. 20 August 2009. NASSCOM.
  10. Web site: Karnataka IT exports up by 52%. 20 August 2009. SiliconIndia.com.
  11. Web site: India's 10 fastest growing cities. Rediff News. 6 February 2008. 7 April 2009.
  12. Web site: Kotkin. Joel. The World's Fastest-Growing Cities. Forbes Magazine. 21 February 2012. 10. July. 2010.
  13. K. Chandramouli. "The City of Boiled Beans", The Hindu, 2006. The Hindu Group. 25 July 2002
  14. http://www.hindu.com/2004/08/20/stories/2004082016400300.htm "Inscription reveals Bangalore is over 1,000 years old"
  15. Web site: Many miles to go from Bangalore to Bengaluru. Vijesh Kamath. Deccan Herald. India. 2 July 2007.
  16. http://web.archive.org/web/20060919220936/http://www.bangaloreit.in/html/aboutbng/history.htm "About Bangalore – History"
  17. Vagale, Uday Kumar. . Digital Libraries and Archives. 2006. Virginia Tech. 27 April 2004.
  18. "The Mughal Throne", Abraham Eraly, Phoenix, London, Great Britain, 2004 (ISBN 0-7538-1758-6), Incidental Data, page 538.
  19. Book: Sandes, Lt Col E.W.C.. The Military Engineer in India, Vol I. 1933. The Institution of Royal Engineers. Chatham. 163–165. 18 March 2011.
  20. http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/M/MY/MYSORE_CAPITAL_.htm "Mysore (Capital)".
  21. Web site: Public Space in Bangalore: Present and Future Projections (Chapter 8, Page 17). PDF. 29 March 2010.
  22. News: Srinivasaraju. Sugata. ElectriCity. 15 November 2011. Outlook India. 10 April 2006.
  23. Digital Libraries and Archives
  24. Benjamin, Solomon. .Environment&Urbanization Vol 12 No 1 2006. United Nations Public Administration. 1 April 2000.
  25. Web site: Finance Budget for 2007–08. Government of India. 28 June 2007. PDF.
  26. http://ces.iisc.ernet.in/energy/wetlands/sarea.html "Studyarea- Bangalore"
  27. Web site: Each drop of water counts. http://web.archive.org/web/20070311005340/http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/mar112004/metro1.asp. 11 March 2007. Deccan Herald, 2006. The Printers (Mysore) Ltd. 11 March 2004
  28. Web site: FAQ. http://web.archive.org/web/20060206121846/http://bwssb.org/help_faq.html. 6 February 2006. 2 July 2007.
  29. http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?id=8dc55aa2-693c-49f9-a954-28f811fb5d68 "Thirsty Bangalore seeks divine help"
  30. . Bangalore Metropolitan Rapid Transport Corporation Limited.. 2006. Government of Karnataka. 2005.
  31. Web site: The Rediff Interview/ Dr S K Srivastav, additional director general, Indian Meteorological Department. [Rediff.com]. Onkar Singh. 2 July 2007.
  32. Web site: Bangalore. Government of India. 7 February 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070708113015/http://www.imd.ernet.in/section/climate/bangalore1.htm. 8 July 2007. yes.
  33. Web site: B’lore weather back again. Online Edition of The Deccan Herald, dated 2006-12-17. Ashwini Y.S.. 22 December 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071204091959/http://www.deccanherald.com/Archives/Dec172006/city115220061217.asp. 4 December 2007. yes.
  34. Web site: Bangalore's woes. The Frontline. 5 November 2005. Ravi Sharma. 5 February 2008.
  35. News: Law and order tops new chief Mirji's list. 9 May 2011. The Times of India, Bangalore. 3 May 2011.
  36. Web site: BBMP election result by 2 pm. Deccan Herald. India. 4 April 2010. 5 May 2010.
  37. Web site: BJP wins Bangalore municipal elections for the first time. Daily News and Analysis. India. 5 April 2010. 5 May 2010.
  38. . Bangalore Metropolitan Rapid Transport Corporation Limited.. 2006. Government of Karnataka. 2005. (page 30)
  39. "Budget to trigger growth of metros: PM". MSN India. 2006. Microsoft India. 12 February 2006.
  40. van Beukering, Sehker, et al."Analysing Urban Solid Waste..." International Institute for Environment and Development, 2006. March 1999.
  41. http://www.bcp.gov.in/english/index.htm "Bangalore City Police"
  42. Web site: Final Notification and Order. Delimitation Commission of India. 2 July 2007. 17 October 2007. PDF.
  43. Web site: About Us. Official webpage of BESCOM. 5 May 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20080731092131/http://www.bescom.org/en/aboutus/index.asp. 31 July 2008. yes.
  44. Web site: Functions of the Board. Official webpage of BWSSB. 5 May 2010.
  45. Web site: All India figures at a glance. PDF. Department of Economics and Statistics, Government of Karnataka. 1 November 2010.
  46. Web site: ICT Sector, Globalization and Urban Economic Growth: Evidence from Bangalore (India). M. R. Narayana. WIDER. July 2010. Working Paper No. 2010/80. 1 November 2010.
  47. http://in.rediff.com/money/2008/jan/29gdp.htm Surat, fastest growing city
  48. http://ia.rediff.com/money/2006/aug/23bang.htm?q=bp&file=.htm "Bangalore most affluent market"
  49. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/NEWS/India_Business/After_Mumbai__Delhi_Bangalore_home_to_richest/articleshow/1842018.cms "Bangalore third richest city in country"
  50. Web site: IT in India: Big successes, large gaps to be filled. Jairam Ramesh. Online Edition of The Business Standard, dated 2007-09-30. 4 October 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071204103043/http://www.business-standard.com/common/storypage_c.php?leftnm=10&autono=299725 . 4 December 2007.
  51. News: Poverty of Politics – If politicians lack vision, the rate of change will remain slow. Online Edition of The Telegraph. Surendra Munshi. 25 October 2007. Calcutta, India. 10 November 2005.
  52. Web site: Opportunity and exploitation in urban labour markets. November 2008. Overseas Development Institute.
  53. Web site: Namma Metro: The New Pride of Bangalore | Thomas White International. Thomaswhite.com. 28 October 2011.
  54. Web site: Airports Authority of India: Traffic statistics – Passengers (Intl+Domestic), Annexure IIIC. April 2006. 25 January 2012.
  55. Web site: Airports Authority of India: Traffic statistics – Aircraft movements (Intl+Domestic), Annexure IIC. April 2006. 25 January 2012.
  56. Web site: Expressway for airport drive. Deccan Herald. India. R. Krishnakumar. 2 July 2007.
  57. Web site: Kingfisher has a registered office in Bengaluru. Kingfisher Airlines official website. 19 November 2010.
  58. News: Passenger traffic tops 9.3m at Bangalore airport. The Times Of India. India. 14 December 2009.
  59. News: Namma metro opened for public. 20 October 2011. 20 Octover 2011. The Economic Times. India.
  60. Web site: BMRC newsletter, dated April 2009. Official webpage of Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation. PDF. 6 April 2009.
  61. Web site: Popular Trains. http://web.archive.org/web/20071016134919/http://www.irctc.co.in/Popular_trains.html. 16 October 2007. Official webpage of Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation Limited. 17 October 2007.
  62. Web site: Loyalty may pay for Volvo commuters!. S Praveen Dhaneshkar. Online Edition of The Deccan Herald, dated 2007-06-20. 10 April 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070819052527/http://www.deccanherald.com/Content/Jun202007/city200706208444.asp. 19 August 2007. yes.
  63. Web site: Bangalore-city.com, Bangalore Bus Information, City Buses, Volvo Buses,Tata Marcopolo Buses, Long Distance Buses. Bangalore-city.com. 29 March 2010.
  64. Web site: World: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population. World-Gazetter.com. 17 October 2007.
  65. Ramachandran, Sudha. Local pride buffets Bangalore business. Asia Times. 2 April 2008.
  66. Web site: Anti-outsider voices gain pitch in Bangalore too. CNN-IBN. 15 February 2008. Deepa Balakrishnan. 21 October 2010.
  67. Web site: Bangalore Facts. Karnataka.com. 10 May 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100414081951/http://www.karnataka.com/tourism/bangalore/facts.html . 14 April 2010.
  68. Book: Saradesāya, Manohararāya. A history of Konkani literature: from 1500 to 1992. 2000. Sahitya Akademi,. 8172016646, 9788172016647. 317.
  69. Book: Karnataka State Gazetteer: Bangalore District. 1990. Printed by the Director of Print., Stationery and Publications at the Govt. Press,.
  70. http://www.censusindiamaps.net/page/Religion_WhizMap1/housemap.htm "Census GIS Household"
  71. Web site: Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Government of India. 28 December 2011.
  72. Web site: Total Population, Slum Population.... http://web.archive.org/web/20070806121833/http://www.censusindia.net/results/slum/slum2.html. 6 August 2007. Census of India, 2001. 2006. Government of India
  73. Warah, Rasna. "Slums Are the Heartbeat of Cities". The EastAfrican. 2006. National Media Group Ltd. 6 October 2003
  74. Web site: Snaphhots – 2008. National Crime Records Bureau. 21 October 2010. PDF.
  75. Web site: A chauvinistic turn. Online Edition of The Frontline, Volume 21 – Issue 25. 17 December 2004. Ravi Sharma. 25 January 2012.
  76. Richard Plunkett (2001), p. 124.
  77. Web site: The official visit of the Republic of Belarus parliamentary delegation to the Republic of India is over. Website of the National Assembly of Belarus. 10 March 2008.
  78. http://web.archive.org/web/20061003005509/http://www.sister-cities.org/icrc/directory/Asia/India/index Online Directory: India, Asia
  79. Web site: Cricinfo Page on Chinnaswamy Stadium. Content-usa.cricinfo.com. 29 March 2010.
  80. http://www.sportsline.com/tennis/players/playerpage/384909 Profile
  81. http://www.daviscup.com/en/players/player/profile.aspx?playerid=10024192 Davis Cup Players
  82. http://cbs.sportsline.com/tennis/story/10834314 Bangalore replaces Mumbai on ATP Tour circuit
  83. Web site: Detailed Account on Bangalore Club. Oxford2oxford.co.uk. 29 March 2010.
  84. Hayavadana Rao (1929), p494
  85. Hayavadana Rao (1929), p497
  86. Web site: Broad choice of Class X boards. Online Edition of The Deccan Herald, dated 2004-07-01. 16 October 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071106093218/http://www.deccanherald.com/Archives/july012004/edu2.asp. 6 November 2007.
  87. Web site: Hub of research. Online Edition of the Hindu, Volume 23 – Issue 17. 8 September 2006. Parvathi Menon and Ravi Sharma. 25 January 2012.
  88. Web site: Bangalore Through the Centuries. M. Fazlul Hasan. Historical Publications. 7 October 2007.
  89. News: Battleground Bangalore. Online Edition of The Telegraph, dated 2006-11-19. Shuma Raha. 7 October 2007. Calcutta, India. 19 November 2006.
  90. Web site: Idhu Akashvani, Bengalooru!. Online Edition of The Deccan Herald, dated 2006-01-23. 7 October 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071204092005/http://www.deccanherald.com/Archives/jan232006/metromon1727452006122.asp. 4 December 2007. yes.
  91. Web site: Radio City goes on air in Mumbai. Online Edition of The Hindu Business Line, dated 2002-05-23. 7 October 2007.
  92. Web site: Radio gaga: 6 more FM stations. Online Edition of The Deccan Herald, dated 2006-01-08. 7 October 2007.
  93. Web site: Bangalore Amateur Radio Club | Fifty Golden Years 1959–2009. Barc.in. 29 March 2010.
  94. http://www.qrz.com/db/VU2ARC QRZ.com
  95. Web site: Hamfestindia.com. Hamfestindia.com. 29 March 2010.
  96. Web site: Of young ladies and old men. Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2003-01-13. Juliana Lazarus. 8 October 2007.
  97. Web site: Doordarshan, Bangalore. Online webpage of the Press Information Bureau. 7 October 2007.
  98. Web site: Tune in to quality. Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2001-07-29. Sevanti Ninan. 8 October 2007.
  99. Web site: Consolidated list of channels allowed to be carried by Cable operators/Multi system operators/DTH licensees in India. Online webpage of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. 4 October 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071012001735/http://mib.nic.in/informationb/CODES/Consolidatedchannels310707.htm. 12 October 2007. yes.
  100. Web site: Going for the action. Online Edition of The Hindu Business Line, dated 2007-05-08. 25 January 2012.
  101. Web site: Bangalore Cluster: Evolution, Growth and Challengers. Rakesh Basant. 8 October 2007. PDF.
  102. Web site: A short recap on Internet developments in India. 8 October 2007.