Year 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar).
Events of 1877
January - March
April - June
July - September
- July 9 - The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club begins its first lawn tennis tournament at Wimbledon.
- July 10 - The then villa of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico formally receives its city charter from the Royal Crown of Spain.
- July 16 - Great railroad strike of 1877: Riots by Baltimore and Ohio Railroad railroad workers in Baltimore, Maryland lead to a sympathy strike and rioting in Pittsburgh, and a full-scale worker's rebellion in St. Louis, briefly establishing a Communist government before U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes calls in the armed forces.
- July 19 - Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878: The first battle in the Siege of Pleven is fought.
- July 30 - The second battle in the Siege of Pleven is fought.
- August 9 - Indian Wars - Battle of Big Hole: Near Big Hole River in Montana, a small band of Nez Percé Indians who refused government orders to move to a reservation, clash with the United States Army. The army loses 29 soldiers and Indians lose 89 warriors in a U.S. Army victory.
- August 11 - Asaph Hall discovers Deimos, the outer moon of Mars.
- August 17 - Arizona blacksmith F.P. Cahill is fatally wounded by Billy the Kid. Cahill dies the next day, becoming the first person killed by the Kid.
- August 18 - Asaph Hall discovers Phobos, the inner moon of Mars.
- September 1 - The Battle of Lovcha, third battle in the Siege of Pleven, is fought.
- September 5 - Indian Wars: Oglala Sioux chief Crazy Horse is bayoneted by a United States soldier, after resisting confinement in a guardhouse at Fort Robinson in Nebraska.
October - December
- Nineteenth Century magazine is founded.
- September 1877: The first meeting of the Knights of Reliance in Lampasas County, Texas, which morphed into the Farmer's Alliance and eventually became the Populist Party.
- Winter 1877/1878: after the defeat of the Dungan revolt in China, several thousands refugees cross the Tian Shan to settle in the Russian Empire, thus starting the future "Soviet Dungan" ethnic group.
- A professionally led army of draftees crushes a major rebellion by feudal elements protesting the loss of their previleges in Japan.
January - June
- January 2 - Slava Raskaj, Croatian painter (d. 1906)
- February 4 - Eddie Cochems, Father of the Forward Pass in American football (d. 1953)
- February 7 - G. H. Hardy, British mathematician (d. 1947)
- February 14 - Edmund Landau, German mathematician (d. 1938)
- February 17 - André Maginot, French politician (d. 1932)
- February 19 - Gabriele Münter, German painter (d. 1962)
- February 25 - Erich von Hornbostel, Austrian musicologist (d. 1935)
- March 2 - Consuelo Vanderbilt, Duchess of Marlborough (d. 1964)
- March 4
- March 16 - Reza Shah Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (d. 1944)
- March 18 - Edgar Cayce, American psychic (d. 1945)
- March 25 - Walter Little, Canadian politician (d. 1961)
- March 29 - Alois Kayser, German missionary (d. 1944)
- May 3 - Karl Abraham, German psychoanalyst (d. 1925)
- May 23 - Grace Ingalls, youngest sister of author Laura Ingalls Wilder (d. 1941)
- June 4 - Heinrich Otto Wieland, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1957)
- June 7 - Charles Glover Barkla, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1944)
- June 11 - Renee Vivien, poet (d. 1909)
- June 14 - Jane Bathori, French opera singer (d. 1970)
July - December
- July 2 - Hermann Hesse, German-born writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1962)
- July 3 - Shafiqah Shasha (شفيقة شعشع), Lebanese-Australian matriarch (d. 1953)
- July 6 - Arnaud Massy, French golfer (d. 1950)
- July 13 - Erik Scavenius, Prime Minister of Denmark (d. 1962)
- July 17 - Ernst von Dohnányi, Hungarian conductor (d. 1960)
- July 19 - Arthur Fielder, English cricketer (d. 1949)
- August 6 - Wallace H. White, Jr., U.S. Senator from Maine (d. 1952)
- August 7 - Ulrich Salchow, Swedish figure skater (d. 1949)
- August 15 - Stanley Vestal, American writer, poet, historian (d. 1957)
- August 27 - Charles Rolls, co-founder of the Rolls-Royce car firm, pioneer aviator (d. 1910)
- August 27 - Ernst Wetter, member of the Swiss Federal Council (d. 1963)
- September 1 - Francis William Aston, English chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1945)
- September 2 - Frederick Soddy, English chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1956)
- September 6 - Buddy Bolden, American jazz musician (d. 1930)
- September 26 - Alfred Cortot, Swiss pianist (d. 1962)
- October 4 - Razor Smith, English cricketer (d. 1946)
- October 27 - George Thompson, English cricketer (d. 1943)
- October 29 - Narcisa de Leon, Filipino film mogul (d. 1966)
- November 9 - Allama Iqbal, Indian philosopher, one of the profound founding fathers of the Muslims of India (d. 1938)
- November 15 - William Hope Hodgson, English author (d. 1918)
- November 22
- November 24 - Kavasji Jamshedji Petigara, Indian police commissioner of Bombay (d. 1941)
- December 3 - Richard Pearse, New Zealand airplane pioneer (d. 1953)
- January 2 - Alexander Bain, Scottish inventor (b. 1811)
- January 4 - Cornelius Vanderbilt, American entrepreneur (b. 1794)
- March 1 - Antoni Patek, Polish watchmaker (b. 1811)
- March 24 - Walter Bagehot, British businessman, essayist and journalist (b. 1826)
- May 26 - Kido Takayoshi, Japanese statesman (b. 1833)
- June 3
- July 27 - John Frost, British Chartist leader (b. 1784)
- August 8 - William Lovett, British Chartist leader (b. 1800)
- August 29 - Brigham Young, American Mormon leader (b. 1801)
- August 30 - Raphael Semmes, officer in the USN and the CSN (b.1809)
- September 2 - Constantine Kanaris, Greek politician (b. 1795)
- September 3 - Adolphe Thiers, French historian and politician (b. 1797)
- September 5 - Crazy Horse, Oglala Sioux chief (b. 1849)
- September 17 - William Fox Talbot, English photographer (b. 1800)
- September 24 - Saigō Takamori, samurai (b. 1827)
- October 3 - James Roosevelt Bayley, first Bishop of Newark, New Jersey, and the eighth Archbishop of Baltimore (b. 1814)
- October 16 - Theodore Barrière, French dramatist (b. 1823)
- October 29 - Nathan Bedford Forrest, American Confederate Civil War General
- November 2 - Friedrich Graf von Wrangel, Prussian field marshal (b. 1784)
- December 12 - José de Alencar, Brazilian novelist (b. 1829)
- December 31 - Gustave Courbet, French painter (b. 1819)
Notes and References